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Amsterdam

Principles Of Human Settlement Akansha Gupta Khadija Khan Aman Issar

Human Settlement
In the bid to create a habitat; man has always acted in accordance to a few principles. Namely; Maximum contact with the elements of nature and other human beings Minimum effort to utilize the above A balanced factor of protection and safety.

Location
We will take Amsterdam as a case study in a bid to study the patterns of human settlement.

Geography

Amsterdam is part of the province of North Holland and is located in the west of the Netherlands. River Amstel terminates in the city centre and connects to a large number of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ. The IJ is a lake or a bay which is divided into two parts, the western part being connected by the northern canal. Amsterdam is situated 2 metres above sea level. The surrounding land is flat as it is formed of large polders. Polders are pieces of land reclaimed from the sea or marshes preserved by creation of dykes. To the southwest of the city lies a man-made forest called het Amsterdamse Bos. Amsterdam is connected to the North Sea through the long North Sea Canal.

Early History
The city emerged around the year 1000,when people mainly fishermen started settling around the river Aemstelle. But they were plagued by the constant problem of flooding. The city emerged from a swampy area around Aemestelle. Piece by piece it was cleared and drained by the people who lived there, who were mainly fishermen and farmers. Because of that drainage the bottom of the land began to fall and shrink. A problem that is still current.

To protect themselves they constructed dikes. This happened in the 13th century along the river IJ and at the Zuiderzee. And on Aemstelle river they built a dam ( a bridge with doors and windows), near the IJ. Around that dam a commercial settlement arose that finally developed into the city as we know it, giving it the name Amsterdam.

Around 1225 the settlers built wooden houses on the west bank. It took some more time for houses to be built on the east bank. Around 1250 the banks were connected by a dam with sluices and so the seaport came about. The people of Amsterdam learnt how to manipulate water early which contributed to it becoming a major seaport In the year 1275 the village people of Aemstelledam did not have to pay toll anymore for passage through the county Holland, as the history tells. The Aemstelledammers then lived mainly on fishing, trade and ship building. Around 1300 the Bishop of Utrecht granted the city rights to Amsterdam that it was called by then. Around 1320 there was a lucrative beer trade from Hamburg. From these contacts in the course of the 14th and 15th century the trade expanded with timber and grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam managed to build its position as the largest granary in the north because of its fertile soil. It became the main commercial city of Holland

Amsterdam map-1544

Amsterdam- ] 1345-1585
According to legend, on 12 March 1345, the miracle of Amsterdam occurred and Amsterdam became an important pilgrimage town. The town grew considerably thanks to the pilgrims Two great fires swept through the city in 1421 and 1452. After the second, where three quarters of the city were destroyed, Emperor Charles decreed that new houses were to be built from stone. . In 1585 the city of Antwerp, then the main commercial city in the region was occupied by the Spaniards. Many merchants of Antwerp moved to Amsterdam. It grew and prospered. This period is called the Golden Century.

Amsterdam 1595-1602
Besides the trade relations with the Baltic, they opened a trade route to Indonesia in the year 1595. In 1602, De Verenigde OostIndische Company (VOC) was established, the first Public Limited Company (SA) in the world. It was a prosperous period: an exchange bank was established besides a lot of big shops, large mills and warehouses. Amsterdam was not only one of the major commercial cities, but it also became the financial center of Europe in its history. In this era of good fortune and financial gain, the arts flourished. The most famous and major poets, writers and painters in history who lived during that time include: Rembrandt, Joost van den Vondel, Bredero, and PC Hooft.

The Indonesian Route

In the year 1632 the Athenaem Illustre was opened, later called the University of Amsterdam. In the 17th century the population of Amsterdam grew from about 30,000 inhabitants to 200,000. In this period the city really expanded, and since there was still a problem with water, the typical canals were dug out. Because of the urban expansion Amsterdam needed a lot of workers. Many people from abroad entered the city and so a working-class area was built called The Jordaan (after the river Jordan in Palestine).

Amsterdam 1632 to 1669

In the 18th century the prosperity of Amsterdam came to a halt. This mainly happened because of the many wars with England and France. Especially the French domination was a death blow for the Amsterdam economy. In the year 1806 the Kingdom of Holland was formed. The port of Amsterdam silted up, and the supply of trade with large ships stopped. The ships had to be diverted to other ports. That is why they dug out the North Holland canal in 1824. From that time the ship traffic to Amsterdam increased again. At around 1870 a new form of commerce, by means of the industrialization led to a new explosion of population growth. After 1875 new working class areas were built around Amsterdam. New ports were built for the large steam ships. Until the 20th century Amsterdam continued to grow. In 1930 it had about 750,000 inhabitants. Then the World War II came (1940-1945) and about 110,000 people from Amsterdam where killed by the Germans, of which 75,000 were Jews. One of the most famous people among them was Anne Frank. She lived at the Prinsengracht in 1944 until she was betrayed. The entire Jewish community disappeared from Amsterdam during the war. It was the biggest disaster in the history of the city. Only a few returned. There is now a small jewish community in the Capital. After the Second World War the city was rebuilt. New neighborhoods were developed. After 1970 Amsterdam began with a huge urban renewal. However, many families settled in cities around Amsterdam. The size of the families became much smaller. Also ethnically a lot changed. Between 1950 and 1960 Spanish and Italian workers settled in the city. They were followed by workers from Turkey and Morocco in 1960 and people from the Surinam in 1975. At this point in time the city still develops. An entirely new residential, called IJburg was created in the water and on islands.