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Travel in Ancient Times

Travel in Ancient Times


Travel in ancient times and civilizations Early hunters constantly on move in search of food shelter and safety Dangerous and difficult Travel by foot or on animal back Most travel adventurous

Historical Dimensions

Paleolithic Old stone Age 30000 BC

Neolithic New Stone Age 10000 BC

Independence Agricultural Plan period Travel Industrial Society Revolution Revolution Eco.Growth 2000 BC 1950-2050

Cyber Age 2000-2100 Tech.Revln. Space Travel

Travel in Prehistoric Times Paleolithic Age (30000 BC to 10000 BC) Old Stone Age Exploration of new regions and discovery of new tools Travel to new hunting grounds in inhospitable weather

Neolithic Age
Which began about 10000 BC Primitive people settled down an agricultural community -Several innovations in the field of transport - changed the nature of travel

4000-3500 BC
Building of sailing vessels- Egypt Inventions of wheel and money (Sumerians- Babylonia) Exploration of seeing world Making of business and travel deals Protected roads and rest houses

Fascination for Travel


Not a conscious action no formalities No cumbersome procedure but casual travel A thing of pleasure Merchants, pilgrims or scholars Exciting experiences for way farers Trade and commerce was the prominent purpose

Big Boost to Travel Opening of the new trade routes Travel become easier and regulated Established contacts improved trade and commerce Trade relations matured into cultural relations Better understanding about the way of life

Early Travel in the Orient Particularly India and China Largely based on trade and commerce Travelers from all over the world India and china countries of fabulous wealth Travelers came in search wealth wisdom and fortune

Invaders Turn

Alexander of Macedonia Portuguese, Arabs and Europeans

Great Fascination for Foreign Travelers

Great Traveler Vasco De Gamma Great Explorer Christopher Columbus Imperishable interest to Portuguese, Arabs and Europeans

Travel in the Middle Age

Travelers Long Journey to distant places Searching new places seeking new knowledge Marco Polo and his amazing explorations Pioneers of modern travel

Journey of Marco Polo

Left Venice in the year 1271 with his father and uncle Traveled through Persia, Afghanistan and then to Pamir Plateau After crossing Gobi desert reached Kublai Khans Palace Remained in China for 20 years On his way back stopped in Sumatra, Java, India and Ceylon.

Some Others
Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish scholar left Saragossa in 1160 A.D Journey through Europe, Persia and India Ibn Batuta of Tangier (Morocco) in 1304 A.D Passed through various countries of Africa and West Asia 1333 A.D Indonesia and China Travelled more than 14000 km through India, Maldives and China

European Experience

Franciscan friar, John of Monte Carrino visited India on his way and back to China Alphonsa D. Albuquerque Many more European Monks, travelers and adventurers visited India.
Travel was mainly in search of knowledge

Early Pleasure Travel


Romans early pleasure travelers -Enjoyed the natural beauty Arts sports and music Travel for pleasure, religion and sports Romans access to Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor and many parts of Europe and Africa Good communication system and security Spas, medicinal bath and sea side resorts

Travel for Religious Purpose Pilgrimage- a well established custom Travel dominated by religious motivations Christian pilgrimage to Holy land Largely undertaken by foot and horseback Rich by boat or horse drawn coach Bandits threat to pilgrims Wayside inns for pilgrims

The Great Tour and Renaissance Reappearance of tourism in Europe followed the Italian renaissance 15th century Italy became the centre of attraction Italy the intellectual capital of Europe Aristocracy and intelligentsia classical heritage and the latest ideas and inventions Higher studies in France and Italy Grand Tour an Aristocratic Preserve

Eighteenth Century Experience


18th century conventionally considered as the golden age of Grand Tour especially between 1763 and 1793 The Grand Tourists paved the way for the popular tourism of the 19th and20th century 18th century became the great age of travel During this period a great many poets, authors and intellectuals visited Italy and other countries nearby

Travel in the Industrial Age


The concept of modern tourism came into being in the second half of the 19th century hand in hand with the development of industrial societies of western Europe and North America Development of industrial societies was the direct result of industrial revolution in the west Long working hours, poor working conditions, little relief from putting long hours of work in difficult conditions in the factory

Travel in the Industrial Age


Sudden concentration of population in towns and cities created unhealthy social conditions

The prosperous and the well-to-do proceeded to various resorts


Industrialization also brought wealth and improved transport and communications

The 19th century show the development of large scale pleasure zones distance from large cities of central Europe
The French Rivera with Nice, Cannes and Monte Caro pleasure zone Many health resorts developed to cater to the increasing needs of the wealthy people

Rail Transport
Railways in the 19th century - a crucial land mark in travel history Passengers were first carried by rail in 1830 in England The newly completed railway track between Liverpool and Manchester in England- But the birth of organized rail travel came in the year 1841 1848 to 1863 Thomas Cook conducted circular tour Railway tracks were laid in France, Australia and Switzerland Revolution in transport technology innovative expansion of European tourism First class railway travel was introduced with luxury coaches by Pullman, America-1870 Railway the most powerful motive for mass travel -Millions traveled mostly from large urban centers

