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P A R T 2

Planning: Historical Overview and Influences


A history of urban and regional planning from its early development up to the present.

PL 511 | Urban & Regional Planning


Slideshow developed by: Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP Bohol Island State University | College of Architecture & Engineering

RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS IN PARIS


REBUILDING OF THE LOUVRE
1667, Lorenzo Berninis designs rejected Claude Perrault a court physician Viewing conditions same as Palladios San Giorgio Maggiore and Michelangelos Campidoglio

BOULEVARD
city is enlarged, old walls torn, creating broad, long streets term derived from Dutch word bulwark

1748
proposals for new plazas Place de la Concorde 1757, finished by 1770
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The Louvre Palace, on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, is a former royal palace situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. The Cour Carre (square courtyard) of the "Old Louvre" looking west.

From Chteau to Museum. The Louvre, in its successive architectural metamorphoses, has dominated central Paris since the late 12th century. Built on the city's western edge, the original structure was gradually engulfed as the city grew. The dark fortress of the early days was transformed into the modernized dwelling of Franois I and, later, the sumptuous palace of the Sun King, Louis XIV.

The Louvre Palace looking west across the Cour Napoleon and the Louvre Pyramid.

The Louvre Palace looking west across the Cour Napoleon and the Louvre Pyramid.

RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS IN PARIS


REBUILDING OF THE LOUVRE
1667, Lorenzo Berninis designs rejected Claude Perrault a court physician Viewing conditions same as Palladios San Giorgio Maggiore and Michelangelos Campidoglio

BOULEVARD
city is enlarged, old walls torn, creating broad, long streets term derived from Dutch word bulwark

1748
proposals for new plazas Place de la Concorde 1757, finished by 1770
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A boulevard is a type of road, usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. The division into peripheral roads for local use and a central main thoroughfare for regional traffic is a principal feature of the boulevard. Larger and busier boulevards usually feature a median. It was first introduced in the French language in 1435 as boloard and has since been altered into boulevard. A boulevard is , basically, a wide, tree-lined street.

Champs Elysees, Paris. Five lanes in each direction, but that doesn't keep the pedestrians away.

The French word boulevard originally referred to the flat summit of a rampart (the etymology of the word distantly parallels that of bulwark which is a Dutch loanword [bolwerk]). Several Parisian boulevards replaced old city walls; more generally, boulevards encircle a city center, in contrast to avenues that radiate from the center. (Photo: Paris Plan, 1740)

The French word boulevard originally referred to the flat summit of a rampart (the etymology of the word distantly parallels that of bulwark which is a Dutch loanword [bolwerk]). Several Parisian boulevards replaced old city walls; more generally, boulevards encircle a city center, in contrast to avenues that radiate from the center. (Photo: Paris Plan, 1740)

Boulevards on the Turgot map (1736) some years after their creation in place of the Louis XIII wall.

The Grands Boulevards are essentially 'the best' of the Parisian boulevards. They include the Boulevard Beaumarchais, Filles-du-Calvaire, Temple, Saint-Martin, Saint-Denis, Bonne-Nouvelle, Poissonnire, Montmartre, Italiens, Capucines and the Madeleine boulevards.

Boulevard des Capucines. The name comes from a beautiful convent of Capuchine nuns whose garden was on the south side of the boulevard prior to the French Revolution.

Boulevard des Capucines, sometime after its creation. Note the unflattened soil and a double line of tress for carriage circulation.

Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris. 1890-1900

Boulevard des Italiens. Early 1900s.

Boulevard du Temple or Boulevard du Crime. 1838. Photo by Daguerre.

Boulevard Montmartre.

IMPRESSIONISM
Camille Pissarro : Major Works

Camille Pissarro The Boulevard Montmartre on a Winter Morning 1897. Oil on canvas.

IMPRESSIONISM
Camille Pissarro : Major Works

Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre, Spring 1897. Oil on canvas. 65 x 81 cm.

IMPRESSIONISM
Camille Pissarro : Major Works

Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre 1897. Oil on canvas. 74 92.8 cm

IMPRESSIONISM
Camille Pissarro : Major Works

Camille Pissarro Boulevard Montmartre la nuit 1898. Oil on canvas. 55 65 cm.

Boulevard Montmartre, nowadays.

RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS IN PARIS


REBUILDING OF THE LOUVRE
1667, Lorenzo Berninis designs rejected Claude Perrault a court physician Viewing conditions same as Palladios San Giorgio Maggiore and Michelangelos Campidoglio

BOULEVARD
city is enlarged, old walls torn, creating broad, long streets term derived from Dutch word bulwark

1748
proposals for new plazas Place de la Concorde 1757, finished by 1770
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The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France. Measuring 8.64 hectares (21.3 acres) in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located in the city's eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-lyses.

The Place was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755 as a moat-skirted octagon between the Champs-lyses to the west and the Tuileries Gardens to the east. Decorated with statues and fountains, the area was named Place Louis XV to honor the king at that time.

Originally called Place Louis XV, the square was renamed in 1792 as Place de la Rvolution when it became the stage for the horrendous public executions by the guillotine. During the Reign of Terror, the King, the Queen MarieAntoinette, and more than 1,100 victims were beheaded in less than two and a half years. On 21st January 1793, Louis XVI was guillotined at the very position of the statue of Brest, at the North-West angle. From the 13th May 1793, the National Razor was moved across the square near the railings of the Tuileries Gardens and beheaded many more victims: Marie-Antoinette (16th October), Madame du Barry, Danton, Madame Roland and Robespierre. Following those dreadful events of the Reign of Terror, the Directorate changed the name of the square to one of reconciliation and hope: Place de la Concorde.

Place de la Concorde

Place de la Concorde

(Left) Place de la Concorde. The Obelisk of Luxor stands on top of a pedestal that recounts the special machinery and manuvres that were used to transport it. (Right) The Fountain of River Commerce and Navigation, one of the two Fontaines de la Concorde (1840) on the Place de la Concorde.

RENAISSANCE DEVELOPMENTS IN PARIS


1789 : French Revolution 1793 : new plan for Paris called Plan des Artistes 1748 : emphasis on plaza 1793 : emphasis on street NAPOLEON I
Champs Elysees improvement Arch of Triumph

NAPOLEON III
Assigned Baron Georges Eugene Haussmann Jean Charles Adolphe Alphand, landscape architect
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The French Revolution (17891799), was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and throughout the rest of Europe.

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. Napoleon I commissioned the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate the victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz. The astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin (17391811), in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture (see, for example, the triumphal Arch of Titus). Erected in 1836.

Haussmann's Renovation of Paris, or the Haussmann Plan, was a modernization program of Paris commissioned by Napolon III and led by the Seine prefect, Baron Georges-Eugne Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

Though work continued until the end of the 19th century, well after the Second Empire's demise in 1870, it is often referred to as the "Second Empire reforms".
Louis-Napolon Bonaparte (1808-1873) was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the emperor of the Second French Empire. Georges-Eugne Haussmann aka Baron Haussman

When Baron Haussmann reordered Paris between 1853 and 1869, he also looked back to Versailles for inspiration. By 1870, Paris was the wonder of the world. Haussmann drove a network of boulevards through the city, straightened other roads, created public squares, vistas and sites for important public buildings, and also made the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes into public parks.

The le de la Cit and its medieval surroundings before the Haussmann works (Vaugondy map of 1771)

The le de la Cit by Haussmann: new transverse streets (red), public spaces (l blue) and buildings (d blue).

When Baron Haussmann reordered Paris between 1853 and 1869, he also looked back to Versailles for inspiration. By 1870, Paris was the wonder of the world. Haussmann drove a network of boulevards through the city, straightened other roads, created public squares, vistas and sites for important public buildings, and also made the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes into public parks.

In 1870, after significant redevelopment, Paris was the wonder of the world. Here, its radial planning is evident, with the boulevards radiating from the Arc de Triomphe. (Roslyn Russell Collection)

Example of boulevard created by Baron Haussmann who began rebuilding Paris in 1853. The new streets were also wider than most of their predecessors, for reasons of public health and traffic engineering.

Haussmann's Paris.

Haussmann's Paris. He coated the city with a unifying style, and constructed new public buildings, such as LOpra.

Haussmann's Paris. Boulevard Haussman.

Green spaces in Paris were rare. Having visited and enjoyed the beautiful and plentiful London parks, Napolon III hired engineer Jean-Charles Alphand, Haussmann's future successor, to create expansive parks and green spaces. On the east and west borders of the city, you could find the bois de Vincennes and the bois de Boulogne, respectively.

Parc des Buttes-Chaumont. Public garden located in the north-east of Paris designed by Jean-Charles Alphand.

