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Psychology in

Action (8e)

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 2: Neuroscience and

by

Karen Huffman

PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 2: Neuroscience and

Biological Foundations

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Lecture Overview

  • Neural Bases of Behavior

  • Nervous System Organization

  • A Tour Through the Brain

  • Our Genetic Inheritance

Lecture Overview  Neural Bases of Behavior  Nervous System Organization  A Tour Through the
Neural Bases of Psychology  Neuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and

Neural Bases of Psychology

Neural Bases of Psychology  Neuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and
  • Neuroscience: interdisciplinary

field studying how

biological processes relate to behavioral and

mental processes

Neural Bases of Psychology  Neuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology (Continued)  Our nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving

Neural Bases of Psychology (Continued)

Neural Bases of Psychology (Continued)  Our nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving
  • Our nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information).

Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman:

Neural Bases of Psychology:

The Structure of a Neuron

Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman:
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication  Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Neural Communication

  • Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a

neuron).

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication  Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication  Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Neural Communication (Continued)

  • Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of

neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters

(chemicals released by

neurons that alter activity in other neurons).

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural
Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons.

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Neural Communication (Continued)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons.
  • Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons.

These multiple messages then determine if an

action potential

occurs or not.

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Neural Communication (Continued)

  • Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron.

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)  Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons
Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life  Key neurotransmitters: • • • •

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Applying Psychology to Everyday Life

  • Key neurotransmitters:

Serotonin Acetylcholine (ACh)

Dopamine (DA)

Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine (adrenaline)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life  Key neurotransmitters: • • • •

GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life  Key neurotransmitters: • • • •

Endorphins

Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life  Key neurotransmitters: • • • •
Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life  Key neurotransmitters: • • • •

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites  Normal message  Blocked message (wrong shape)  Agonistic

Neural Bases of Psychology:

Receptor Sites

  • Normal message

Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites  Normal message  Blocked message (wrong shape)  Agonistic
  • Blocked message (wrong shape)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites  Normal message  Blocked message (wrong shape)  Agonistic
  • Agonistic drugs mimic shape and enhance neurotransmitter

  • Antagonistic drugs fill the site and block neurotransmitter

Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites  Normal message  Blocked message (wrong shape)  Agonistic
Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites  Normal message  Blocked message (wrong shape)  Agonistic
Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect Us  Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture

Neural Bases of Psychology:

How Hormones Affect Us

  • Endocrine System:

collection of glands

that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect Us  Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture
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Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization  Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord  Peripheral Nervous SystemH uffman: Psychology in Action (8e) " id="pdf-obj-12-6" src="pdf-obj-12-6.jpg">
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord

  • Peripheral Nervous System

(PNS): all nerves and neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body (subdivided into the

somatic and autonomic nervous systems)

Nervous System Organization ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization:

Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • Brain

  • Spinal Cord (transmits information into and out of the brain )

Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain  Spinal Cord (transmits information into and
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)  The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary,

Nervous System Organization:

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)  The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary,
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)  The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary,
Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)  The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary,
  • The spinal cord is also

responsible for

involuntary,

automatic

behaviors called

reflexes.

Nervous System Organization: Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  PNS connects CNS to the rest of the

Nervous System Organization: Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • PNS connects CNS to the rest of the body and is subdivided into:

    • Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles

    • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions and is further subdivided into:

      • Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses)

      • Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms)

Nervous System Organization:  Anatomy and functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems ©John Wiley

Nervous System Organization:

  • Anatomy and

functions of the

parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

Nervous System Organization:  Anatomy and functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems ©John Wiley
A Tour Through the Brain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through the Brain

A Tour Through the Brain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
A Tour Through the Brain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)
A Tour Through the Brain ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain  Three key structures of the hindbrain:  Medulla :

A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain

  • Three key structures of the hindbrain:

    • Medulla: life survival functions

    • Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming

    • Cerebellum: coordination of fine muscular movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)  Midbrain : collection of brain structures in the middle

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

  • Midbrain: collection of brain structures in

the middle of the brain; coordinates

movement patterns, sleep, and arousal

  • Reticular Formation: runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem; screens incoming information and

controls arousal

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)  Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus,

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

  • Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system

    • Thalamus: relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex

    • Hypothalamus: responsible for

emotions, drives, and regulating the

body’s internal environment

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)  Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

  • Limbic System: interconnected

group of forebrain structures involved

with emotions,

drives, and memory

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)  Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with
A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex  Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left

A Tour Through The Brain:

Cerebral Cortex

  • Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left and right cerebral hemispheres; regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes

A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex  Cerebral Cortex: thin surface layer on the left
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

A Tour Through The Brain:

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex  F rontal Lobes: receive and

A Tour Through The Brain:

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

  • Frontal Lobes: receive and coordinate messages from other lobes; responsible for

motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as

thinking, personality, emotion, and memory

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex  F rontal Lobes: receive and
A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)  Parietal Lobes: located at

A Tour Through The Brain:

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)

  • Parietal Lobes: located at

the top of the brain directly behind the frontal lobes; responsible for interpreting

bodily sensations

  • Temporal Lobes: located on each side of the brain above the ears; responsible for audition, language

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)  Parietal Lobes: located at

comprehension, memory, and some emotional control

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)  Occipital Lobes : located

A Tour Through The Brain:

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)  Occipital Lobes : located
  • Occipital

Lobes: located

at the back of

the brain; responsible for vision and visual

perception

A Tour Through The Brain: Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007

A Tour Through The Brain:

Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex

A Tour Through The Brain: Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007
A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization  The left and right hemispheres of your brain each

A Tour Through The Brain:

Lateralization

  • The left and right hemispheres of your

brain each specialize

in particular operations.

A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization  The left and right hemispheres of your brain each