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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

INTRODUCTION TO NDT TRAINING

SNT TC-1A CURRENT EDITION ( REF TRAINING STANDARD) ASNT AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TC TECHNICAL COUNCIL 1A VERSION OF DOCUMENT CURRENT EDITION ( 2001 ) TILL NOW

NDT METHODS W.R.T CERTIFICATION


12 NDT METHODS RADIOGRAPHY TESTING ULTRASONIC TESTING MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING PENETRANT TESTING VISUAL TESTING ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING

NDT METHODS W.R.T CERTIFICATION


12 NDT METHODS ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS VIBRATION MONITOR ANALYSIS THERMAL INFRARED TESTING LEAK TESTING LASER TESTING NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING FILM RADIOGRAPHY XEROX RADIOGRAPHY MICROFOCUS RADIOGRAPHY STEREO RADIOGRAPHY X-RAY CRAWLER REAL TIME RADIOGRAPHY

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
ULTRASONIC TESTING
PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE IMMERSION TECHNIQUE THROUGH TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING
CIRCULAR MAGNETIZATION HEAD SHOT TECHNIQUE PROD TECHNIQUE CENTRAL CONDUCTOR TECHNIQUE LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIZATION YOKE TECHNIQUE COIL TECHNIQUE

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
PENETRANT TESTING
WATER WASHABLE SOLVENT REMOVABLE POST EMULSIFICATION Note : classified based on removal of excess penetrant

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
VISUAL TESTING BOROSCOPE FIBEROSCOPE TEM/SEM HOLOGRAPHY

LIMITED CERTIFICATION
EDDY CURRENT TESTING
IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS METER DISPLAY PHASE ANALYSIS CRT DISPLAY MODULATION ANALYSIS STRIP CHART RECORDER

FUNCTIONS & LEVELS OF QUALIFICATION

1. 2. 3. 4.

LEVEL- I
FUNCTION AS A NDT OPERATOR/TECHNICIAN PERFORM SPECIFIC CALIBRATIONS CARRY OUT TESTING IN PRESENCE OF LEVELII/III NOT AUTHORIZED TO SIGN THE INTERPRETATION SHEET

FUNCTIONS & LEVELS OF QUALIFICATIONS


LEVEL-II

1. PREPARED WRITTEN PROCEDURES 2. FUNCTION AS NDT INSPECTOR 3. PERFORM SPECIFIC CALIBRATIONS & VERIFY THE RESULTS 4. AUTHORIZED TO SIGN THE INTERPRETATION SHEET

FUNCTIONS & LEVELS OF QUALIFICATIONS

1. 2. 3. 4.

LEVEL-III
APPROVE THE WRITTEN PROCEDURES ESTABLISH THE TECHNIQUES TRAIN LEVEL I /II OVER ALL INCHARGE OF NDT JOBS

MODE OF EXAMINATION
LEVEL-I/II
GENERAL 40 QUESTIONS 1 HR 100 MARKS ( CLOSED BOOK ) PASSING PERCENTAGE -70%
SPECIFIC 20 QUESTIONS 1 HR 100 MARKS ( OPEN BOOK ) PASSING PERCENTAGE 70% PRACTICAL 10 QUESTIONS 2 HRS 100 MARKS ( 10 SAMPLES ) PASSING PERCENTAGE 70%

MODE OF EXAMINATION
LEVEL-III BASIC ( MANDATORY PAPER ) -135 QUE- 4 HRS METHOD ( ANY OF 12 METHODS ) ALL 135 QUE 4 HRS ALL 80 QUE 2 HRS

TIME PERIOD OF ISSUING CERTIFICATION


MAXIMUM TIME PERIOD : SIX MONTHS FROM DATE OF PASSING EXAM

( LEVEL-I/II) FOUR MONTHS SIX MONTHS


NOTE : RE-EXAM SHALL BE CONDUCTED AFTER 60 DAYS IF CANDIDATE FAILED TO MEET PASSING REQUIREMENTS

ASME SECTIONS
SECTION-1 RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF POWER BOILERS SECTION-2 MATERIALS PART A FERROUS MATERIAL PART B NON-FERROUS MATERIAL PART C SPECIFICATION OF WELDING RODS , ELECTRODES & FILLER METALS PART D PROPERTIES SECTION-3 RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COMPONENTS SECTION-4 RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HEATING BOILERS

