Anda di halaman 1dari 237

United States Sports Academy

Americas Sports University


9/21/2012 1

Introductions
Introduction Sheet Example

Name: Timothy Dornemann Nickname - Tim Sport Experience / Favorite Sport: Baseball, American Football (Green Bay Packers)

9/21/2012

Introductions
Introduction Sheet Example

Where are you from? Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1 -1.5 hours north of Chicago)

Home of Harley Davidson Motor Cycles and Miller Brewery

9/21/2012

Introductions
Introduction Sheet Example
Where do you teach? Ive taught at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina Central University, & Carroll University What grades do you teach? University / Professional Continuing Education Do you coach, if so what sport? Baseball, strength and conditioning An interesting fact about yourself (optional) Where I live the temperature ranges from less than 0 degrees C to 27-30 degrees C 9/21/2012

Introductions
Introduction Sheet

Name Nickname (Name that you prefer to go by) Sport Experience / Favorite Sport Where are you from? Where do you teach? What grades do you teach?

9/21/2012

Schedule (Day 1)
2:30 4:30 PM: Session 1 4:30 5:00 PM: Break 5:00 6:30 PM: Session 2 6:30 8:00 PM : Dinner 8:00 10:00 PM: Session 3

9/21/2012

Schedule (Day 2 - 4)
8:00 10:00 AM: Session 1 10:00 10:30 AM: Break 10:30 AM 1:00 PM: Session 2 1:00 2:30 PM: Lunch 2:30 4:30 PM: Session 3 4:30 5:00 PM: Break 5:00 6:30 PM: Session 4 6:30 8:00 PM : Dinner 8:00 10:00 PM: Session 5
9/21/2012 7

Schedule (Day 5)
8:00 10:00 AM: Session 1 (final review) 10:00 10:30 AM: Break 10:30 AM 1:00 PM: Session 2 (exam)

9/21/2012

Expectations
Schedule Know scheduled start times Start on time, end on time Respect
Your

instructor Your classmates

Be On Time

9/21/2012late /

Expectations
Group Presentations Give the presenters the same respect you would like when you are presenting
Group

work ceases Attention is focused on presenter

Daily presentations are used as class guided review of the previous days material Large groups will divide into 2 subgroups

9/21/2012 10

Format
BPG has requested that 30% of time be spent on practical application This classes general practical sessions will be the first session in the morning and the session before dinner The changes in practical time do not change the amount of material needed to be covered, this means we have to make the most of our time

9/21/2012 11

Class Size

This program was scheduled to originally start in March The Program started in mid June, but the end date is still set for the end of December As a result the schedule is condensed requiring each group to have 2 combined section classes While this may not be ideal, this requires that we make the best of the situation
12

9/21/2012

Overview

Course Description This is a course designed to study the fundamental principles of training and nutrition associated with the disciplines of physical education, sport, and exercise. Physical educators can use sport conditioning, strength training, and an awareness of fitness and nutrition programs in order to enhance individual and team performance in physical activities, such as sports.
13

9/21/2012

Overview
Textbook
Bachle, T. & Earle, R.W. (Ed.) (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Course Goals Introduce anatomical and physiological principles Introduce biomechanical principles Processes of bioenergetics responsible for producing the energy
9/21/2012 14

Overview
Course Goals Nutritional principles that are important in physical training and sport conditioning Principles and techniques used in weight loss and weight gain programs The role of strength, endurance, balance, agility, speed, power and flexibility in physical training, sport conditioning, and athletic performance Principles of designing sport conditioning programs
9/21/2012 15

Overview
Attendance Sign-in on attendance sheet when you arrive for class Coordinators will be marking down time of those arriving late Students must attend 90% of class time to be able to sit for exam

9/21/2012

16

Overview
Exam 70% is the passing score Students not passing will be allowed to retake the exam prior to the start of the next course Desks must be cleared Students must be cleared of everything but exam papers Cell Phones included, cell phones will no longer be allowed on desks during exams https://www.dropbox.com/login?cont=https%3A %2F%2Fwww.dropbox.com%2Fhome
9/21/2012 17

United States Sports Academy

CEE 525 Physical Fitness and Conditioning

9/21/2012

18

Section 1
Structure and Function of the Muscular, Neuromuscular, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Systems

9/21/2012

19

Health and Fitness Parameters


Stamina / Metabolic Fitness Bioenergetics (Aerobic/Anaerobic Capacity) Strength Suppleness Flexibility & Agility Speed Skills
20

9/21/2012

Connective Tissue

Three Types of Connective Tissue: Epimysium, Perimysium, and Endomysium


The body has 430 muscles

http://www.nomeatathlete.com/foamrolling/ http://spartascience.blogspot.com/2011/07/d o-you-train-your-fascia.html#.T9/21/2012 pkMYbtiuA.facebook

21

Drawing of a Muscle

9/21/2012

22

Calcium and ATP

Calcium and ATP are necessary for


myosin cross-bridge cycling with actin filaments. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matt hews/myosin.html
9/21/2012 23

A Motor Unit

9/21/2012

Motor Unit motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it innervates

24

Muscle Fibers

Type II, or fast-twitch, muscle fibers are capable of developing higher forces than Type I, or slow-twitch, muscle fibers especially at higher velocities of muscle action. There are two types of fast twitch fibers, Type IIa which is a combination of fast and slow and type IIb which is fast twitch.

9/21/2012

25

Three Arrangements of Muscle Fibers

9/21/2012

Fusiform

Unipennate

Bipennate

26

Section 2

Neuromuscular

Anatomy and Adaptations to Conditioning

9/21/2012

27

Motor Units

Motor units are composed of muscle


fibers with morphological and physiological characteristics that determine their functional capacity.

