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Circulatory Shock

Circulatory shock
• generalized inadequate blood flow through
the body
• to the extent that the body tissues are
damaged because of:
• too little flow,
• especially because of too little oxygen and
other nutrients delivered to the tissue cells
Circulatory Shock Caused by
Decreased Cardiac Output
• Two types of factors can severely reduce
cardiac output
– Cardiac abnormalities that decrease the
ability of the heart to pump blood
• myocardial infarction, toxic states of the heart,
severe heart valve dysfunction, heart arrhythmias

– Factors that decrease venous return


• diminished blood volume, decreased vascular
tone, obstruction to blood flow
Circulatory Shock That Occurs
Without Diminished
Cardiac Output
• (1) excessive metabolism of the body, so
that even a normal cardiac output is
inadequate
• (2) abnormal tissue perfusion patterns, so
that most of the cardiac output is passing
through blood vessels besides those that
supply the local tissues with nutrition
• What is the characteristic of arterial
pressure during Circulatory Shock?

• What is the end result of circulatory


shock?
three major stages of shock
• A nonprogressive stage:
AKA compensated stage

2. A progressive stage

3. An irreversible stage
Shock Caused by
Hypovolemia—Hemorrhagic Shock
• Hypovolemia- diminished blood volume
• Hemorrhage- the most common cause of
hypovolemic shock

• Hemorrhage => decreases the filling


pressure of the circulation =>decreases
venous return => the cardiac output falls
below normal =>shock may follow
Relationship of Bleeding Volume to
Cardiac Output and Arterial Pressure
Sympathetic Reflex Compensations in Shock
Their Special Value to Maintain Arterial Pressure
Three important effects of sympathetic
vasoconstrictor system :
• The arterioles constrict in most parts of the
systemic circulation = increasing the total
peripheral resistance
• The veins and venous reservoirs constrict,
thereby helping to maintain adequate venous
return despite diminished blood volume
• Heart activity increases markedly, sometimes
increasing the heart rate from the normal value
of 72 beats/min to as high as 160 to 180
beats/min
• What will happen if there is no
sympathetic reflex?
• About how many times it can extend the
amount of blood loss without causing
death?
• T/F; Sympathetic reflexes are geared
more for maintaining arterial pressure than
for maintaining cardiac output.
• Why does your body needs to maintain
normal arterial pressure even though your
CO is decreasing?
Progressive and Nonprogressive
Hemorrhagic Shock
Nonprogressive Shock—
Compensated Shock
• the sympathetic reflexes and other factors
compensate enough to prevent further
deterioration of the circulation
• Factors= the negative feedback control
mechanisms of the circulation
• that attempt to return cardiac output
and arterial pressure back to normal
levels
Negative Feedback Control
Mechanisms of the Circulation
• Baroreceptor reflexes
• Central nervous system ischemic
response
• Reverse stress-relaxation of the
circulatory system
• Formation of angiotensin by the kidneys
• constricts the peripheral arteries
• Causes decreased output of water and salt
by the kidneys
• Formation of vasopressin (antidiuretic
hormone)
• posterior pituitary gland
• constricts the peripheral arteries and veins and
greatly increases water retention by the kidneys

• Compensatory mechanisms that return the blood


volume back toward normal
• Absorption of large quantities of fluid from the
intestinal tract
• absorption of fluid into the blood capillaries from
the interstitial spaces of the body
• conservation of water and salt by the kidneys
• increased thirst and increased appetite for salt,
which make the person drink water and eat salty
foods if able
• Sympathetic reflexes is maximally
activated within how many seconds after
hemorrhage?

• How about angiotensin, vasopressin and


reverse stress relaxation?

• How about readjustment of blood volume?


Progressive Shock
• Is caused by a vicious circle of
cardiovascular deterioration
• positive feedbacks
• further depress cardiac output in
shock
»shock to become progressive
Different types of “positive feedback” that can lead to progression of shock
Cardiac Depression
• arterial pressure falls
low enough, coronary
blood flow decreases
below that required for
adequate nutrition of
the myocardium = this
weakens the heart
muscle = decreases
the cardiac output
more
Vasomotor Failure
• What is the role of sympathetic reflexes?
• Because of continuous dec in blood flow in the
brain, vasomotor center becomes progressively
less active and finally totally inactive
• Complete circulatory arrest to the brain
– first 4 to 8 minutes= intense of all sympathetic
discharges
– by the end of 10 to 15 minutes = vasomotor
center becomes so depressed = no
sympathetic discharge can be demonstrated
Blockage of Very Small Vessels
—“Sludged Blood.”
• initiating cause of this Continuous cell metabolism
blockage is sluggish
blood flow in the Inc amount of acid
microvessels
• sludged blood Inc local blood acidity
• increased tendency for
the blood cells to stick to Local blood agglutination
one another makes it
more difficult for blood to Minute blood clot
flow through the
microvasculature
Small plug in small vessel
Increased Capillary Permeability
• the permeability of the capillaries gradually
increase after many hours of capillary
hypoxia and lack of other nutrients
• decreases the blood volume even more,
with a resultant further decrease in cardiac
output, making the shock still more severe
Release of Toxins by Ischemic Tissue
• histamine, serotonin, and tissue enzymes,
• cause further deterioration of the circulatory
system
• Cardiac Depression Caused by Endotoxin
– released from the bodies of dead gram-
negative bacteria in the intestines
– causes increased cellular metabolism despite
inadequate nutrition of the cells;
– this has a specific effect on the heart muscle,
causing cardiac depression
Generalized Cellular Deterioration
• damaging cellular effects:
• Diminished active transport of sodium
and potassium through the cell
membrane
• Severely depressed mitochondrial
activity
• Lysosomes break down=release of
Hydrolases
• Cellular metabolism of nutrients, such as
glucose,eventually becomes greatly
depressed
• T/F
– All cell of the
body is equally
damaged by
shock
Irreversible Shock
• Transfusion or any other type of therapy
becomes incapable of saving the person’s
life
• Is it true that since it is an irreversible
shock arterial pressure and cardiac output
will not return to normal level?
Hypovolemic Shock Caused
by Plasma Loss
• Severe plasma loss occurs in the
following conditions:
2. Intestinal obstruction
- intestinal obstruction partly blocksvenous blood flow
increases intestinal capillary pressure