Bois de Vincennes

Bois de Vincennes

Bois de Vincennes

Bois de Boulogne

Bois de Boulogne

Bois de Boulogne

MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


CLAUDE-NICOLAS LEDOUX
French architect late 18th and early 19th century, a new era in urban design CHAUX, France (1776) principal work

LEDOUXS DESIGN
an ideal plan where everything is motivated by necessity Architecture Ledouxs book published in 1804

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Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (17361806) was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture. He used his knowledge of architectural theory to design not only in domestic architecture but town planning; as a consequence of his visionary plan for the Ideal City of Chaux, he became known as a utopian.

Ledoux's second design plan for Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, an idealistic and visionary town showing many examples of architecture parlante speaking architecture, buildings that explain their own function or identity).

Aerial view of the proposed city at the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans by Claude Nicolas Ledoux, published in 1804.

Aerial view of the proposed city at the Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans by Claude Nicolas Ledoux, published in 1804.

In 1982, UNESCO listed the salt works as a World Heritage Site.

Saline Royale.

Saline Royale.

Saline Royale.

Saline Royale.

Project for the ideal city of Chaux: House of supervisors of the source of the Loue. Published in 1804.

Chaux Cemetary

MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


ROBERT OWEN (1771-1858)
English social reformer NEW LANARK, Scotland (1799)
Robert Owen was a man ahead of his time. During his lifetime, he endeavoured to improve the health, education, well-being and rights of the working class. This driving ambition to create a better society for all took him around the world, from a small mill village in Lanarkshire in Scotland to New Harmony, Indiana in America with varied success. Although, he encountered much criticism and opposition in his lifetime, he influenced reformers who came after him and many of his views are as relevant and resonate today in their modernity and progressive nature.
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MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


New Lanark - A Model Community
Under Robert Owens management from 1800 to 1825, the cotton mills and village of New Lanark became a model community, in which the drive towards progress and prosperity through new technology of the Industrial Revolution was tempered by a caring and humane regime. New Lanark had:

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the first Infant School in the world a creche for working mothers free medical care, a comprehensive education system for children, including evening classes for adults (Children under 10 were not allowed to work in the Mill.) leisure and recreation (concerts, dancing, music-making and pleasant landscaped areas for the benefit of the community) High standard of goods produced

Robert Owen's school in New Lanark, Scotland, a utopian community for cotton-mill workers, engraving by G. Hunt, 1825. The Art Archive / Eileen Tweedy

MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


New Lanark Inspiring a Model Approach
While at New Lanark, Robert Owen demonstrated management policies that are now widely recognised as precursors of modern theories relating to human resource management, as well as skilful and ethical business practice. His work inspired infant education, humane working practices, the Co-operative Movement, trade unionism, and garden cities. Even today New Lanark attracts visitors from all over the world who come to see the historic buildings and visit the award-winning Visitor Centre. Robert Owens legacy continues to inspire New Lanark Trust, the independent Scottish charity which is dedicated to restoring and caring for the historic village of New Lanark in Southern Scotland. The site is now a World Heritage Site.

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New Lanark, Scotland

New Lanark, Scotland

New Lanark, Scotland

"What ideas individuals may attach to the term Millennium I know not; but I know that society may be formed so as to exist without crime, without poverty, with health greatly improved, with little, if any misery, and with intelligence and happiness increased a hundredfold; and no obstacle whatsoever intervenes at this moment except ignorance to prevent such a state of society from becoming universal.
Extract from Robert Owens "Address to the Inhabitants of New Lanark, New Years Day, 1816

MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


OWENISM
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as OWENITES. With its origins in the Industrial Revolution, Owenism aimed for radical reform of society and is considered a forerunner of the cooperative movement. The Owenite movement undertook several experiments in establishment of utopian communities organized according to communitarian and cooperative principles.
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MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


OWENITE COMMUNITIES
England and United States New Harmony in Indiana (18251827) Brook Farm in Massachusetts by New England transcendentalists Icarus in Red River, Texas, by Frenchman named Cabet Icarus failed, Cabet joined the Mormons in search for the promised land and helped lay out Salt Lake City

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New Harmony as envisioned by Owen

New Harmony as envisioned by Owen

MODERN CONCEPTS IDEAL TOWNS & WORKER TOWNS


FRANCOIS FOURIER
French social reformer Developed phalanstre or Phalanstery, a type of building designed for an utopian community The New World of Industry and Society published in 1829

JAMES SILK BUCKINGHAM


Victoria National Evils and Practical Remedies published in 1849

ROBERT PEMBERTON Happy Colony in New Zealand DR. BENJAMIN RICHARDSON Hygeia in United States THOMAS JEFFERSON Jeffersonville
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Charles Fourier conceived the phalanstre as an organized building designed to integrate urban and rural features.

