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STATISTIKA DASAR


Buku Wajib:

1. Statistics principles and Methods
Richard A. Johnson Gouri K.
Bhattacharyya

2. Complete Business Statistics
Amir D. Aczel
3. Metode Statistika Prof. Dr. Sudjana

1-2

Statistics (STATISTIKA) adalah suatu
pengetahuan yang membantu kita dalam
membuat kesimpulan terbaik.
Statistics mempelajari bagaimana
mengumpulkan, meringkas, menganalisis,
dan membuat kesimpulan berdasarkan
data .

WHAT IS STATISTICS?
1-3
Using Statistics (Two Categories)
Inferential Statistics
Predict and forecast
values of population
parameters
Test hypotheses about
values of population
parameters
Make decisions
Descriptive Statistics
Collect
Organize
Summarize
Display
Analyze
1-4
Descriptive Statistics
DIPELAJARI :

o Penyajian Data
Ukuran Gejala Pusat (Central Tendency )
Ukuran Variabilitas
Skewness dan Kurtosis
Hubungan antara Mean dan Standard Deviation


1-5
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Membedakan qualitative data dan quantitative
data.
Memahami skala pengukuran nominal, ordinal,
interval,dan ratio .
Memahami perbedaan antara population dan
sample.
Menghitung dan menginterpretasikan Ukuran
Gejala Pusat, Kuantil dan Ukuran Variabilitas .
Menyajikan data melalui kurva dan tabel

Setelah mempelajari bagian ini, diharapkan dapat
1-6
Types of Data - Two Types
Qualitative
Categorical atau
Nominal:
Contoh:
Warna
Gender
Suku Bangsa
Quantitative
Measurable atau
Numerical:
Contoh
Temperatur
Besar Gaji
Nilai Ujian
Matematika
1-7
Karakteristik?
Karakteristik : ciri dari suatu objek yang bisa
membedakan objek yg satu dengan objek yg lainnya.
Karakteristik fisik : tinggi badan, berat badan, lingkar
perut dll.
Karakteristik yang lain : nama, alamat, usia
pekerjaan, pendapatan, banyaknya anak dll.

Pembagian tipe peubah (skala pengukuran)
numerik dan kategorik.
1-8
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Gender
Ordinal Scale
Ranking tangga lagu
Interval Scale
Temperature
Ratio Scale
Besar Pendapatan
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Skala Pengukuran
Only a Name no ordering
Ordered: A>B>C>D>E
Hanya mengukur selisih tidak mampu
mengukur Nisbah/rasio
Mampu Mengukur Nisbah/rasio
Nominal Ordinal
Kategorik
Interval Rasio
Numerik
Variabel
1-10
TUGAS 1
Pilih satu peran di bawah Ini, kemudian
berikan contoh yang berkaitan dengan peran
anda sehingga dapat menjelaskan : populasi,
sampel, statistik, parameter, skala pengukuran
( min 4 variabel), jenis data .
A. Manajer Pabrik Tekstil
B. Pemilik Toko Gadget
C. Ketua Prodi Fisika

1-11
PENYAJIAN DATA : Tabel dan Grafik
Kategorik:
Diagram Batang
Diagram Lingkaran
Dll
Numerik :
Daftar Dist.Frekuensi
Diagram Batang Daun
Daftar Baris Kolom
1-12
Methods of Displaying Data
Pie Charts
Categories represented as percentages of total
Bar Graphs
Heights of rectangles represent group frequencies
Frequency Polygons
Height of line represents frequency
Ogives
Height of line represents cumulative frequency
Time Plots
Represents values over time
1-13
Bar Chart

