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Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology Nursing Assessment

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Key Terms

Action Potential Cardiac Output

Preload/ Afterload Systole/ Diastole

Stroke Volume
Cardiac Index Murmurs PMI

Mean Arterial Pressure


Murmur Stenosis Regurgitation

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Cardiac Structures
MSL MCL AAL 3 layers

Endocardium Myocardium Epicardium

Atrium Ventricles

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Blood Flow

Veins

Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava

Atrial contraction
Ventricular contraction

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Cardiac Valves

Cardiac valves

Atrioventricular

Tricuspid Mitral

Semilunar

Pulomonic Aortic

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Cardiac Circulation

Coronary circulation

2 coronary arteries
Left coronary artery
2 major branches

Right coronary artery


2 major branches

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Cardiac Conduction System

SA node

Rate, rhythm

AV node

Acts as a gate

Bundle of His Purkinje fibers


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Cardiac Regions

Heart sounds

Aortic
Pulmonic Erbs point Tricuspid Mitral (apical)
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Cardio-Electrophysiologic Properties

Conduction System

Mechanical

Electrical impulses
Controls heart rate Action Potential Depolarization

Systole
Diastole Cardiac output

CO = SV x HR

Cardiovascular System A&P / Nursing Assessment

Vascular System

Blood vessels

Arteries

Arterioles

Capillaries Veins

Venules
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Regulation of Cardiac Function

Autonomic Nervous System:

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

Baroreceptors

Chemoreceptors
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Effects on the Aging

Cardiovascular disease

Leading cause of death in those > 85 years Second in those < 85 years

Most common is CAD

Changes Include

Chest wall changes Decrease collagen and elastin in the heart Response to stress HR unaffected at rest
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Nursing Assessment

Subjective Data Collection

Health History
Medication History Surgical History Lifestyle, Health patterns

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Nursing Assessment

Cardiac Disease ask about:

Edema Palpitations

Chest pain

Dyspnea
Syncope

Fatigue
Cyanosis

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Cardiac Assessment

Inspection Palpation

Auscultation
Percussion

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Nursing Assessment

Objective Data Collection

Physical Assessment Vital Signs


Inspect

Thorax
Peripheral Vascular System

Assess

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Nursing Assessment

Palpation Chest Auscultation Chest

Rhythm Rate

Heart Sounds

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Heart Sounds

Heart Sounds

S1
S2 S3 S4

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Heart Sounds

Heart Sounds

S1

S3

S2

S4

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Abnormal Heart Sounds

Clicks

Murmurs

Pericardial Friction Rub

Grading Murmurs

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Data: Diagnostic Tests


Non

Invasive

CXR ECG Ambulatory ECG monitoring (Holter) Stress Test Echocardiogram

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Data: Diagnostic Tests


Nuclear

Tests

SPECT Scan
MRI CT scan

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Data: Diagnostic Tests


Lab

Tests

Serum Lipids
Triglycerides

Cardiac Markers
CK-MB Myoglobin Troponin

Cholesterol

Troponin 1 Troponin T
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Data: Diagnostic Tests

Invasive Studies

Cardiac Catheterization
Electrophysiology Studies (EPS) Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) Blood Flow and Pressure Measurements Hemodynamic Monitoring
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