The structure of the phalanstre was composed by three parts: a central part and two lateral wings.
The central part was designed for quiet activities. It included dining rooms, meeting rooms, libraries and studies. A lateral wing was designed for labour and noisy activities, such as carpentry, hammering and forging. It also hosted children because they were considered noisy while playing. The other wing contained a caravansary, with ballrooms and halls for meetings with outsiders. The outsiders had to pay a fee in order to visit and meet the people of the Phalanx community. This income was thought to sustain the autonomous economy of the phalanstre. The phalanstre also included private apartments and many social halls

In the 20th century, the architect Le Corbusier adapted the concept of the phalanstre when he designed the Unit d'Habitation, a self-contained commune, at Marseilles.

MODERN CONCEPTS PLANNED INDUSTRIAL TOWNS


FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL
Georgiaville, RA (1812) Waltham, Massachusetts Harrisville, NH (1816) Lowell, Massachusetss (1822) French architect, anticipated the 20th c. Garden City Vesinet, France (1859)

OLIVE
OTHER INDUSTRIAL TOWNS

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Essen, Germany (1863), Krupp factories called Siedlungen (worker colonies) Pullman, Illinois (1879) Port Sunlight near Liverpool (1887) W.H. Lever Soap Company Bournville near Birmingham (1889) Cadbury Chocolate Company Gary, Indiana (1906), laid out by a steel corporation, a made to order city

MODERN CONCEPTS PLANNED INDUSTRIAL TOWNS


TONY GARNIER
French architect, anticipated modern day zoning pioneered use of reinforced concrete, along with Auguste Perret

UNE CITE INDUSTRIELLE (1901-04)


o Plan was incredibly detailed o Industrial city for approx 35,000 inhabitants situated on a area in southeast France on a plateau with high land and a lake to the north, a valley and river to the south residential on plateau factories on valley o Took into account all aspects of the city including governmental, residential, manufacturing and agricultural practices o The residential districts are the first attempt towards passive solar architecture. o ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN MIND : city was to be powered by a hydroelectric station with a dam which was located in the mountains along with the hospital. o ZONING: smelting factories and mines at respectful distances locations for sewage plant, abattoir, bakery, and civic center
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Tony Garnier's Une Cite Industrialle is one of the most comprehensive ideal plans of all time.Published in 1917, it is not only an outstanding contribution to architectural and planning theories but also a sensitive expression of thought and cultural conditions of its day.

Tony Garnier, Une Cit industrielle, Paris 1917, Architekturmuseum der TU Mnchen.

Industrial Zone, Une Cit industrielle.

Individual dwellings, Une Cit industrielle.

The garden city, Une Cit industrielle.

Models of individual dwellings, Une Cit industrielle.

Of all his predecessors, Tony Garnier presents a considerable technical innovation to adopt reinforced concrete for all its buildings, and an equally great aesthetic innovation which is to go for a clean pen (clean lines).

Heliotherapy center, Une Cit industrielle.

Twenty years in advance, it has defined the so called " international style ". The forms he gives to his buildings are amazing because of a premonition imagine both in terms of the glass windows across the roof terrace, piling, door overhang and technical innovations as the pack water, district heating power, thermal control, etc.

Green School, Une Cit industrielle.

Hospital, Une Cit industrielle.

Train Station, Une Cit industrielle.

Buildings on stilts, Une Cit industrielle.

MODERN CONCEPTS URBAN DESIGN AND MACHINES


DON ARTURO SORIA Y MATA
Spanish businessman and engineer created Madrids 1st streetcar and telephone system LA CIUDAD LINEAL Linear City
o The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. o Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. o Sectors of a linear city :
o a purely segregated zone for railway lines, o a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions, o a green belt or buffer zone with major highway, o a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band", o a park zone, and o an agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms (sovkhozy in the Soviet Union). o As the city expanded, additional sectors would be added to the end of each band, so that the city would become ever longer, without growing wider.
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The Ciudad Lineal in Madrid, designed by the Spanish architect Don Arturo Soria y Mata (1844 1920) at the end of the 19th century (1882) was a great inspiration, with detached dwellings along a modern transportation corridor (COLLINS, 1959).