9/21/2012

28

Table 2.2 Relative Involvement of Muscle Fiber Types in Sport Events


Event 100-m sprint 800-m run Marathon Olympic weightlifting Barbell squat Soccer Field hockey Football wide receiver Football lineman Basketball Distance cycling

Type I Low High High Low High High High Low High Low High

Type II High High Low High High High High High High High Low
29

9/21/2012

Table 2.2 Relative Involvement of Muscle Fiber Type Characteristics

9/21/2012

Similar to Table 1.1 on p. 10

30

Force Output

The force output of a muscle can be


varied by changing the number of activated motor units or by changing the frequency of activation of individual motor units.
Similar to figure 1.6 on p. 9
9/21/2012

Training

Although aerobic endurance training


increases aerobic power, Type I fibers, it does not enhance muscle strength or size. In fact, intense aerobic endurance training can actually compromise the benefits of resistance training.

9/21/2012

32

Review Points
High power output is a characteristic of fasttwitch muscle fibers.
Low contraction speed, high resistance to fatigue, and low anaerobic enzyme content are characteristics of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

9/21/2012

33

Section 3

Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise

The

9/21/2012

34

Muscle
Muscle

Pulling Force Manifested As a Pushing Force (muscles


can only pull, here triceps is pulling and biceps is relaxed)

9/21/2012

35

9/21/2012

36

Muscle

Pulling Force Manifested As a Pulling Force (muscles can


only pull, here biceps is pulling and triceps is relaxed)

9/21/2012

37

9/21/2012

38

The body has approximately 206 bones.


Axial skeleton is the skull, cranium, ribs and sternum.

Appendicular skeleton includes shoulder girdle and everything out from that point

9/21/2012

39

Front View of Adult Male Skeleton


The body has approximately 206 bones.

Axial skeleton is the skull,

cranium, ribs and sternum.

Appendicular skeleton includes

shoulder girdle and everything


out from that point

9/21/2012

40

Rear View of Adult Male Skeleton


Bone are attached together by joints:

Fibrous joints-no movement

Cartilaginous jointslimited movement

Synovial jointsconsiderable movement


9/21/2012 41

Front View of Adult Male Musculature

About 430 muscles in the body

Muscles work in pairs called agonist and antagonist

9/21/2012

42

Front View of Adult Male Musculature

A muscle is called a synergist when it assists indirectly in a movement (ex: gluteus maximus works synergistally to rectus femoris during a squat)

9/21/2012

43

Bones

Lever: all bones and joints act as levers and fulcrums http://www.enchantedlearning.co m/physics/machines/Levers.shtml

9/21/2012

44

Bones

Lever: all bones and joints act as levers and fulcrums

9/21/2012

45

Bones
Changes

in lever length and the force needed to move the lever

9/21/2012

46

First-Class Lever (The Forearm): muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum

9/21/2012

47

Muscle Force
A Second-Class Lever (The Foot): The muscle force and the resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum with the moment arm long greater than the resistive force arm.

9/21/2012

48

Muscle Force

A Third-Class Lever (The Forearm): The muscle force


and the resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum with the resistive force arm long greater than the moment arm.

9/21/2012

49

Muscular Actions

Most of the skeletal muscles operate at a


considerable mechanical disadvantage. Thus, during sports and other physical activities, forces in the

muscles and tendons are much higher than those


exerted by the hands or feet on external objects or the ground.

Three types of muscular actions: concentric, eccentric,


and isometric.
9/21/2012 50

Anatomical Planes of the Human Body


Sagittal plane divides the body into right/left Frontal plane divides the body in front/back Transverse plane divides the body into upper/lower

9/21/2012

51

Resistance Training

Resistance training is quite safe compared with


other sports and fitness activities. Prudence can keep injuries to a minimum. Basic safety principles include

good lifting form, appropriate resistance,


accommodation to injuries, balance, and variety. Acceleration, strength and power are three common terms used in strength measures.

9/21/2012

52

Definitions
Strength: the maximal amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate (produce) at a specific velocity Power: is defined as the time rate of doing work

Work

is force x distance Power = work / time

Acceleration: change in velocity per unit time


53

9/21/2012

Resistance Training Basics


Length tension relationship: a muscle can generate its greatest force from the resting length Most of the initial gains in strength training are due to neural adaptations

9/21/2012

54

Definitions
Supporting the Vertebral Column During Lifting: The Fluid Ball Lordotic- normal slightly arched Kyphotic- naturally S-shaped Valsalva maneuver- keeping air in the rib cage and allowing the torso to remain more rigid.
9/21/2012 55

Review Points
When using maximal loads, the use of a weight belt may provide the greatest benefits while performing the front squat.
A weight belt can contribute to injury free training. It is typically worn when performing exercises that stress the lower back muscles.
9/21/2012 56

Review Points
In a second and third class lever the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum. In a first class lever the muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum.

9/21/2012

57

Review Points
The definition of strength is the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specified velocity. Most of the increase in strength seen during the first few weeks of weight training is attributable to neural adaptations. When the muscle is at its resting length it can generate the greatest force.
9/21/2012 58

Section 4

Bone, Muscle, and Connective Tissue Adaptation to Physical Activity

9/21/2012

59

Principles of Training
Overload: In order for a muscle to become stronger it must be worked beyond its normal limits. Progressive Resistance: Once a muscle adapts to an exercise stimulus, a progressively harder stimulus needs to be used in order for improvements to be made.

Forces
Forces that reach or exceed a threshold stimulus
initiate new bone formation in the area experiencing the mechanical strain (i.e., resistance training). On the other hand reduction of bone formation, osteoporosis, happens in many people due to aging and diets.
9/21/2012 61

Mechanical Load
The components of mechanical load that stimulate bone growth are the magnitude of the load (intensity), rate (speed) of loading, direction of the forces, and volume of loading (number of repetitions).

