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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

Rana Kiransingh Roll No. - 11358

Definition of HDI
Composite statistic used to rank countries by level of human development. Distinguish "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries. Comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education and standards of living for countries worldwide.

Introduction
Origin: Annual Human Development Reports of the UNDP. Devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990. Purpose: To shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies. Nobel laureate Amartya Sens work on capabilities and functioning provided the underlying conceptual framework.

Components of HDI

The HDI combined three dimensions up until its 2011 report


Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity
Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting).

Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.

Calculation of HDI
1.Life Expectancy Index (LEI) 2.Education Index (EI) 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI)

3. Income Index (II)

Criticism of HDI
1.Failure to include any ecological consideration. 2.Less attention to development from global perspective. 3.Measurement error of underlying statistics. 4.Does not consider moral development.

World map by quartiles of Human Development Index in 2011.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX

HDI Cut-offs
HDI Rank
Very high Human Development High Human Development Medium Human Development Low Human development

HDI Value

Life Mean years Expectancy of Schooling at birth (years) (years)


80.0 11.3

Expected years of schooling (years)


15.9

Gross National Income per Capita ($)


33,352

0.889

0.741

73.1

8.5

13.6

11,579

0.630

69.7

6.3

11.2

5,276

0.456

58.7

4.2

8.3

1,585

Note: a. Data refer to 2011 or the most recent year available. b. Updated by HDRO based on UNESCO (2011) data.

HDI Rankings of a few Countries (2011)


HDI Rank
1. Norway
4.USA 12.Japan 84. Brazil HDI Value Life Expectancy at birth (years) Mean years Expected of Schooling years of (years) schooling (years) Gross National Income per Capita ($)

0.943
0.910 0.901 0.718

81.1
78.5 83.4 73.5 74.9 73.5 65.4

12.6
12.4 11.6 7.2 8.2 7.5 4.4

17.3
16.0 15.1 13.8 12.7 11.6 10.3

47,557
43,017 32,295 10,162 4,943 7,476 3,468

97. Sri Lanka 0.691 101. China 134. India 0.687 0.547

Note: a. Data refer to 2011 or the most recent year available. b. Updated by HDRO based on UNESCO (2011) data.

The top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway have been ranked the highest nine times, Canada eight times, followed by Japan which has been ranked highest three times

2011 (2011) Norway 2010 (2010) Norway 2009 (2007) Norway 2008 (2006) Iceland / Norway 2007 (2005) Iceland 2006 (2004) Norway 2005 (2003) Norway 2004 (2002) Norway 2003 (2001) Norway 2002 (2000) Norway 2001 (1999) Norway

2000 (1998) Canada 1999 (1997) Canada 1998 (1995) Canada 1997 (1994) Canada 1996 (1993) Canada 1995 (1992) Canada 1994 (????) Canada 1993 (????) Japan 1992 (1990) Canada 1991 (1990) Japan 1990 (????) Japan

Disaggregation of HDI
A country's overall index can conceal the fact that different groups within the country have very different levels of human development. Using disaggregated HDIs at the national and sub-national levels helps highlight the significant disparities and gaps: among regions, between the sexes, between urban and rural areas and among ethnic groups. It helps to guide policy and action to address gaps and inequalities. According to Human Development Report 2006, it was found that the richest 20% of the population in Bolivia had an HDI rank 97 positions higher than the poorest 20%.

INDIA v/s WORLD


HDI Rank
HDI Value Life Expectancy at birth (years) Mean years of Schooling (years) Expected years of schooling (years) Gross National Income per Capita ($)

India
World

0.547
0.682

65.4
68.9

4.4
7.4

10.3
11.3

3,468
10,082

Note: a. Data refer to 2011 or the most recent year available. b. Updated by HDRO based on UNESCO (2011) data.

HDI Values for Indian States


Rank
Very High human development 1 2 3 4 5 High human development 6 7 8 9 10 11 Medium human development 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Maharashtra Sikkim Himachal Pradesh Punjab Tamil Nadu Haryana Uttarakhand 0.689 0.684 0.681 0.679 0.675 0.644 0.628 31 Low human development 32 33 34 35 Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Orissa Bihar 0.49 0.488 0.452 0.449 Jharkhand 0.513 Goa Nagaland Andaman and Nicobar Islands Daman and Diu Pondicherry Manipur 0.779 0.77 0.766 0.754 0.748 0.707 Kerala Chandigarh Delhi Lakshadweep Mizoram 0.920 0.86 0.875 0.796 0.79 21 22 23 24 25 26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli Arunachal Pradesh Tripura Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Meghalaya 0.618 0.617 0.608 0.601 0.6 0.585

State/Union Territory

HDI

Rank
19 20

State/Union Territory
West Bengal Gujarat

HDI
0.625 0.621

27

Andhra Pradesh

0.572

28 29 30

All India
Rajasthan Assam Chhattisgarh

0.547
0.537 0.534 0.516

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