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Bases WS

Answers

1. A solution has a pH = 14. What substance must be present in the solution?


A sodium ions, Na+ B hydrogen ions, H+ C hydroxide ions, OHD oxide ions, O2Thought process: Since you are given a solution with pH 14, you need to realise that it is alkaline and should therefore contain hydroxide ions.

2 An insect sting is alkaline. Which common substance could be used to neutralize the insect sting? A damp washing soda, pH = 10 B damp salt, pH = 7 C liquid floor cleaner, pH = 11 D vinegar, pH = 4
Neutralization is the process of an acid reacting with a base (alkali) to form salt and water only.

Substance X + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + ammonia gas + water What could substance X be?

A B C D

hydrochloric acid ammonium chloride chlorine gas sodium chloride


Sodium hydroxide = alkali Alkali + ammonium salt salt + ammonia + water Choose an ammonium salt with chloride because the salt formed is sodium chloride.

4. Which substance is used to increase the acidity in soils (make soils more acidic)?
A B C D ammonium nitrate calcium hydroxide sodium chloride potassium chloride
Ammonium salt (slightly acidic) Alkali (strongly basic) This salt is of pH 7 This salt is of pH 7

5. Which of the following are true about calcium hydroxide solution?


Complete dissociation in water to form Ca2+ and OH- ions.

1 2 3 4

It conducts electricity. It liberates ammonia gas when heated with ammonium sulfate. It turns Universal Indicator red. It liberates carbon dioxide gas from sodium carbonate solution.

5. Which of the following are true about calcium hydroxide solution?


Strong alkali! Final Ans: A

1 2 3 4

It conducts electricity. It liberates ammonia gas when heated with ammonium sulfate. Purple/violet. It turns Universal Indicator red. It liberates carbon dioxide gas from sodium carbonate solution.
Only acids can liberate CO2 from sodium carbonate solution.

6. The following setup shows the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate.
Strong alkali!
Ammonium salt

Alkali + ammonium salt salt + ammonia gas + water


Alkaline/basic gas

A B C D

It extinguishes a burning splint with a pop sound. Hydrogen gas. It turns damp red litmus paper blue. It forms a white precipitate with limewater.
Carbon dioxide gas. This is an acidic gas , as it is an acidic oxide. White ppt is actually calcium carbonate

It turns damp blue litmus paper red.


Acidic gases (in general) e.g. carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide.

1 (a)(i) Write the ionic equation for the neutralization between potassium hydroxide and nitric acid. [1] KOH produces OH- ions. HNO3 produces H+ ions. Together, OH- (aq) + H+ (aq) H2O (l) Note: When writing ionic equations, you need to ensure that it is a balanced chemical equation and state symbols are included.

1 (a)(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. [1] Calcium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 Hydrochloric acid = HCl Together, Ca(OH)2 + HCl CaCl2 + H2O Not balanced yet! Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl CaCl2 + 2H2O

1 (b) Complete the table about the following oxides.


Name of oxide
Formula of oxide Acidic, basic or neutral?
Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Iron (III) oxide Copper(II) oxide Sulfur dioxide

CO

CO2

Fe2O3

CuO

SO2

neutral

acidic

basic

basic

acidic

2. Identify the substances A to G in the following reactions. [7]


(a) Calcium oxide + A calcium nitrate + B
Metal oxide Base! A must be an acid. This acid must contain the nitrate ion to produce calcium nitrate. acid salt water

A = nitric acid B = water

2. Identify the substances A to G in the following reactions. [7]


(b) C + sulfuric acid magnesium sulfate + hydrogen
acid salt

C must be a metal. This metal must be magnesium in order to produce magnesium sulfate.

C = magnesium

2. Identify the substances A to G in the following reactions. [7]


(c) Barium carbonate + hydrochloric acid
carbonate acid Gives chloride ions

D + E (gas) + water
salt Carbon dioxide

E is easily identified as carbon dioxide. The salt D must be identified from the 2 reactants. D = barium chloride E = carbon dioxide

2. Identify the substances A to G in the following reactions. [7]


Ammonium salt

(d) F + ammonium sulfate sodium sulfate + water + G (gas)


Ammonia gas!

G can be easily identified as ammonia gas since it is liberated from an ammonium salt. F must be an alkali, which must contain the sodium ion, since sodium sulfate is produced. F = sodium hydroxide G = ammonia gas

3. The pH values of 4 solutions are shown below.


Solution P pH 1
Strong acid

Q 5
Weak acid

R 10

S 12

Acidic (pH < 7)

Basic (pH > 7) Weak base Strong base

(a)Which solution will turn Universal Indicator red? P (since it is the strong acid) Q will make Universal Indicator turn yellow. (a)Which pair of solutions, when mixed, must produce an alkaline solution? R and S.