Stalingrad was a planned linear city. (now Volgograd)

Stalingrad was a planned linear city. (now Volgograd)

Jersey Corridor Project 1965 by Peter Eisenman and Michael Graves

MODERN CONCEPTS URBAN DESIGN AND MACHINES


INVENTIONS INFLUENCING URBAN FORM
Electricity Railroad

OTHER VISIONARIES
EDGAR CHAMBLESS
o Roadtown (1910) : a linear city built on top of a railway line

MOTOPIA
o proposed in England

Eugene Henard, French


o published Les Villes de lAvenir (1910) o may have influenced Le Corbusier

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"The idea occurred to me to lay the modern skyscraper on its side and run the elevators and the pipes and wires horizontally instead of vertically. Such a house would not be limited by the stresses and strains of steel; it could be built not only a hundred stories, but a thousand stories or a thousand miles....I would take the apartment house and all its conveniences and comforts out among the farms by the aid of wires, pipes and of rapid and noiseless transportation. - Edgar Chambless

Roadtown is an early "linear city" proposal that mixes all the fascinating imagination and obsession that one could want from any political "utopia" with the sort of clear thinking and basic doing-ofthe-homework that sometimes lifts these things into the realm of the possible. - Shawn P. Wilbur

"The Roadtown is a scheme to organize production, transportation and consumption into one systematic plan.

MODERN CONCEPTS URBAN DESIGN AND MACHINES


ANTONIO SANTELIA
Italian futurist LA CITTA NUOVA (NEW CITY) enormous metropolis inspired by the complex plans for the New York Grand Central area

METABOLISM GROUP
Japanese architects underwater cities, biological cities, cities changing their own forms, cities built as pyramids

OTHER VISIONARIES
EDWARD BELLAMY published in 1887 Looking Backward, 2000-1887 H.G. Wells (1902-1911)

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Central Railway Station and Airport. La Citt Nuova (1914) by Antonio Sant'Elia.

La Citt Nuova (1914) by Antonio Sant'Elia.

La Citt Nuova (1914) by Antonio Sant'Elia.

THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


GEORGE PERKINS MARSH
American conservationist the FOUNDER OF MODERN CONSERVATION Man and Nature published in 1862, an introduction to ecology
o argued that deforestation could lead to desertification o Referring to the clearing of once-lush lands surrounding the Mediterranean, he asserted "the operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the moon."

The Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park in Vermont takes its name, in part, from Marsh.
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THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


PARKS MOVEMENT
grew out of landscape architecture & garden design shifted from private to public settings naturalistic parks were created in the U.S. by Frederick Law Olmstead, whose career started with Central Park, New York, 1857 goals:
o o o o separate transportation modes support active and passive uses collect water promote moral pass-times

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THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED (1822-1903)
pioneer of the American park system father of American landscape architecture (shared with Andrew Jackson Downing) a social reformer, concerned w/ moral disintegration in large formless cities CENTRAL PARK of New York City
o 1857, his design with Calvert Vaux entitled Greensward Plan won in a design competition to improve and expand the park

with Calvert Vaux won the competition & went on to design:


o Prospect Park (1865-1873), Chicago's Riverside subdivision (1869), Buffalo's park system (1868-1876), the park at Niagara Falls (1887)

In later years worked on Bostons park system, the Emerald Necklace and the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago PUBLIC PARKS AND THE ENLARGEMENT OF TOWNS published in 1870 CITIES plan for two generations ahead
maintain sufficient breathing space design embraces the whole city

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If we analyze the operations of scenes of beauty upon the mind, and consider the intimate relation of the mind upon the nervous system and the whole physical economy, the action and reaction which constantly occur between bodily and mental conditions, the reinvigoration which results from such scenes is readily comprehended The enjoyment of scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it; and thus, through the influence of the mind over the body gives the effect of refreshing rest and reinvigoration to the whole system.
- Frederick Law Olmsted

THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


OLMSTEDs PARK DESIGN PRINCIPLES
1. SCENERY
design spaces in which movement creates constant opening up of new views and obscurity of detail further away respect the natural scenery and topography of the site Pastoral = open greensward with small bodies of water and scattered trees and groves create a soothing, restorative atmosphere Picturesque = profuse planting, especially with shrubs, creepers and ground cover, on steep and broken terrain create a sense of the richness and bounteousness of nature, produce a sense of mystery with light and shade

