Anda di halaman 1dari 30

DISTILLATION

By group 2 : Dede Muhamad Ridwan Dwi Chandra Januari Pangihutan Sitanggang Nana Rusdiana Nendry Nurramdani Solihah Sifa Nurul Husna 101411069 101411071 101411079 101411082 101411083 101411091

DISTILLATION
Definition
Types Equipment Principles Applications Adventages

and models

and Disadventages

Definition of Distillation
Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction

- Batch Distillation

-Continuous Distillation

Single Stage Distillation


Multi Stage Distillation

Types of Distillation

Simple Distillation
Fractional Distillation Steam Distillation Vacuum Distillation

Single Stage Distillation


Single-stage Distillation, sometimes called flash vaporization or equilibrium distillation is a single stage separation technique where a liquid mixture is partially vaporized. The vapour produced and the residual liquid are in equilibrium, which are then separated and removed.

Multi-Stage Distillation
Multi-stage Distillation is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers

Simple Distillation
Simple distillation is practiced for a mixture in which the boiling point of the components differ by at least 70C. It is also followed for the mixtures contaminated with nonvolatile particles (solid or oil) and those that are nearly pure with less than 10 percent contamination.

Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation is a repeated distillation process to separate the two types of liquids which are equally volatile and capable of separating the two components that have boiling points close together

Steam Distillation
Steam distillation is a method for distilling compounds which are heat-sensitive. His process involves bubbling steam through a heated mixture of the raw material. Example of steam distillation is product of various aromatic. Eucalyptus oil from eucalyptus and oil sytrus from lemon.

Vacuum Distillation
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its vapor distillatiom (usually less than atmospheric pressure) causing evaporation of the most volatile liquid.

Batch Distillation

Multi Stage Distillation

Simple Distillation

Fractional Distillation

Steam Distillation

Vacuum Distillation

DISTILLATION PRINCIPLES

Separation of components from a liquid mixture via distillation depends on the differences in boiling points of the individual components. Also, depending on the concentrations of the components present, the liquid mixture will have different boiling point characteristics. Therefore, distillation processes depends on the vapour pressure characteristics of liquid mixtures.

Vapour Pressure and Boiling The vapour pressure of a liquid


At a particular temperature is the equilibrium pressure exerted by molecules leaving and entering the liquid surface. Here are some important points regarding vapour pressure: energy input raises vapour pressure vapour pressure is related to boiling a liquid is said to boil when its vapour pressure equals the surrounding pressure the ease with which a liquid boils depends on its volatility liquids with high vapour pressures (volatile liquids) will boil at lower temperatures the vapour pressure and hence the boiling point of a liquid mixture depends on the relative amounts of the components in the mixture distillation occurs because of the differences in the volatility of the components in the liquid mixture

The Boiling Point Diagram

For example, when a subcooled liquid with mole fraction of A=0.4 (point A) is heated, its concentration remains constant until it reaches the bubble-point (point B), when it starts to boil. The vapours evolved during the boiling has the equilibrium composition given by point C, approximately 0.8 mole fraction A. This is approximately 50% richer in A than the original liquid.

This difference between liquid and vapour compositions is the basis for distillation operations. Relative Volatility Relative volatility is a measure of the differences in volatility between 2 components, and hence their boiling points. It indicates how easy or difficult a particular separation will be. The relative volatility of component i with respect to component j is defined as yi = mole fraction of component i in the vapour xi = mole fraction of component i in the liquid Thus if the relative volatility between 2 components is very close to one, it is an indication that they have very similar vapour pressure characteristics. This means that they have very similar boiling points and the refore, it will be difficult to separate the two components via distillation.

In Industrial Scale

Simple distillation Simple distillation is usually used only to separate liquids whose boiling points differ greatly or separate liquids from involatile solids or oils. Fractional distillation Fractional distillation used in order to separate the components well by separated vaporizationcondensation cycles within a packed fractionating column. Each vaporization-condesation cycle (called a theoritical plate) will yield a pure solution of the more volatile component. More theoritical plates lead to better separations.

Steam Distillation
steam distillation is employed in the manufacture of essential oils, for intance, perfumes. Steam distillation is also sometimes used to separate intermadiate of final product during the synthesis of complex organic compounds. Steam distillation is also widely used in petroleum refineries and petrochemical. Vacuum Distillation Application of vacuum distillation in laboratoty is beta caroten. It is require vacuum distillation to remove solvents from the mixture without damging the product

Separation technology used in petroleum refineries, pertochemical, chemical plants, narutal gas processing and cryogenic air separator plants. fractional distillation is also used in air separation, producing oxygen, and liquid nitrogen.

Advantages of Distillation
Separating substances based on differences in the high boiling point The temperature is constant Requires short time The apparatus is simple The resulting product is really pure

Disadvantages of Distillation
The solvent is flammable Applies only to substances with liquid and gas phases. Just separate the substances that have a large difference in boiling point. The costs of this method is relatively expensive The solvent may be toxic If there is a leak in distillation apparatus, distillate which is formed will produce slightly of distillate because there is some steam coming out of the circuit of distillation.

THANK YOU
ANY QUESTIONS????