Sea Transport
Contributions of shipping to travel during the 19th century Steamships crossed boundaries and made strides in inter continental travel Shipping technology made a number of innovations in 19th century

America was considered as the new world full of opportunities and fortunes for the people in Europe
A great number of people from the continent started going to America to see the new world

Sea Transport
The use of chartered ships for cruising mid 19th century Mark Twain mentioned in his book The Innocent Abroad published in 1869 The period just before the first world war can be considered as the hey day of passenger line services The glamour of the deep sea travel was , however, reserved for the wealthy Europeans and Americans

20th Century Experience


By the turn of the 20th century- all the main characteristics of modern tourism were evident in its embryonic form Changes in mental attitudes towards pleasure seekingRecognized the value of travel for education Increased material wealth - Improved transportation facilities Fertile ground for the development of excursion traffic Initially of wealthy people who had enough time, plenty of money and purchasing power

Paid Holidays
It was in the last quarter of the 19th century holidays with pay or cheap holidays for the working class Important repercussion on the development of mass tourism a tremendous boost The First World War decline in tourist travel Second world War Expansion of tourist travel Destination: Spain, Greece, Bermuda, Cuba , Hawaii

Modern travel
Development of Modern Transport System Air Transport high ways advent of jet in 1958 -- speed, comfort and efficiency Advent of high speed trains electrification of track 1960- high speed bullet trains 1970

World Tourism Day


Since 1980, September 27 is celebrated by the World Tourism Organization as World Tourism Day. It was established at the Third Session of the UNWTO General Assembly in Torremolinos, Spain, in September of 1979. The purpose of this day is to display awareness that tourism is vital to the international community and to show how it affects the social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide. September 27 is important since on that day in 1970, the Statutes of the WTO were adopted. At its Twelfth Session in Istanbul, Turkey, in October of 1997, the UNWTO General Assembly decided to designate a host country each year as the Organization's partner for celebrating World Tourism Day. At its Fifteenth Session in Beijing, China, in October of 2003, the Assembly decided the following geographic order to be followed for the World Tourism Day celebrations: 2006 in Europe; 2007 in South Asia; 2008 in the Americas, and 2009 in Africa.

Themes of World Tourism


Themes of World Tourism Day over the years: 1980: Tourism's contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage and to peace and mutual understanding 1981: Tourism and the quality of life 1982: Pride in travel: good guests and good hosts 1983: Travel and holidays are a right but also a responsibility for all 1984: Tourism for international understanding, peace and cooperation 1985: Youth Tourism: cultural and historical heritage for peace and friendship 1986: Tourism: a vital force for world peace 1987: Tourism for development 1988: Tourism: education for all 1989: The free movement of tourists creates one world 1990: Tourism: an unrecognized industry, a service to be released ("The Hague Declaration on Tourism") 1991: Communication, information and education: power lines of tourism development 1992: Tourism: a factor of growing social and economic solidarity and of encounter between people 1993: Tourism development and environmental protection: towards a lasting harmony

Themes of World Tourism


Themes of World Tourism Day over the years: 1993: Tourism development and environmental protection: towards a lasting harmony 1994: Quality staff, quality tourism 1995: WTO: serving world tourism for twenty years 1996: Tourism: a factor of tolerance and peace 1997: Tourism: a leading activity of the twenty-first century for job creation and environmental protection 1998: Public-private sector partnership: the key to tourism development and promotion 1999: Tourism: preserving world heritage for the new millennium (Host: Chile) 2000: Technology and nature: two challenges for tourism at the dawn of the twenty-first century (Host: Germany) 2001: Tourism: a toll for peace and dialogue among civilizations (Host: Iran) 2002: Ecotourism, the key to sustainable development (Host: Costa Rica) 2003: Tourism: a driving force for poverty alleviation, job creation and social harmony (Host: Algeria) 2004: Sport and tourism: two living forces for mutual understanding, culture and the development of societies (Host: Malaysia) 2005: Travel and transport: from the imaginary of Jules Verne to the reality of the 21st century (Host: Qatar) 2006: Tourism Enriches (Host: Portugal) 2007: Tourism opens doors for women (Host: Sri Lanka)

Space Tourism
is the recent phenomenon of individuals paying for space travel, primarily for personal satisfaction.

As of 2007, space tourism opportunities are limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport. The price for a flight brokered by Space Adventures to the International Space Station aboard a Soyuz spacecraft is now $30 million. Flights are fully booked until 2009. Among the primary attractions of space tourism are the uniqueness of the experience, the thrill and awe of looking at Earth from space (described by astronauts as extremely intense and mind-boggling), the experience's notion as an exclusive status symbol, and various advantages of weightlessness.
The space tourism industry is being targeted by spaceports in numerous locations, including California, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Florida, Virginia, Alaska, Esrange in Sweden and Wisconsin, as well as Singapore and the United Arab Emirates. Some use the term "personal spaceflight" as in the case of the Personal Spaceflight Federation.