2. SUITABILITY

3. STYLE

**National Association of Olmsted Parks: http://www.olmsted.org/pages/philosophy.htm

THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


OLMSTEDs PARK DESIGN PRINCIPLES
4. SUBORDINATION
subordinate all elements to the overall design and the effect it is intended to achieve: Art to conceal Art of areas designed in different styles of ways, in order to insure safety of use and reduce distractions of conflicting or incompatible uses promote both the physical and mental health of users meet fundamental social and psychological needs

5. SEPARATION

6. SANITATION
7. SERVICE
**National Association of Olmsted Parks: http://www.olmsted.org/pages/philosophy.htm

Central Park, New York City

Olmsteds parks were not natural but they were naturalistic or organic in form.

Central Park, New York City. The park initially opened in 1857, on 843 acres (3.41 km2) of city-owned land.

This form was seen as uplifting urban dwellers and addressing the social and psychological impacts of crowding.

Today, Central Park is a symbol of New Yorks cultural, economic, and social diversity, hosting events ranging from scientific exhibits to cultural celebrations.

Today, Central Park is a symbol of New Yorks cultural, economic, and social diversity, hosting events ranging from scientific exhibits to cultural celebrations.

Today, Central Park is a symbol of New Yorks cultural, economic, and social diversity, hosting events ranging from scientific exhibits to cultural celebrations.

Today, Central Park is a symbol of New Yorks cultural, economic, and social diversity, hosting events ranging from scientific exhibits to cultural celebrations.

Today, Central Park is a symbol of New Yorks cultural, economic, and social diversity, hosting events ranging from scientific exhibits to cultural celebrations.

designed by Olmsted with Calvert Vaux, 1869 key concept: system of curvilinear streets that followed the contours of the land, which reduced grades and saved money on "cut and fill" for road construction a prototype suburb 9 mi. from Chicago fashionable location for the wealthy to live often copied

Riverside, Chicago, Illinois by Olmsted and Vaux.

THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARKS MOVEMENT


CHARLES ELIOT - completed Olmsteds Boston park system GEORGE KESSLER - layout of Kansas City park system JENS JENSEN - designed Chicagos original park system ALPHAND - Haussmanns landscape architect; the French Olmsted DANIEL SCHREBER
a physician and educator Schrebergarten small gardens for children; later, used by elderly popularized the idea of the urban playground in Europe

EXPLORATIONS INTO THE PAST


ARCHAEOLOGY became a science in 19th century CAMILLO SITTE, Viennese architect
An Architects Notes and Reflections upon Artistic City Planning published in 1889
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SETTLEMENT HOUSE MOVEMENT


SETTLEMENT MOVEMENT
a reformist social movement, beginning in the 1880s (in London) and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US TOYNBEE HALL in London: first settlement house, founded in 1883; THE NEIGHBORHOOD GUILD (later the University Settlement): first American settlement house, founded by Stanton Coit, begun in 1886 GOAL: getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community MAIN OBJECT: establishment of "SETTLEMENT HOUSES" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class "SETTLEMENT WORKERS" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of their low-income neighbors Examples of the earliest settlements dating back to 1884 are Aston-Mansfield, Toynbee Hall, and Oxford House in Bethnal Green "foundation for SOCIAL WORK practice"
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SETTLEMENT HOUSE MOVEMENT


JANE ADDAMS (1860-1935)
founded HULL HOUSE (Chicago) 1889 in the U.S., the major purpose of settlement houses was to help to ASSIMILATE AND EASE THE TRANSITION OF IMMIGRANTS into the labor force by teaching them middle-class American values. GOALS: educating, elevating and saving the poor (condescending attitude) gradually evolved into something more responsive and scientific residents surveyed slum populations, organized housing studies the gathering of information from such surveys and studies became central to urban planning 1931, became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize famous tenement studies around 1901: Lawrence Veiller (NY) and Robert Hunter (Chicago)
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A Settlement is above all a place for enthusiasms, a spot to which those who have a passion for the equalization of human joys and opportunities are early attracted.
Jane Addams