fluid to leak from the capillaries into the


intestinal walls and also into the intestinal lumen

reduced total blood plasma protein

reduced plasma volume


• severe burns or other denuding conditions
of the skin
– so much plasma is lost through the denuded
skin areas that the plasma volume becomes
markedly reduced
• one additional complicating factor: the
blood viscosity increases greatly as a
result of increased red blood cell
concentration
hypovolemic shock due to dehydration
(1) excessive sweating
(2) Fluid loss in severe diarrhea or vomiting
(3) excess loss of fluid by nephrotic kidneys
(4) inadequate intake of fluid and
electrolytes
(5) destruction of the adrenal cortices
• loss of aldosterone secretion and consequent
failure of the kidneys to reabsorb sodium,
chloride, and water, which occurs in the absence
of the adrenocortical hormone aldosterone
Neurogenic Shock—IncreasedVascular Capacity

• Does shock occurs without any loss of


blood volume?
• vascular capacity increases so much that
even the normal amount of blood
becomes incapable of filling the circulatory
system adequately
– Massive dilatation= neurogenic shock
– Diminished venous return caused by vascular
dilation is called venous pooling of blood
Causes of Neurogenic Shock
• Deep general anesthesia
– depresses the vasomotor center enough to
cause vasomotor paralysis
• Spinal anesthesia
– blocks the sympathetic nervous outflow from
the nervous system
• Brain damage
– cause of vasomotor paralysis
Anaphylactic Shock and
Histamine Shock
• Anaphylaxis is an allergic condition in
which the cardiac output and arterial
pressure often decrease drastically

• One of the principal effects is to cause the


basophils in the blood and mast cells in
the pericapillary tissues to release
histamine or a histamine-like substance
Causes of histamine
• An increase in vascular capacity because
of venous dilation, = marked decrease in
venous return
• dilation of the arterioles = reduced arterial
pressure
• greatly increased capillary permeability,
with rapid loss of fluid and protein into the
tissue spaces
Septic Shock
• known by popular name “blood poisoning”
• refers to a bacterial infection widely
disseminated to many areas of the body
• infection being borne through the blood
from one tissue to another and causing
extensive damage
typical causes of septic shock
• Peritonitis caused by spread of infection
from the uterus and fallopian tubes
• Peritonitis resulting from rupture of the
gastrointestinal system
• Generalized bodily infection
• Generalized gangrenous infection
• Infection spreading into the blood from the
kidney or urinary tract
Physiology of Treatment
in Shock
• Blood and Plasma Transfusion
• best possible therapy is usually
transfusion of whole blood
• shock is caused by plasma loss, the best
therapy is administration of plasma
• dehydration is the cause, administration of
an appropriate electrolyte solution
• plasma substitutes
Dextran Solution as a Plasma
Substitute
• Principal requirement of a truly effective
plasma substitute:
– remain in the circulatory system
– nontoxic and must contain appropriate
electrolytes
– large enough molecular size to exert colloid
osmotic pressure
Treatment of Shock with
Sympathomimetic Drugs
• drug that mimics sympathetic stimulation
• include norepinephrine, epinephrine
• Beneficial to:
– neurogenic shock -drug takes the place of the
diminished sympathetic actions and can often
restore full circulatory function
• anaphylactic shock
– opposes the vasodilating effect of histamine
Treatment by the Head-Down
Position
• place the patient with the head at least 12
inches lower than the feet
– helps tremendously in promoting venous
return = increasing cardiac output
– first essential step in the treatment of many
types of shock
– especially in hemorrhagic and neurogenic
shock
Oxygen Therapy
• giving the patient oxygen to breathe
– Since the major deleterious effect of most
types of shock is too little delivery of oxygen
to tissues
• Frequently is far less beneficial
– problem in most types of shock is not
inadequate oxygenation of the blood by the
lungs but:
• inadequate transport of the blood after it is
oxygenated
Treatment with Glucocorticoids
• glucocorticoids frequently increase the
strength of the heart in the late stages of
shock
• Glucocorticoids stabilize lysosomes in
tissue cells
• glucocorticoids might aid in the
metabolism of glucose by the severely
damaged cells
Effect of Circulatory Arrest
on the Brain
• T/F
– Is it true that acute cerebral hypoxia is the
cause of brain damage during circulatory
arrest?