9/21/2012

62

Stimulating Muscular Adaptations


For strength: high loads, few repetitions, full recovery periods
For muscle size: moderate loads, high volume, short to moderate rest periods For muscular endurance: low intensity, high volume, little recovery allowed

9/21/2012

63

Section 5

Bioenergetics of Exercise and Training

9/21/2012

64

Energy

Energy stored in the chemical bonds


of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used to power muscular activity. The replenishment of ATP in human skeletal muscle is accomplished by three basic energy systems: phosphagen, glycolytic, and oxidative.
9/21/2012 65

Energy

9/21/2012

66

Energy

9/21/2012

67

Glycolysis

Fast glycolysis has commonly been


called anaerobic glycolysis, and slow glycolysis, aerobic glycolysis, as a result of the ultimate fate of the pyruvate. However, because glycolysis itself does not depend on oxygen, these terms are not practical for describing the process.
9/21/2012 68

Glycolysis

9/21/2012

69

Table

Lactate Threshold (LT) and Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (OBLA)

9/21/2012

Steady State - A stable condition that does not change over time or in which change in one direction is continually balanced by change in another.

70

Review Points
Maximal lactate steady state is defined as the exercise intensity where maximal lactate production is equal to maximal lactate clearance within the body. The depletion glycogen may contribute to fatigue in prolonged endurance events and repeated anaerobic exercise bouts.

9/21/2012

71

Section 6

Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise

9/21/2012

72

Endocrine Glands of the Body


Primary Anabolic Hormones:
Testosterone: produced in the testes and promotes muscle growth. Growth Hormone: produced in the pituitary gland it enhances amino acid uptake and protein synthesis. IGH: produced in the liver helps to mediate GH.
9/21/2012 73

Endocrine Glands of the Body

9/21/2012

74

Primary Types of Hormones

Steroid
9/21/2012

Polypeptide
75

Primary Types of Hormones


Steroid Polypeptide

The difference occur in the form and function of the hormone http://www.learnerstv.com/animation/biol ogy/signal_transduction.swf
9/21/2012 76

General Adaptation Syndrome


Stages Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Restoration

9/21/2012

77

Resistance Exercise

Resistance exercise protocols that use high volume, large-muscle groups, and short rest periods result in increased serum cortisol values.

Though chronic high levels of cortisol may have adverse catabolic effects, acute increases may contribute to the modeling of muscle tissue. Testosterone and insulin counter the effects of cortisol. 9/21/2012

78

Training

Training protocols must be varied to allow the


adrenal gland to engage in recovery processes and to prevent the secondary responses of cortisol, which

can negatively affect the immune system and protein


structures. Muscles must be disrupted to a certain extent to remodel itself and acute elevations of cortisols may help in this process.
9/21/2012 79

Review Points
The body physiologically adapts to heavier training loads during the resistance stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome.

9/21/2012

80

Section 7

Cardiovascular and Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology Responses to Exercise

9/21/2012

81

Response to Exercise

82

Human Heart Structure and Blood Flow

9/21/2012

83

Human Heart Structure and Blood Flow

9/21/2012

84

Cardiovascular

The cardiovascular system transports nutrients and


removes waste products while helping to maintain the environment for all the bodys functions. The blood

transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues for use


in cellular metabolism; blood also transports carbon dioxidethe most abundant by-product of

metabolismfrom the tissues to the lungs, where it is


removed from the body.
9/21/2012 85

Gross Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System

9/21/2012

86

Gross Anatomy of the Human Respiratory System

9/21/2012

87

Contraction and Expansion of the Thoracic Cage

9/21/2012

88

Respiratory System
The primary function of the respiratory system is the
basic exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Blood enters the heart through the right atrium, moves to the respiratory system, renters the left atrium and is then transported back to the body nutrient rich.

http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/b lood_system.swf
89

9/21/2012

Aerobic

Acute aerobic exercise results in increased cardiac


output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure, and blood flow to active

muscles and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure.


Resistance exercise with low intensity and high volume generally results in similar responses, some to a lesser

degree.

9/21/2012

90

Benefits of Cardiovascular Exercise


Reduces Blood Pressure Increases HDL, reduces total cholesterol Decreases body fat stores, increases fat metabolism Increases heart function (dec. RHR, inc.

SV)

Helps to relieve stress, tension & depression

Cardiovascular Terms
Stroke Volume the quantity of blood ejected from the heart Cardiac Output the amount of blood pumped by the heart in liters per minute (Q = SV X HR) Venous Return the amount of blood returning to the heart

9/21/2012

92

Cardiovascular Terms
End Diastolic Volume the volume of blood to be pumped by the left ventricle at the end of the filling phase (diastole) Systolic Blood Pressure pressure against the artery walls when the heart ejects blood (beat pressure) Diastolic Blood Pressure pressure against the walls between heart beats (resting pressure)

9/21/2012 93

Cardiovascular Terms
Mean Arterial Pressure the average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle (beat and rest) Rate Pressure Product the estimate of work done by the heart (RPP = HR x SBP) AVO2 Difference the difference in the oxygen content between the artial and venous blood

9/21/2012 94

Resistance Training

Resistance training is not effective in improving


maximal oxygen uptake. Training with high intensity and low volume results in no change or a decrease in

capillary density, no known change in ventilation, no


improvement in oxygen extraction, and very high blood lactate concentrations. Conversely, low-intensity, high-

volume training may increase capillarization and


improve oxygen extraction.
9/21/2012 95

Review Points
Increased maximal cardiac output is the most significant cardiovascular adaptation to chronic aerobic exercise for an endurance athlete. The rate pressure product is an index of how hard the heart is working.