ASME SECTIONS
SECTION -5 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION ARTICLE-2 RADIOGRAPHY TESTING ARTICLE-5- ULTRASONIC TESTING ARTICLE-6- PENETRANT TESTING ARTICLE-7- MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING ARTICLE-8- EDDY CURRENT TESTING ARTICLE-9-VISUAL TESTING ARTICLE-10 LEAK TESTING

ASME SECTIONS
SECTION-6 CARE & OPERATION OF POWER BOILERS SECTION-7- CARE & OPERATION OF HEATING BOILERS SECTION-8 BOILERS & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE SECTION-9 WELDING & BRAZING QUALIFICATION SECTION-10- RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF FRP VESSELS SECTION-11 RULES FOR INSERVICE INSPECTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COMPONENTS SECTION-12- RULES FOR TRANSPORT OF STORAGE TANKS

CODES & PURPOSE


API-1104 CROSS COUNTRY WELDING PIPELINE API-650- ABOVE GROUND WELDED STORAGE TANKS ASMEB31.3- PROCESS PIPING AWS D1.1 STRUCTURAL WELDING OF STEEL

CODES & PURPOSE


ASME-SEC-VIII- BOILERS & PRESSURE VESSELS CODE

ASME SEC-IX WELDING & BRAZING QUALIFICATIONS


ASME SEC-III RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COMPONENTS

ASME SEC-II (PART-C ) SPECIFICATION OF WELDING RODS , ELECTRODES & FILLER METALS

Selection of NDT METHODS


TYPE OF MATERIAL ( Whether it is ferrous/non-ferrous/ conductivity material ) TYPE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS ( Whether it is casting, forging, welding , rolling etc ) TYPE & ORIENTATION OF DISCONTINUITY ( Whether it is surface / near surface/ sub surface) Cost

VISUAL TESTING
ONLY FOR SURFACE DISCONTINUTIES FOR ANY TYPE OF MATERIALS FOR ANY TYPE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS TEMPERATURE IS NOT A CONSTRAINT BASIC TESTING ADVANCE EQUIPMENTS ARE MORE EXPENSIVE.

PENETRANT TESTING
ONLY FOR DISCONTINUTIES WHICH ARE OPEN TO SURFACE FOR NON-POROUS MATERIALS TEMPERATURE ( 10 DEG CENTIGRADE TO 50 DEG CENTIGRADE ) . HIGH TEMPERATURE PENETRANTS ( 200 DEG CENTIGRADE) SPECIAL TYPE OF MATERIALS AVAILIABLE. LESS EXPENSIVE & BETTER FOR FIELD USE PORTABLE CANS ARE AVAILIABLE TIME CONSUMING

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


ONLY FOR FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS FOR SURFACE & NEAR SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES IMMEDIATE INDICATION TEMPERATURE UPTO 300 DEG CENTIGRADE BY USING DRY POWDERS. LESS EXPENSIVE & TIME SAVING TESTING POSSIBLE EVEN FOREIGN MATERIAL EMBEDDED OVER THE SURFACE.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
FOR SURFACE/NEAR SURFACE/ SUBSURFACE FOR ANY TYPE OF MATERIAL SAFETY RULES & REGULATIONS SHALL BE FOLLOWED MORE EXPENSIVE & TIME CONSUMING RADIATION IS DANGEROUS IF SAFETY IS NOT FOLLOWED LOCATION OF DISCONTINUITY DIRECT INDICATION

ULTRASONIC TESTING
FOR ANY TYPE OF DISCONTINUITY FOR ANY TYPE OF MATERIAL EXCEPT COARSE GRAINED MATERIAL ( EX:SS, CU) DEPTH OF DISCONTINUITY IMMEDIATE SIGNAL TESTING UNDER NORMAL TEMPERATURE SKILL IS REQUIRED INDIRECT INDICATION

Outline
Introduction to NDT Overview of Six Most Common NDT Methods Selected Applications

Definition of NDT
The use of noninvasive techniques to determine the integrity of a material, component or structure or quantitatively measure some characteristic of an object.
i.e. Inspect or measure without doing harm.

Methods of NDT
Visual

What are Some Uses of NDE Methods?


Flaw Detection and Evaluation

Leak Detection
Location Determination Dimensional Measurements
Fluorescent penetrant indication

Structure and Microstructure Characterization


Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements Material Sorting and Chemical Composition Determination

When are NDE Methods Used?


