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# Tau-Vee Convolution

## An alternative to the sliding

function method of convolution
Contents
What is Convolution (Slides 3-5)
Preliminaries (Slides 6-7)
A Detailed Example (Slides 8-47)
Summary (Slides 63-77)
Convolution with Impulses
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
... 0 0 ... y t x h t x h t = + + A A +
Approximating Continuous Data
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
0.5
0.5

k
k
x k x t dt x k
+ A
A
A = A A
}
( ) x t
t
t
( ) h t
( ) x t
( ) x t
( ) h t t
Overlap
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0

k
k
y t x h t x h t
x k h t k
y t x k h t k x h t d t t t

=
= + + A A +
= A A
= A A A

}
Disclaimer
This presentation is free, without any
restrictions, to anyone who wants to use it.
There is no copyright on this presentation.
What you will need
A pencil (possibly with an eraser if you
make mistakes).
A printer because you may find the
presentation easier to follow if you print
out a few slides.
Lets get started
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
Let d where
0 1 0 0
1 1 2 0 1
and
2 2 3 0 1
0 3
Find .
y t f t g t f g t
t t
t t t
f t g t
t t
t
y t
t t t

= - =
< <

s < s <

= =

s < s

s

}
Change of variables
( ) ( )
Define so that
0 1 0 0
1 1 2 0 1
and
2 2 3 0 1
0 3
v t
v
v v
f g v
v
t
t
t
t
t
t
=
< <

s < s <

= =

s < s

s

Breakpoints
( ) ( )
{ }
{ }
The points where the definitions of and change
are called breakpoints. Breakpoints occur at 1, 2,3
and 0,1 . As shown in the next slide, these breakpoints
divide the plane into a number of
f g v
v
v
t
t
t
=
=
subdomains. In the
next series of slides you will be guided through the process of
constructing a map of these subdomains. If you would like
begin by printing a copy of the next slide.
Print this slide
Copy the next series of lines and points
Done!
So what?
You have now divided the plane into 6 diagonal
bands with each band corresponding to one
range of time:
Band 1: t less than -1
Band 2: t between -1 and 0
Band 3: t between 0 and 2
Band 4: t between 2 and 3
Band 5: t between 3 and 4
Band 6: t greater than 4
Band 1:Tau-Vee Method
Band 1: Sliding Function Method
Band 2:Tau-Vee Method
Band 2: Sliding Function Method
Band 3:Tau-Vee Method
Band 3: Sliding Function Method
Band 4: Tau-Vee Method
Band 4: Sliding Function Method
Band 5: Tau-Vee Method
Band 5: Sliding Function Method
Band 6:Tau-Vee Method
Band 6: Sliding Function Method

Question: Do these drawings have to be
very carefully drawn in order to work?

Answer: Probably as long as you have the
breakpoints in order it will still work. The
next slide shows a pretty messy free-hand
version of the diagram for the same
example.
Another fine mess
This drawing was pretty crummy when I
drew it. To make it worse, I spilled weak
coffee on it , rode over it with a bicycle,
crumpled it up, uncrumpled it, and
stomped it on the ground. Only then did I
scan it into this presentation. You can still
see the 6 diagonal bands and should be
able to figure out the integrands and
integration limits for all 6 bands! It is still
usable! Amazing!
I also deliberately did not use the correct
scale. You can see that the distance from
tau=-1 to tau=2 is almost equal to the
distance between tau=2 and tau=3. Thats
part of the reason why the lines of
constant t are deformed into curves
instead of nice straight lines at a 45
degree angle. Just try to avoid time
catastrophestwo different constant time
lines intersecting!
Can this method work for discrete
convolution?
| |
| |
| | | | | | | | | |
Let
1, 2, 1, 3 for 0,1, 2,3
0 for all other values of
2, 4, 6 for 5, 6, 7
0 for all other values of
Let
m
n
x n
n
n
y n
n
z n x n y n x m y n m
k n m

=
=

= - =
=

Therefore
2,8,12, 2, 18, 18 for 5, 6, 7,8,9,19
0 for all other values of
n
z
n
=

Reference
The tau-vee method for discrete convolution
is essentially identical to a method
previously described in the following
reference:
Enders A. Robinson, The Minimum Delay
Concept in System Design, Part I, Digital
Electronics, Dec. 1963.
Functions that Extend to Infinity
All functions in the previous examples were
nonzero only over a finite interval of time.
Does this method work for functions that
start and or stop at infinity?
Example
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
Let
for 0
and for 1
1 for 0 1
and let 0 for all 1 while g 0 whenever t 1.
Note that the definition of extends back towards .
Find *
t
e t
f t g t t t t
t t
f t t t
f t
f g

<
= = s s

s <

= > = >

Summary of Tau-Vee Method

Lines of constant v
( )
Breakpoints in are represented by
horizontal lines.
g v
Lines of constant v
Lines of constant tau
( )
Breakpoints in are represented by
vertical lines.
f t
Lines of constant tau
Corners
Corners occur at each intersection of a constant
line with a constant line. The value of at a corner
is given by
v
t
t v
t
t = +
Corners
Lines of Constant t
Lines of constant are diagonal lines (or curves) along which
the value of is constant. Lines of constant are drawn
through each corner. These lines then divide the plane into
a number of d
t
t v t
v
t
t
= +
iagonal bands.
Lines of Constant t
Integration Path
Each band corresponds to a range of values of . The
convolution within a band is represented by a path on
the diagram. For the convolution of piecewise defined
functions, each time the path crosses a
t
( )
( )
line of constant
the definition of changes. Each time the path
crosses a line of constant the definition of changes.
v g v
f t t
Integration Path
Integration Path
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
2 2 2 1
For values of in this band:
*
t
f g f g v d
f g v d f g v d
t t
t t t t
=
+ +
}
} }
Integration limits
When the path crosses a line of constant , the
corresponding integration limit is simply the value of
. When the path crosses a line of constant the
corresponding integration limit is found by sol
v
t
t
ving
the equation for the value of , i.e. .
In this case the integration limit will be in the form of
a number. For example:
v t t v
t
t t t
t
= =
=
Integration Limits
Eliminating the variable, v
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6
1 2
?
3 ?
2 2 2 1
6 3
*
? Depends on intersections not shown on the
previous diagram
t
t
f g f g t d
f g v d f g v d
t
t
t t
t t t
t t t t
=
=
= =
=
+ +
=
}
} }