9/21/2012

96

Section 8

Physiological Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Endurance Training Programs

9/21/2012

97

Energy Systems

Performance gains typically are related to changes


in more than one physiological system. The training program must train each physiological system in

careful balance with specific performance goals in


mind. Systems include: energy systems, anaerobic training, muscular adaptations, cardiovascular adaptations, body composition, and bone and connective tissues.
9/21/2012 98

Muscular Adaptations to Training

9/21/2012

99

Resistance Training

With heavy resistance training, all muscle fibers get


bigger because they are all recruited in consecutive order by their size to produce high levels of force. In

advanced lifters, the central nervous system might


adapt by allowing these athletes to recruit some motor units not in consecutive order, but by recruiting larger

ones first to help with greater production of power or


speed in a movement.
9/21/2012 100

Graphic Representation of the Size Principle

9/21/2012

101

Neural Adaptations
Increase in Neural Drive Increases in agonist muscle recruitment Firing rate Time and pattern of discharge during exercise A reduction in inhibitory mechanisms (GTO)
9/21/2012 102

Resistance Training

Incorporating resistance training into an aerobic


endurance training program can improve the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to function

under conditions of high pressure and force


production. Resistance exercise, by itself, is not usually effective in increasing maximal oxygen

consumption.

9/21/2012

103

Resistance & Aerobic

Combining resistance and aerobic


endurance activities appears to interfere primarily with strength and power performances.

9/21/2012

104

Overtraining
Overtraining (defined as excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue) can cause dramatic performance decreases in athletes of all training levels.

9/21/2012

105

Review Points
Resistance training has NO meaningful impact on aerobic power. It appears that certain types of bodybuilding training programs may be a strong stimulus for glycogen content increases.

9/21/2012

106

Review Points
Aerobic power, mitochondrial density, and myoglobin increase as a result of an aerobic training program. Resistance training will cause a reduction in mitochondrial density

9/21/2012

107

Review Points
Neuromuscular changes from anaerobic training include increased agonist muscle recruitment, increase in firing rate, and an increase in the timing and pattern of discharge during exercise. Neuromuscular changes from anaerobic training does not include an increase in inhibitory mechanisms (i.e., gto).
9/21/2012 108

Group Presentation Topics


1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

Bioenergetics (Ch.2) Endocrine Response to Resistance training (Ch. 3) Neuromuscular System and Adaptations (pp. 8-12 & 94-98) Bone and Connective Tissue Adaptation (pp. 66-67 & 103-107) Cardioresiratory system and adaptations to anaerobic exercise (pp. 13-18 & 110-113)
109

9/21/2012

Section 9

Age-Related and Sex-Related Differences and Their Implications for Resistance Exercise

9/21/2012

110

General Body Types

Mesomorph: muscular 9/21/2012 and broad shoulders

Endomorph: rounder and broad hips

Ectomorph: slender and tall

111

Youth Resistance Training Guidelines


The child should understand the benefits and risks Competent and caring fitness professionals should supervise training sessions with resistance training The exercise environment should be safe and free of hazards with equipment properly sized. Warm-up and stretching exercises should be performed before resistance training. Begin with light loads. Increase the resistance gradually (e.g., 5% to 10%) as strength improves.
112

9/21/2012

Muscle Quality
In terms of absolute strength, women are generally weaker than men because of their lower quantity of muscle. When compared relative to muscle cross-sectional area, no differences in strength exist between the genders, which indicates that muscle quality is not gender specific.

9/21/2012

113

Muscle Mass

Advancing age is associated with a loss of muscle


mass, which is due to physical inactivity and the selective loss of Type II (fast-twitch) muscle fibers. A

direct result of the reduction in muscle mass is a loss


of muscle strength and power. This loss can be attributed to lack of exercise and or exercise that is not effective.

9/21/2012

114

Review Points
Medical history should be evaluated first when designing a training program for a 66 year old male?

9/21/2012

115

Section 10

The Psychology of Athletic Preparation and Performance


The Mental Management of Physical Resources

9/21/2012

116

Focus
Selective attention is commonly referred to by athletes as their level of focus and refers to the suppression of taskirrelevant stimuli and thoughts.
Cue utilization explains how stress can help one focus on the task at hand.

9/21/2012

117

Confidence & Performance

Relationship Between Confidence and Athletic Performance

9/21/2012

118

Sport Psychology
Applied sport psychology involves employing techniques to gain control over the psychological factors that influence sport performance. The validation of such techniques is one mission of the scientific discipline of sport psychology.

9/21/2012

119

Relaxation
Relaxation techniques are designed to reduce physiological arousal and increase taskrelevant focus. These techniques are of extreme importance when executing complex tasks and those not well learned.
Deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, mental imagery, hypnosis, systematic desensitization, etc.
9/21/2012 120

Section 11

Performance-Enhancing Substances Effects, Risks, and Appropriate Alternatives

9/21/2012

121

Enhancement Substances
Types of Performance-Enhancing Substances

Ergogenic substances- Naturally occurring hormones and the drugs that mimic their effects Dietary supplements http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ergoaids.htm
122

9/21/2012

Risks of Anabolic Steroid Use


Primary risk for women is masculinization Primary risks for young boys are accelerated puberty; early closure of the ends of the long bones

Both males and females who use high doses of anabolic steroids are at risk for psychological changes that include increased aggressiveness. Undesirable increase in body weight in aerobic endurance athletes Unanticipated decline in performance when steroid use is stopped
9/21/2012 123

Anabolic Steroids: Bottom Lines


Anabolic steroid use will likely increase body weight.
Other performance benefits have not been well tested or demonstrated. Suspected psychological effects are difficult to test.