There are NDE application at almost any stage in the production or life cycle of a component. To assist in product development To screen or sort incoming materials To monitor, improve or control manufacturing processes To verify proper processing such as heat treating To verify proper assembly To inspect for in-service damage

Six Most Common NDT Methods


Visual Liquid Penetrant Magnetic Ultrasonic Eddy Current Radiography

Visual Inspection
Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses and mirrors. Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels, railroad tank cars, sewer lines. Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas, such as air ducts, reactors, pipelines.

Liquid Penetrant Inspection


A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects. The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part. A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen. Visual inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under UV light to increase test sensitivity.

Magnetic Particle Inspection


The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.

Magnetic Particle Crack Indications

Radiography
The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source.
High Electrical Potential Electrons + -

X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation

Radiation Penetrate the Sample


Exposure Recording Device

Film Radiography
The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The part will stop some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. = less exposure

X-ray film

= more exposure
Top view of developed film

Radiographic Images

Eddy Current Testing


Coil's magnetic field

Coil

Eddy current's magnetic field


Eddy currents Conductive material

Eddy Current Testing


Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements. Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack.

Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse-Echo)


High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws. Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen f showing the depth of features that reflect sound.
initial pulse

crack echo

back surface echo

crack
0 2 4 6 8 10

plate

Oscilloscope, or flaw detector screen

Ultrasonic Imaging
High resolution images can be produced by plotting signal strength or time-of-flight using a computercontrolled scanning system.

Gray scale image produced using the sound reflected from the front surface of the coin

Gray scale image produced using the sound reflected from the back surface of the coin (inspected from heads side)

Common Application of NDT


Inspection of Raw Products Inspection Following Secondary Processing In-Services Damage Inspection

Inspection of Raw Products


Forgings, Castings, Extrusions, etc.

Inspection Following Secondary Processing


Machining Welding Grinding Heat treating Plating etc.

Inspection For In-Service Damage


Cracking Corrosion Erosion/Wear Heat Damage etc.

Power Plant Inspection


Periodically, power plants are shutdown for inspection. Inspectors feed eddy current probes into heat exchanger tubes to check for corrosion damage.

Pipe with damage

Probe
Signals produced by various amounts of corrosion thinning.

Wire Rope Inspection


Electromagnetic devices and visual inspections are used to find broken wires and other damage to the wire rope that is used in chairlifts, cranes and other lifting devices.

Storage Tank Inspection


Robotic crawlers use ultrasound to inspect the walls of large above ground tanks for signs of thinning due to corrosion. Cameras on long articulating arms are used to inspect underground storage tanks for damage.

Aircraft Inspection
Nondestructive testing is used extensively during the manufacturing of aircraft. NDT is also used to find cracks and corrosion damage during operation of the aircraft. A fatigue crack that started at the site of a lightning strike is shown below.

Jet Engine Inspection


Aircraft engines are overhauled after being in service for a period of time. They are completely disassembled, cleaned, inspected and then reassembled. Fluorescent penetrant inspection is used to check many of the parts for cracking.

Crash of United Flight 232 Sioux City, Iowa, July 19, 1989
A defect that went undetected in an engine disk was responsible for the crash of United Flight 232.

Pressure Vessel Inspection


The failure of a pressure vessel can result in the rapid release of a large amount of energy. To protect against this dangerous event, the tanks are inspected using radiography and ultrasonic testing.

Rail Inspection
Special cars are used to inspect thousands of miles of rail to find cracks that could lead to a derailment.

Bridge Inspection
The US has 578,000 highway bridges. Corrosion, cracking and other damage can all affect a bridges performance. The collapse of the Silver Bridge in 1967 resulted in loss of 47 lives. Bridges get a visual inspection about every 2 years.

Some bridges are fitted with acoustic emission sensors that listen for sounds of cracks growing.

Pipeline Inspection
NDT is used to inspect pipelines to prevent leaks that could damage the environment. Visual inspection, radiography and electromagnetic testing are some of the NDT methods used.

Remote visual inspection using a robotic crawler.

Magnetic flux leakage inspection. This device, known as a pig, is placed in the pipeline and collects data on the condition of the pipe as it is pushed along by whatever is being transported.

Radiography of weld joints.

Special Measurements
Boeing employees in Philadelphia were given the privilege of evaluating the Liberty Bell for damage using NDT techniques. Eddy current methods were used to measure the electrical conductivity of the Bell's bronze casing at a various points to evaluate its uniformity.

For More Information on NDT


The Collaboration for NDT Education www.ndt-ed.org

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing www.asnt.org