Children in line on a retaining wall at Hull House, 1908

Hull House, Chicago

THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT


EBENEZER HOWARD (1850-1928)
an English stenographer, no training in urban planning or design opposed urban crowding/density TO-MORROW: A PEACEFUL PATH TO SOCIAL REFORM published in 1898, revised as GARDEN CITIES OF TO-MORROW in 1902
o the description of a utopian city in which people live harmoniously together with nature o offered a vision of towns free of slums and enjoying the benefits of both town (such as opportunity, amusement and good wages) and country (such as beauty, fresh air and low rents) o THREE MAGNETS
town (high wages, opportunity, and amusement) country (natural beauty, low rents, fresh air) town-country (combination of both)

Proponent of the Garden City concept


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THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT


GARDEN CITIES
intended to be:
planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" (parks), containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture

would combine the best elements of city and country would avoid the worst elements of city and country

formed the basis of the earliest suburbs,


separation from the city has been lost virtually every time due to infill

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THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT


GARDEN CITIES
A UTOPIAN MODEL
o an ideal, self-contained community of predetermined area and population surrounded by a greenbelt o was intended to bring together the economic and cultural advantages of both city and country life while at the same time discouraging metropolitan sprawl and industrial centralization o land ownership would be vested in the community (socialist element) o the garden city was foreshadowed in the writings of Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, and James Silk Buckingham, and in the planned industrial communities of Saltaire (1851), Bournville (1879), and Port Sunlight (1887) in England o Howard organized the Garden-City Association (1899) in England and secured backing for the establishment of Letchworth and Welwyn o Neither community was an entirely self-contained garden city
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Town and country must be married, and out of this joyous union will spring a new hope, a new life, a new civilization.
Ebenezer Howard

THREE MAGNETS diagram addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', the choices being 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country'.

Howard proposed the creation of new SUBURBAN TOWNS of LIMITED SIZE, planned in advance, and surrounded by a permanent BELT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND. Howard believed that such GARDEN CITIES were the PERFECT BLEND OF CITY AND NATURE. The towns would be largely independent, managed by the citizens who had an economic interest in them, and financed by ground rents on the GEORGIST model (people own what they create). The land on which they were to be built was to be owned by a group of trustees and leased to the citizens.
The original Garden City concept by Ebenezer Howard, 1902

GARDEN CITY CHARACTERISTICS: Roughly 5-8 units/acre (often a limit of 10) "Inward looking" cul-de-sacs and cottages shared and public garden/ park space Organization by building use: agriculture, residential, commercial, etc. Super-blocks, grand avenues and boulevards Peripheral ring of "country"

THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT


LETCHWORTH
the first garden city (1902), located 35 miles from London planners were architects BARRY PARKER and RAYMUND UNWIN became a satellite of London because factories did not materialize

WELWYN
the second garden city (1920), more successful than Letchworth by architect Louis de Soissons
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Letchworth Garden City *the first "Garden City, planned by *Sir+ Raymond Unwin and Richard Barry Parker (1904).

Letchworth Garden City *the first "Garden City, planned by *Sir+ Raymond Unwin and Richard Barry Parker (1904).

THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT


GARDEN CITY LEGACY IN THE U.S.
Garden City idea spread rapidly to Europe and the United States Under the auspices of the Regional Planning Association of America, the garden-city idea inspired a New Town, Radburn, N.J. (192832) outside New York City The congestion and destruction accompanying World War II greatly stimulated the garden-city movement, especially in Great Britain
Britains New Towns Act (1946) led to the development of over a dozen new communities based on Howard's idea

The open layout of garden cities also had a great influence on the development of modern city planning Most satellite towns fail to attain Howard's ideal
residential suburbs of individually owned homes local industries are unable to provide enough employment for the inhabitants, many of whom commute to work in larger centers

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Radburn, Virginia

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH


HOWARDS ANALYTICAL APPROACH PATRICK GEDDES (1854-1932)
Scottish city planner; established tool for analytical approach OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUE Cities in Evolution published in 1915 coined the term CONURBATION laid out some 50 cities in India and Palestine, including Tel Aviv advocated the CIVIC SURVEY as indispensable to urban planning: his motto was DIAGNOSIS BEFORE TREATMENT GEDDES - interrelationship between PEOPLE and CITIES MARSH - interrelationship between MAN and NATURE
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City so large & operations so complex Proper understanding can only be gained by full application of precise analysis

Geddes-designed Masterplan for Tel Aviv, 1925

References
LeGates, Richard and Stout, Frederic. Modernism and Early Urban Planning, 1870-1940. Knox, Paul. Urbanization. Cullingworth, Barry. Planning in the USA . Various online sources.

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