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Also called Lutropin or Lutrophin A Gonadotropin Produced by the Gonadotroph Cells in the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Physiologic effects of the gonadotrophins are known only in the ovaries and testes. Females= rise of LH triggers ovulation called Preovulatory LH Surge Males= called Interstitial CellStimulating Hormone (ICSH); stimulates Leydig Cell production of testosterone

Low during childhood and, in women, high during menopause 1-20 IU/L during reproductive years Physiologic high LH levels are seen during the LH surge which typically lasts for 48 hours

High LH levels are indicative of situations where the normal restricting feedback from the gonad is absent, leading to a pituitary production of both LH and FSH. While this is typical in the menopause, it is abnormal in the reproductive years. There it may be a sign of: Premature menopause Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome Castration Swyer syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome Certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia Testicular failure

Diminished secretion of LH can result in failure of gonadal function. This condition typically manifests in males as failure in production of normal numbers of sperm. In females, amenorrhea is commonly observed. Conditions with very low LH secretions are: Kallmann syndrome Hypothalamic suppression Hypopituitarism Eating disorder Female athlete triad Hyperprolactinemia Hypogonadism Gonadal suppression therapy
GnRH antagonist GnRH agonist (downregulation)

During the reproductive years, relatively elevated LH is frequently seen in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome; however, it would be unusual for them to have LH levels outside of the normal reproductive range.

During the reproductive years, relatively elevated LH is frequently seen in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome; however, it would be unusual for them to have LH levels outside of the normal reproductive range.

Also known as Follicle Stimulating Hormone One of the hormones essential to pubertal development and function of the gonads (ovaries and testes) both in women and men. Secreted from the anterior pituitary gland into the bloodstream.

In women, FSH stimulates production of eggs and a hormone called estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle. Also essential for fertility and ability to get pregnant In men, stimulates the production of sperm

Women:
Peak level of FSH is when ovulation is about to take place Best measured on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle

Women:
Follicular phase: 2.5-10.2 IU/L Midcycle peak: 3.4-33.4 IU/L Luteal phase: 1.5-9.1 IU/L Before puberty: 0-5.0 IU/L During puberty: 0.3-10.0 IU/L Postmenopausal: 40-250 IU/L Pregnant women: too low to measure

Men:
Before puberty: 0-5.0 IU/L* During puberty: 0.3-10.0 IU/L Adult: 1.5-12.4 IU/L or 5 to 20 mIU/mL

Estradiol is an estrogen produced by the ovary If produced at a level more than 75 pg/ml (Day 3 of cycle) suggests low ovarian reserve If the estradiol level is high and FSH is normal ovarian reserve may still be affected.

FSH more than 12 mIU/ml suggests that the ovarian reserve is weakened. More than 25 mIU/ml is a confirmation of ovarian failure and most commonly found in menopausal women.

High levels of FSH in a male could indicate that the testicles are not functioning properly, or may have been damaged by some condition. Also indicate the presence of Klinefelter syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes the presence of too many X chromosomes in the male.

Less than 2 mIU/ml is found in women who are pregnant, taking the pill or who have the condition hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Low levels of FSH in men usually indicate that sperm is not being produced.