Uncontrolled emotional responses directed at a teammate Health risks in men are comparable to known risks to women from use of oral steroidal contraceptives

9/21/2012

124

Review Points
The best reason to avoid EPO use is it
may cause an unregulated increase in RBC (red blood cell) production.

Athletes who need steady, controlled movements (e.g., archers) during performance appear to benefit from the use of beta-blockers.

9/21/2012

125

Review Points
Recent studies support the use of essential amino acids before and/or after a workout to increase the strength and muscle mass effects of resistance exercise. Creatine has been shown by multiple studies to improve strength performance.
9/21/2012 126

Section 12

Nutritional Factors in Health and Performance

9/21/2012

127

USDA Food Guide Pyramid

9/21/2012

128

Proteins
Proteins in the human body are composed of 20 amino acids.
Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by the body and do not need to be consumed in the diet. Essential amino acids cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained through the diet.
9/21/2012 129

Carbohydrates The primary role of carbohydrate is energy provision.


Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and galactose) are single-sugar molecules Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and altose) are two sugar units joined together.

Polysaccharides (starch, fiber, and glycogen) contain up to thousands of glucose units.


9/21/2012 130

Lipids (Fats)
The saturation of a fatty acid is related to the amount of hydrogen it contains.
Saturated fatty acids contain all the hydrogen they can carry.

Unsaturated fatty acids are missing hydrogen atoms, and carbon atoms are joined together by double bonds.
Mono-unsaturated contain one double bond. Poly-unsaturated contain two or more double bond.

9/21/2012

131

Fluid-Replacement Guidelines
Encourage athletes to hydrate properly before exercise in a hot environment (16 fluid ounces of cool beverage 2 hours before workout). Athletes should drink fluid frequently during activity. Have fluids readily available, as thirst mechanism does not function adequately when large volumes of water are lost. Water is ideal fluid replacement, although flavored beverages may be more effective at promoting drinking. When significant weight has been lost through sweating, adding salt to the beverage can promote rehydration more effectively than plain water. Ideal fluid-replacement beverage depends on duration and intensity of exercise, environmental temperature, and the athlete.
9/21/2012 132

Diet

Gains in body mass and strength occur when the


athlete consumes adequate calories and dietary protein and engages in a progressive strength training

program.

No diet is complete without proper Vitamins,


Minerals, Fluids, and a well balanced intake of proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats.
9/21/2012 133

Section 13

Eating Disorders and Obesity

9/21/2012

134

Eating Disorders
Eating disorders cannot be corrected by normalizing weight or food intake. They are, instead, complex and multifactorial psychological disorders with the etiology of the problem linked to self-esteem, family dynamics, stress, sense of loss of control, sexual abuse, and other sources.

9/21/2012

135

Eating Disorders
Coaches comments and actions can have a profound influence on susceptible athletes. Weighing athletes or suggesting that an athlete lose weight must be well planned and handled privately, with follow-up advice or referral to a nutritionist.

9/21/2012

136

Eating Disorders
The strength and conditioning professionals job is not to treat the eating disorder; it is to be aware of warning signs and to refer the athlete to a specialist when a problem is suspected.

9/21/2012

137

Weight Loss
The most important goal for weight loss is to achieve a negative calorie balance. Therefore, the types of foods the individual consumes are less important than the portions of those foods. The focus is on calories.

9/21/2012

138

Section 14

Principles of Test Selection and Administration

9/21/2012

139

Reasons for Testing

Assessment of athletic talent


Identification of physical abilities in need of improvement Setting of realistic goals Evaluation of progress

9/21/2012

140

Evaluation of Test Quality

Validity is the degree to which a test or test item measures what it is intended to measure; this is the most important characteristic of testing. Reliability is a measure of the degree of consistency or repeatability of a test. A test must be reliable to be valid; highly variable results have little meaning.

9/21/2012

141

Test Selection Factors

Metabolic specificity
Sport specificity Experience and training status Age and sex Environmental factors

9/21/2012

142

Section 15

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation of Selected Tests

9/21/2012

143

Parameters of Athletic Performance


Energy systems
Maximum muscular strength Anaerobic power/maximum muscular power Speed Flexibility Anaerobic capacity Local muscular endurance Aerobic capacity Agility
9/21/2012 144

Selected Test Protocols: Anaerobic/Maximum Muscular Power Vertical


Jump

9/21/2012

145

Body Composition Testing

Skin Fold

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)


146

9/21/2012

Review Points
Vertical jump is a test for anaerobic power. A 1RM test is a test for maximal strength. The T-test is a test for measuring agility. The 1.5 mile run test can be used for aerobic fitness. 9/21/2012

147

Section 16

Stretching and Warm-Up

9/21/2012

148

Warm-Up

proper warm-up is specific to the sport or activity,

and stretching is an integral part of any warm-up. The warm-up prepares the athlete for practice or

competition and decreases the risk of injury.

A stretch should be held for approximately 30


seconds at a point of mild discomfort, but not pain!
9/21/2012 149

Joint Structure
Ball and Socket (hip and shoulder) have the greatest ROM Ellipsoidal (wrist) oval shaped allowing movement in the frontal and sagittal planes) Hinge (knee and elbow) allows movement in sagittal plane

9/21/2012

150

Key Terms
Muscle Spindles monitor changes in muscle length Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) monitor changes in muscle tension Stretch Reflex when the muscle spindle is activated by rapid stretching (lengthening) of the muscle spindle triggers a muscle contraction

9/21/2012 151

Key Terms
Autogenic Inhibition relaxation that occurs in the same muscle that is experiencing increased tension (like in static stretching) Reciprocal Inhibition relaxation that occurs in the muscle opposing the muscle that is experiencing increased tension

9/21/2012 152

Types of Stretching
Static Ballistic Dynamic Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

9/21/2012

153

Passive Pre-Stretch of Hamstrings During Hold-Relax PNF Hamstring Stretch

9/21/2012

154

Review Points
If the sitting toe touch stretch were to be performed ballistically the erector spinae, gastrocnemius, and hamstrings muscle groups would contract due to the stretch reflex except but the quadriceps would not contract.

