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Overview of radiation practices

TRAINING FOR RADIATION SAFETY OFFICERS

Overview of Radiation Practices


Industrial Nuclear Power Medical

Overview of radiation practices: Industrial and Nuclear Power

Class of Practice

GENERAL INDUSTRIAL - Laboratory analytical - Gauging systems - Radiography - Static elimination - Irradiation NORM Unsealed uses Nuclear Medical

Laboratory Analytical Equipment

X-ray Fluorescence
Source in shielded container Si(Li) detector

Electronics

Zn

Shutter

Sample

Sr

Mn

Sources: 40-60 kVp, 20-60 mA; MBq-GBq Fe-55, Am-241

Philips PW4025 X-ray Fluorescence Analyser

X-ray diffraction
X-rays

Developed film

Siemens D500 X-ray diffraction

Siemens D500 X-ray diffraction

Electron capture (Gas chromatography)


Source
Ion chamber Chromatography column Gas

Electron capture detector

e.g 0.4 GBq Ni-63

Electron microscopes
An electron beam strikes a target and X-rays are produced

Gauging Systems

Beta Backscatter Gauge


Typical sources: 200 MBq Pm-147, Tl-204 GM counter

Source Metal coating

Substrate

Transmission Gauging
source

web
Typical sources: 3.7 GBq Pm-147 11.1 GBq Kr-85

detector

Level Gauging
High level alarm

Low level alarm

Typical sources: 10 GBq Cs-137

Moisture / Density Gauge


Detector
Scattered radiation Shield source

e.g.

20 GBq Cs-137, Co-60 1-800 GBq Am/Be

Moisture/Density Gauge
Detectors
Gamma source Neutron source

Radiography

Radiography
e.g. 400 GBq Ir-192 100 GBq Co-60 50 - 1000 kV x-rays

Film records an image of the density profile of the object.

Gamma or x-ray source

Industrial Radiography Exposure Container

Site radiography:
The setting up of a shot

Compound Radiography

Baggage Inspection
X-ray tube

Lead curtains

Veterinary Radiography

Static Elimination

Static Eliminator Bar


Alpha particles

Roller Plastic sheet

Irradiation

Gamma Irradiation Facilities

Gamma radiation sources - Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 Very high activity - up to 100 pBq Very high dose rates - Cobalt-60 source @ 100 pBq, dose rate at 1 m = 10 Sv/s

Types of Gamma Irradiators

Category I
- self contained, dry storage irradiator

Category II
- panoramic, dry storage irradiator

Category III
- self contained, wet storage irradiator

Category IV
- panoramic, wet storage irradiator

Category I Irradiator

Category II Irradiator

Category III Irradiator

Category IV Irradiator

Electron Beam Irradiators

Beam energy up to 10 MeV - no induced radioactivity Category I - integrally shielded unit with interlocks Category II - unit housed in shielded room maintained inaccessible during irradiation

Category I Irradiators

Category II Irradiators

Product access
Access restrictions Product conveyor

Source rack

Product Conveyor System

Unsealed Radioactive Material, including NORM and Radon

Fume cupboard Operations

Laboratory Tracers
e.g P-32, S-35
H-3, C-14, I-131, I125

Radioactive material (tracer)

Formation of LSA scale

Hot salt water


and oil under pressure

Pressure and temperature drop

SO42-

Ba2+

Ra2+

SO42-

35568

Monitoring for NORM

Zircon sand

Radon

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Fuel cycle

Thank You for your attention