C4
1Q 4Q 3Q 2Q 1Q
1.5
1.2
0.9
0.6
0.3
0.0
Figure 1-11: SHIFTING GEARS
2003 2004
Quartely net income for General Motors (in billions)
1-14
Pie Chart
33.0%
23.0%
19.0%
19.0%
6.0%
Category
Happy with career
Don't like my job but it is on my career path
Job is OK, but it is not on my career path
Enjoy job, but it is not on my career path
My job just pays the bills
Figure 1-10: Twentysomethings split on job satisfication
My job just pays the bills
Happy with career
Enjoy job, but it is not on my career path
Job OK, but it is not on my career path
Do not like my job, but it is on my career path
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Relative Frequency Polygon
Ogive
Frequency Polygon and Ogive
5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0
0 . 3
0 . 2
0 . 1
0 . 0
Sales
5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0
1 . 0
0 . 5
0 . 0
Sales
(Cumulative frequency or
relative frequency graph)
1-16
O S A J J M A M F J D N O S A J J M A M F J D N O S A J J M A M F J
8 . 5
7 . 5
6 . 5
5 . 5
M o n t h
M

i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

T

o
n
s

M o n t h l y S t e e l P r o d u c t i o n

Time Plot
1-17
Frequency Distribution
Langkah-langkah penyususnannya:
Rentang (r) : dt terbesar dt terkecil
Banyaknya kelas interval = k =
Panjang Kelas interval :
Tentukan Kelas Interval

Relative frequency ?
2
k
n >
r
i
k
=
1-18
x f(x) f(x)/n
Spending Class ($) Frequency (number of customers) Relative Frequency

0 to less than 100 30 0.163
100 to less than 200 38 0.207
200 to less than 300 50 0.272
300 to less than 400 31 0.168
400 to less than 500 22 0.120
500 to less than 600 13 0.070

184 1.000

Example of relative frequency: 30/184 = 0.163
Sum of relative frequencies = 1
Contoh: Frequency Distribution
1-19
x F(x) F(x)/n
Spending Class ($) Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency

0 to less than 100 30 0.163
100 to less than 200 68 0.370
200 to less than 300 118 0.641
300 to less than 400 149 0.810
400 to less than 500 171 0.929
500 to less than 600 184 1.000

The cumulative frequency of each group is the sum of the
frequencies of that and all preceding groups.
Cumulative Frequency Distribution
1-20
Frequency Histogram
Histogram Example
1-21
Relative Frequency Histogram
Histogram Example
1-22
Contoh :
Data di bawah ini menunjukkan masa hidup dari 30 lampu pijar yang
dipilih secara acak dari pabrik lampu pijar G
43 54 51 12 10 36 45 51 43
23 24 36 41 45 48 50 61 76
78 54 19 21 32 38 40 38 50
28 25 36 (dalam puluhan jam)

Sajikan data di atas dalam : Tabel Distribusi Frekuensi - Tabel Distribusi
Frekuensi Relatif- Tabel Distribusi Frekuensi Kumulatif Tabel
Distribusi Frekuensi Kumulatif Relatif
Sajikan Pula Dalam Grafik : Histogram Polygon - Ogive
Apa yang terlihat pada Diagram Batang Daun ?
Berikan interpretasi untuk semua hasil di atas.
1-23
Summary Measures: Population Parameters
Sample Statistics
Measures of Variability
Range
Interquartile range
Variance
Standard Deviation
Measures of Central
Tendency
Median
Mode
Mean
Other summary
measures:
Skewness
Kurtosis
1-24
Contoh: - Masa Hidup (MH) Charger
G

MH Sorted MH
9 6
6 9
12 10
10 12
13 13
15 14
16 14
14 15
14 16
16 16
17 16
16 17
24 17
21 18
22 18
18 19
19 20
18 21
20 22
17 24

1-25
MH Sorted MH

9 6
6 9
12 10
10 12
13 13
15 14
16 14
14 15
14 16
16 16
17 16
16 17
24 17
21 18
22 18
18 19
19 20
18 21
20 22
17 24

Median
Median
50th Percentile
(20) 0.5 = 10
Rata-rata data ke 10 dan ke 11
The median is the middle
value of data sorted in
order of magnitude. It is
the 50
th
percentile.
Contoh: Median
Data diurutkan, Letak Median data ke-
np jika pecahan? Jika Bil bulat?
1-26