Based on current evidence, dynamic stretching is increasingly the preferred option for stretching during a warm up.
155

Review Points
The static stretching technique decreases muscle spindle activation.

Stimulation of the muscle spindles induces contraction of the same muscle.

156

Group Presentation Topics


1.

2.

3.
4. 5.

Age and Sex related Differences (Ch. 7) Psychology (Ch. 8) Enhancement Substances (Ch. 9) Nutrition (Ch. 10) Testing (Ch. 11 & 12)

9/21/2012

157

Section 17

Resistance Training and Spotting Techniques

9/21/2012

158

Types of Exercises

Structural (large muscle group)


Exercises

that use multiple muscles and multiple joint movements to produce a movement

Body Part (isolation or small muscle group)


Exercises

that usually involve the isolation of one muscle and a single joint movement

Safety

At the core of safe and effective resistance training


is proper exercise execution. Exercises performed and spotted correctly promote injury-free results and do so

in a more time-efficient manner.

All exercises should be performed with optimal limb


position, movement range and speed, and correct
breathing.
9/21/2012 160

Performing Exercises

Exercises performed while standing typically require


feet to be positioned slightly wider than hip-width, with the heels and balls of the feet in contact with the floor.

Seated or supine exercises performed on a bench


usually require a five-point body contact position.

Strength and conditioning professionals should


instruct athletes to always exhale during the sticking point of a lift.
9/21/2012 161

Free-Weight Exercises

With the exception of power exercises, free-weight


exercises performed with a bar moving over the head, positioned on the back, racked at the front of the

shoulders, or passing over the face typically require


one or more spotters.

A weight belt can be used especially when lifting


puts stress on the lower back.
9/21/2012 162

Bar Grips

9/21/2012

163

Resistance Training Exercises: Chest

Lift off- helping the lifter get the weight in the correct starting position. Spotter- assists with the exercise to prevent injury.

9/21/2012

164

Review Points
The term liftoff refers to moving the bar from the upright supports to a position in which the athlete can begin the exercise. Strength and conditioning professionals should instruct athletes to exhale through the sticking point. A structural exercise that is performed very quickly is a/an power exercise.
9/21/2012 165

Section 18

Resistance Training

9/21/2012

166

Benefits of Resistance Training


Improved Muscular Strength and Endurance Improved Physical Capacity to Do everyday Activities More Easily Improved Body Composition Increased Muscle Mass and Metabolic Rate Increased Bone Density Improved Flexibility and Posture Reduce Risk of Injury Reduce Joint and Lower Back Pain

Principles of Resistance Training


Overload: In order for a muscle to become stronger it must be worked beyond its normal limits. Progressive Resistance: Once a muscle adapts to an exercise stimulus, a progressively harder stimulus needs to be used in order for improvements to be made.

Principles of Resistance Training


Specificity of Training: In order to make the gains one is striving for, one has to implement a program to meet those needs. Use / Disuse: When an exercise stimulus pushes the muscle past its normal limits gains will be made, but when that stimulus is absent the gains will be lost.

Principles of Resistance Training

Individuality: No exercise stimulus effects everyone the exactly the same way. Everyones response to exercise is different. All-or-None Law: When presented with an exercise stimulus either the motor unit will fire fully or not at all. (a motor unit is a series of muscle fibers controlled by the same neuron)

Program Design Thought Process


Step One: Needs Analysis General Considerations
Past

training history Experience level Exercise preferences (machines, free weights) Past injury / health history

Program Design Thought Process


Step One: Needs Analysis Identify training goal
Health Toning

/ Muscular endurance Muscular / Absolute strength Athletic performance

Program Design Thought Process


Step One: Needs Analysis Athletic Considerations
What

is the basic energy system used? What are the important sport movements? What are the common injury sites?

Administrative Considerations
What

is the time availability

Look

at individuals schedule, are more short sessions better or fewer longer sessions

The Base Program


Starting too aggressively can lead to: Injury Excessive delayed onset muscle soreness Reduced energy levels Psychological maladjustment to training

The Preparatory Period


Keys to effectively starting a program

Load program design variables only to point where the workout can be tolerated and recovery allowed Underestimate physical capacities, not overestimate Upgrade and evaluate the program weekly in order to maintain exercise stimulus Keep in mind the target program that you are preparing for

The Preparatory Period


Program Design Variables

Repetitions: 10 - 12 RM Number of Sets: 1 - 3 Choice of Exercise: Large muscle groups gradually adding small group assistance exercises Order of Exercise: Arm to Leg Rest Periods: 3 - 4 minutes between sets and exercises

Training Frequency
Frequency =

Must consider training status, sport season, projected exercise loads, types of exercises, and other concurrent training or activities. Resistance Training Frequency Based on Training Status:
Training Status Beginner Frequency Guidelines <2 - 3 Sessions per Week

Intermediate
Advanced

<3-4 Sessions per Week


>4-7 Sessions per Week

Table 15.4 (Essentials of Strength & Conditioning 3rd Ed.)

Training Frequency
Resistance Training Frequency based on Sport Season (for trained athletes)
Sport Season Off-Season Preseason In-Season Postseason Frequency Guidelines 4-6 Sessions per Week 3-4 Sessions per Week 1-3 Sessions per Week 0-3 Sessions per Week

Table 15.6 (Essentials of Strength & Conditioning 3rd Ed.)