Quartiles : Q1, Q2 dan Q3 (Q2 = Median)
Desil : D1, D2,D9 (D5 = Median)
Persentil :P1,P2,.,P99 (P50 = Median)
Buatlah diagram titik untuk data Masa Hidup
charger G lalu hitunglah Modus, Median
dan Mean.
Sehingga akan terlihat dimana memusatnya
data



Kuantil : median, kuartil, desil dan
persentil
1-27
.
. . . . . : . : : : . . . . .
---------------------------------------------------------------
6 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24
Mode = 16
The mode is the most frequently occurring value. It
is the value with the highest frequency.
Contoh: - Modus
1-28
.
. . . . . : . : : : . . . . .
---------------------------------------------------------------
6 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24
Median and Mode = 16
Mean = 15.85
Contoh: - Mean,Modus dan
Median
1-29
The mean of a set of observations is their average -
the sum of the observed values divided by the
number of observations.
Population Mean
Sample Mean
=
=

x
N
i
N
1
x
x
n
i
n
=
=

1
Arithmetic Mean or Average
1-30
x
x
n
i
n
= = =
=

1
317
20
15 85 .
MH
9
6
12
10
13
15
16
14
14
16
17
16
24
21
22
18
19
18
20
17
317
Example Mean
1-31
Variation and Shape
Variasi mencerminkan bagaimana sebaran atau dispersi dari data sedangkan
Shape menunjukkan bagaimana pola dari data tersebut.
Kenapa perlu mempelajarinya ?
Ilustrasi :
Harga barang X ($) di toko A : 4, 2,4,9,8,7,5,5,6,5,6,1,3
di toko B : 1,2,3,2,5,5,6,7,8,9,10,2
Buatlah diagram titiknya
Hitunglah : Mean,Modus dan Mediannya
Berikan kesimpulannya
UKURAN VARIASI :
1.Range = Rentang= data terbesar data terkecil
2. Rentang Antar Kuartil (The Interquartile Range) = Q3 Q1
3. Varians dan Deviasi Standar (Simpangan Baku)
Varians adalah kuadrat jarak rata rata dari tiap pengamatan terhadap rata-
ratanya, sehingga apabila seluruh pengamatan bernilai sama maka varians
akan bernilai nol (data tidak bervariasi ).


1-32
Variance and Standard Deviation
( )
o

o
o
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
=

=

=
=
=


=

( ) x
N
x
N
N
i
N
i
N
x
i
N
Population Variance
( )
( )
s
x x
n
x
x
n
n
s
s
i
n
i
n
i
n
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
=



=



=
=
=
=

( )
Sample Variance
( )
1-33

6 -9.85 97.0225 36
9 -6.85 46.9225 81
10 -5.85 34.2225 100
12 -3.85 14.8225 144
13 -2.85 8.1225 169
14 -1.85 3.4225 196
14 -1.85 3.4225 196
15 -0.85 0.7225 225
16 0.15 0.0225 256
16 0.15 0.0225 256
16 0.15 0.0225 256
17 1.15 1.3225 289
17 1.15 1.3225 289
18 2.15 4.6225 324
18 2.15 4.6225 324
19 3.15 9.9225 361
20 4.15 17.2225 400
21 5.15 26.5225 441
22 6.15 37.8225 484
24 8.15 66.4225 576

317 0 378.5500 5403

x x
x
( ) x x
2
x
2
( )
( )
( )
s
x x
n
x
x
n
n
s
s
i
n
i
n
i
n
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
37855
20 1
37855
19
19 923684
1
5403
317
20
20 1
5403
100489
20
19
5403 5024 45
19
37855
19
19 923684
19 923684 4 46
1
=

= =
=

|
\

|
.
|

=

=

= =
= = =
=
=
=

( )
.
( )
.
.
. .
.
. .
Calculation of Sample Variance
1-34
Skewness and Kurtosis
Skewness
Measure of asymmetry of a frequency
distribution
Skewed to left
Symmetric or unskewed
Skewed to right
Kurtosis
Measure of flatness or peakedness of a
frequency distribution
Platykurtic (relatively flat)
Mesokurtic (normal)
Leptokurtic (relatively peaked)
1-35
Skewed to left
Skewness
1-36
Skewness
Symmetric
1-37
Skewness
Skewed to right
1-38
Kurtosis
Platykurtic - flat distribution
1-39
Kurtosis
Mesokurtic - not too flat and not too peaked
1-40
Kurtosis
Leptokurtic - peaked distribution
1-41
Relations between the Mean and
Standard Deviation
Chebyshevs Theorem
Applies to any distribution, regardless of shape
Places lower limits on the percentages of
observations within a given number of standard
deviations from the mean
Empirical Rule
Applies only to roughly mound-shaped and
symmetric distributions
Specifies approximate percentages of observations
within a given number of standard deviations from
the mean
1-42
1
1
2
1
1
4
3
4
75%
1
1
3
1
1
9
8
9
89%
1
1
4
1
1
16
15
16
94%
2
2
2
= = =
= = =
= = =
Chebyshevs Theorem
At least of the elements of any
distribution lie within k standard deviations
of the mean
At
least
Lie
within
Standard
deviations
of the mean
2

3

4
|
|
.
|

\
|

2
1
1
k
1-43
Samples and Populations
A population consists of the set of all
measurements for which the investigator is
interested.
A sample is a subset of the measurements selected
from the population.
A census is a complete enumeration of every item
in a population.
1-44
For roughly mound-shaped and symmetric
distributions, approximately:

68% 1 standard deviation
of the mean

95% Lie
within
2 standard deviations
of the mean

All 3 standard deviations
of the mean


Empirical Rule
1-45
Exploratory Data Analysis - EDA
Stem-and-Leaf Displays
Quick-and-dirty listing of all observations
Conveys some of the same information as a histogram
Box Plots
Median
Lower and upper quartiles
Maximum and minimum
Techniques to determine relationships and trends,
identify outliers and influential observations, and
quickly describe or summarize data sets.
1-46

1 122355567
2 0111222346777899
3 012457
4 11257
5 0236
6 02

Contoh: Stem-and-Leaf Display
1-47
X X * o
Median
Q
1
Q
3
Inner
Fence
Inner
Fence
Outer
Fence
Outer
Fence
Interquartile Range
Smallest data
point not below
inner fence
Largest data point
not exceeding
inner fence
Suspected
outlier Outlier
Q
1
-3(IQR)
Q
1
-1.5(IQR) Q
3
+1.5(IQR)
Q
3
+3(IQR)
Elements of a Box Plot
Box Plot
1-48
Why Sample?
Census of a population may be:
Impossible
Tidak Praktis
Mahal
1-49
Populasi
Sampel
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Konsep Populasi dan Sampel

o
p
Contoh Kasus :
Pendugaan terhadap rata-rata pendapatan penduduk kota Bandung
Teknik Sampling
Pendugaan
$
$
Statistik
Parameter
p
=
y
s
=
=
1-50
Jenis Teknik Sampling
Probability sampling
1. Simple Random Sampling
2. Stratified Random sampling
3. Systematic sampling
4. Cluster sampling
Non Probability Sampling

1-51
Simple Random Sample
Sampling dari populasi dapat dilakukan secara
acak (random) sehingga tiap sampel yg
berukuran sama (n) akan mempunyai peluang yg
sama untuk terpilih.
Sampel yg terpilih dg cara demikian disebut
simple random sample atau random sample
1-52
Simple Random Sampling
1-53
Stratified Random Sampling
Size A Size B
Size C
1-54
Systematic Sampling
1-55
Cluster Sampling
Section 4
Section 5
Section 3
Section 2 Section 1

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