Choice of Exercises
Determinants

Match specific muscular movements related to a sport or activity Targeting areas of the body most prone to injury (injury prevention) Looking at experience and preferences of the lifter Free Weight versus Machines

Design to promote muscle balance not to create imbalances

Order of Exercise
Type of Exercise Consideration Structural to Body Part (large to small) Body Part to Structural (small to large)
Pre-exhaustion

(more advanced)
2x10 2x10 2x10

Example: 1. Leg Extension 2. Leg Curl 3. Squats

Loading (intensity)
Intensity =

% 1RM
100 95 93 90

Commonly described as a certain percentage of a onerep maximum (1RM).


NOTE: Volume is inversely related to intensity.

Estimated Number of Repetitions


1 2 3 4

87

5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15

85 83 80 77 75 70 67 65

Table 15.7 (Essentials of Strength & Conditioning 3rd Ed.)

NSCA Guidelines
Training Goal Load % 1RM > 85 80 - 90 75 -85 67 - 85 < 67 Goal Reps <6 1-2 3-5 6-12 > 12 (Up to 25)

Load and repetition assignments are based on the training goal.

Strength Power Single Effort Power Multiple Effort Hypertrophy Muscle Endurance
Table

15.9 (Essentials of Strength & Conditioning 3rd Ed.)

Workout Volume
Volume = Total amount of repetitions or weight
lifted in a training session.
Number of Sets x Number of Reps x Weight lifted per rep * 3 Sets x 5 Repetitions x 225 lbs. = 3375 Total lbs. * 4 Sets x 10 Repetitions x 195 lbs. = 7800 Total lbs. Number of Sets x Number of Reps * 3 Sets x 5 Repetitions = 15 total repetitions. * 4 Sets x 10 Repetitions = 40 total repetitions.

Training Strategies
Single vs. Multiple Set Utilization
Super Set involves two exercises performed back to back with no rest for two opposing muscle groups (like doing a biceps curl followed by a triceps extension) Compound Set - involves two exercises performed back to back with no rest for the same muscle groups (like doing a bench press followed by a chest fly)

Table 15.12 Rest Period Length Assignments Based on the Training Goal
Training goal
Strength Power: single-effort event

Rest period length


2-5 min 2-5 min

Power: multiple-effort event


Hypertrophy Muscular endurance

2-5 min
30 s-1.5 min 30 s

9/21/2012

185

Review Points
The primary emphasis of the preparatory period is to establish a base level of conditioning. Multiple-set training is most appropriate for intermediate and advanced resistance trained athletes.

A compound set entails sequentially performing two different exercises for the same muscle group.
9/21/2012 186

Section 19

Plyometric Training

9/21/2012

187

Stretch-Shortening Cycle
The stretch-shortening cycle combines mechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms and is the basis of plyometric exercise. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during the subsequent concentric action.
9/21/2012 188

Proper Plyometric Landing Position

The most appropriate surface for high-intensity lower body plyometric drills is a grass field.

9/21/2012

189

Double-Leg Tuck Jump

9/21/2012

190

Double-Leg Zigzag Hop

9/21/2012

191

Depth Jump

9/21/2012

192

45-Degree Sit-Up

9/21/2012

193

Review Point
In plyometrics, dynamically prestretching a muscle is associated the subsequent concentric contraction?

9/21/2012

194

Section 20

Speed, Agility, and SpeedEndurance Development

9/21/2012

195

Speed

Speed is the result of applying explosive force to a


specific movement or technique. In most sports, the ability to change direction and speed is more important

than simply achieving or maintaining high velocity.


Such agility requires rapid force development and high power output, as well as the ability to efficiently couple

eccentric and concentric actions in ballistic


movements.
9/21/2012 196

Speed-Endurance

Speed-endurance allows for the maintenance of


maximal velocity over an extended time period and the ability to repeatedly reach maximal acceleration or

speed in multiple bouts. Special endurance is an


application of speed-endurance for activities with exercise-relief patterns specific to practice or

competition.

9/21/2012

197

Running Speed

Running speed is the interaction of stride frequency and length. Both are important during initial acceleration, but stride rate has a greater impact on maximum velocity. As speed increases, impulse production increasingly depends on the ability to generate force rapidly
198

9/21/2012

Agility
In general, agility involves greater emphasis on deceleration and subsequent reactive coupling with acceleration than does linear sprinting. Changes in direction and speed can be executed at a variety of velocities; agility should therefore be viewed in a larger context than simply as stop-and-go movements.

9/21/2012

199

Section 21

Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training

9/21/2012

200

Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training:


Respiratory
Enhanced oxygen exchange in the lungs, Improved blood flow throughout the lungs

Cardiovascular
Enhanced blood flow to skeletal muscle, Increased cardiac output

Musculoskeletal
Increased oxidative enzyme concentrations, arteriovenous oxygen difference, mitochondrial size and density
9/21/2012 201

Measuring Intensity
Heart Rate Metabolic Equivalents (MET) One MET = the amount of energy burned at rest (3.5 ml / kg per minute of oxygen used) Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

9/21/2012

202

Heart Rate
The

regulation of exercise intensity is critical to designing an effective workout. Using heart rate is the most common method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity

9/21/2012

203

Training Programs
Slow, Long Distance Pace / Tempo Interval Repetition Fartlek

9/21/2012

204

Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training


Tapering involves the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique work. Resistance training gives aerobic endurance athletes faster recovery from injuries, prevention of overuse injuries, and reduction of muscle imbalances

9/21/2012

205

Review Points
Because of its close association with oxygen use, heart rate is the most used method for prescribing exercise intensity.
A metabolic equivalent (MET) value of 10 requires 10 times the oxygen uptake that is needed by an individual at rest.
9/21/2012 206

Review Points
Tapering involves the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique and nutrition.
Pace/tempo training employs an intensity at or slightly higher than race competition intensity.
9/21/2012 207

Section 22

Training Variation
Periodization

9/21/2012

208

Periodization
Periodization involves shifting training priorities from non-sport-specific activities of high volume and low intensity to sport-specific activities of low volume and high intensity over a period of many weeks to prevent overtraining and optimize performance.

9/21/2012

209

Training Cycles
Macrocycle largest division usually the whole training year Mesocycles two or more mesocycles make up a macrocycle Microcycles each macrocycle is broken up into at least 2 microcycles, shorter periods generally one to four weeks long

9/21/2012 210

Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods


Off-season: the period between the last contest and 6 weeks prior to the first contest of the next years season
Preseason: the period leading up to the first contest

In-season: the period that contains all the contests scheduled for that year, including tournament games
Postseason: the period after the final contest and before the start of the next years off-season

9/21/2012

211

Periodization
Structured cycling approach to training that involves planned variation of sets, repetitions, intensities, and volumes used.
Terms: Volume: Number of combined sets and repetitions performed during a workout Intensity: load used, based on percent of 1 RM

High: 90-100% Medium: 80-90% Low: 70-80%

Phases
Hypertrophy Prepares body for high intensity training Changes:
increased

lean body weight Increased muscle endurance

Hypertrophy Phase
Sets Reps Days / Week Intensity Volume Duration 3-5 8 - 20 3-4 Low High 2 3 Weeks

Phases
Basic Strength Establishes foundation for power and high intensity work Changes:
Sharp

increases in strength

Basic Strength
Sets Reps Days / Week Intensity Volume Duration 3-5 6-8 35 High Moderate to High 2 4 Weeks

Phases
Strength and Power Decreased volume allows your body to get greater gains from the higher intensity
Peaking / Maintenance (situational) Allows you to keep what you have gained

Strength and Power


Sets Reps Days / Week Intensity Volume Duration 3-5 3-6 4-6 High Low 2 3 Weeks

Peaking / Maintenance
Sets Reps Days / Week Intensity Volume Duration 1-3 1-3 1-5 Very High to Low Low -------

Transition Between Cycles


Active Rest Serves as a break between cycles Helps prevent over training Light, non-lifting, activity is better than doing nothing at all

Application
Sport Type of competitive season Sport calendar
In-season,

pre-season, off-season

General use Stair step approach

Review Points
The largest division (usually one year) or training phase of a periodization model is the macrocyle.
Training intensity is highest and volume lowest during the peaking phase of training.

9/21/2012

222

Chapter 23

Rehabilitation and Reconditioning

9/21/2012

223

Principles of Rehabilitation and Reconditioning


Healing tissues must never be overstressed.
Athlete must fulfill criteria. Program must be based on current research.

Program must be adaptable to each individual.


Rehabilitation is a team-oriented process.

9/21/2012

224

Sports Medicine
The sports medicine team includes a large number of professionals working together to provide an optimal rehabilitation and reconditioning environment. The relationship among members requires thoughtful communication to ensure a safe, harmonious climate for the injured athlete.

9/21/2012

225

Strength & Conditioning


Designing strength and conditioning programs for injured athletes requires the strength and conditioning professional to examine the rehabilitation and reconditioning goals to determine what type of program allows the quickest return to competition.

9/21/2012

226

Section 24

Facility Layout and Scheduling

9/21/2012

227

Facility Design
Forming a committee of professionals is the first step in planning and designing a new strength and conditioning facility. The committee can consist of an administrator, architect, contractor, lawyer, student athlete, sport coach, instructors who will use the facility, and various sport-conditioning experts.

9/21/2012

228

Planning and Designing of Facility


Predesign phase requires 25% of the total project time (about 6 months).
Design phase requires 12% of total project time (about 3 months). Construction phase requires 50% of total project time (about 12 months). Preoperation (start-up) phase requires 15% of total project time (about 3-4 months).

9/21/2012

229

Section 25

Developing a Policies and Procedures Manual

9/21/2012

230

Policies & Procedures

Policies are a facilitys rules and


regulations; they reflect the goals and objectives of the program. Procedures describe how policies are met or carried out.

9/21/2012

231

Program Goals
Improve athletic performance
Prevent injuries
Sample mission statement: To provide to athletes the means through which they can train consistently, sensibly, and systematically over designated periods of time in a safe, clean, and professional environment to help prevent injury and improve athletic performance.
9/21/2012 232

Section 26

Facility Maintenance and Risk Management

9/21/2012

233

Safety & Function


The strength and conditioning professional should assess existing equipment based on the needs of all athletes and teams that use the facility.
Safety and function are top priorities when determining equipment placement.

9/21/2012

234

Assessing Athletic Program Needs


How many athletes will use the facility?
What types of strength and conditioning training does each athletic group require? What repairs and adaptations to equipment must be made to meet athletes needs? What is the minimum spacing of machines in the weight room?

What are the age groups of the athletes using the facility?
9/21/2012 235

Group Presentation Topics


1. 2. 3.

4.
5.

Resistance Training (Ch. 15) Plyometric Training (Ch. 16) Speed And Agility (Ch. 17) Aerobic Endurance (Ch. 18) Periodization (Ch. 19)

9/21/2012

236

United States Sports Academy


One Academy Drive Daphne, Alabama, USA 36526
Telephone: 251-626-3303 Fax: 251-447-0366 Email: Academy@ussa.edu http:/www.ussa.edu