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# Given: Slider crank mechanism; Forces acting on links: FP = 4000 N;FQ = 500 N; FR = 2000 N; Lengths of links in mm: AB = 300;

BC = 455; BE = 175; AD = 155 and L CAB = 450 To find : Forces F14 ; F34 ; F23 ; F32 ;F14 ; and Driving Torque T2 .

Given: In a four link mechanism shown here torque T3 and T4 have magnitudes of 30 Nm and 20 Nm respectively. The link lengths are AD = 800 mm, AB = 300 mm, BC = 700 mm, CD = 400 mm. For the static equilibrium of the mechanism determine the input torque T2. For Torque T4 F 34 = F 14 = T4 / h 4a = 52.2 N F 24 = F 43 = F23= F 32 = F 12 = 52.2 N T2a = F 32 h 2a = 14.3 Nm (CCW) For Torque T3 F 43 = F23= 44.8 N T2b= F 32 h 2b = 1.88 Nm (CCW) T2 = T2a +T2b= 16.18 Nm (CCW)

Unit-1: Formulae

Parameters involved are x, r, l, l1, ,, p1, p2, A1, A2, FR, mR, mC, k or R
, n = l / r; sin = [sin ] / n; , x = r [ (1-cos ) + (1/2n) sin2 ] , v p = r [ sin + (1/2n) sin 2] , a p = 2 r [ cos + (1/n) cos 2] , pc = (cos ) /n) ; pc = ( 2 sin ) /n) ;

Parameters involved are , , , , v, D, A, b, t, m, , k or R, T, P, N, I, E, E, , , W, Cs, CE . v = (/) = D N/60; = 2 N/60 T mean = Wcycle / cycle ; cycle = 4 for 4 stroke IC engine; cycle = 2 for 2stroke IC engine; Cs = (1 2)/ ; = (1 + 2)/ 2 Cs = (N1 N 2)/ N ; N = (N1 + N 2)/ 2 Cs = (v1 v2)/ v ; v = (v1 + v 2)/ 2 P = Tmean Wcycle = 60 P /(N/2) for 4 stroke cycle Wcycle = 60 P / N for 2 stroke cycle CE = E/ Wcycle 2 2 2 E = m v Cs = 2 E Cs = m k Cs = I 2 Cs I = (T T mean) = m k2
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## FL = [p1 (/4)D2 ] [p2(/4)(D d )2 ] FI = mR 2 r [ cos + (1/n) cos 2] Fp = F L FI m g FR

FQ = Fp / cos ; FN = Fp tan ; FB = FQ cos ( +) ; FT = FQ sin ( +) ; T = FT r

Unit-1: Formulae: Parameters involved are x, r, l, l1, ,, p1, p2, A1, A2, FR, mR, mC, k or R FL = [p1 (/4)D2 ] [p2(/4)(D d )2 ] FI = mR 2 r [ cos + (1/n) cos 2] Fp = F L F I m g FR FQ = Fp / cos ; FN = Fp tan ;

FB = FQ cos ( +) ; FT = FQ sin ( +) ; T = FT r

Problem1: Given Crank radius r = 0.3 m Connecting rod length l = 1 m Speed of engine N = 200 rpm Find (a) Crank angle at which maximum velocity occurs (b) Maximum velocity (c ) Derive the equation

Problem1: Given Crank radius r = 0.3 m Connecting rod length l = 1 m Speed of engine N = 200 rpm Find (a) Crank angle at which maximum velocity occurs (b) Maximum velocity

Problem 2: Given: Horizontal steam engine; Length of connecting rod l = 1.2 m Crank radius r = 0.3 m; Crank angle = 30 o Acceleration of piston a P = 35 m/s 2 ; Frictional resistance F R = 550 N Net effective pressure P1 P1 = 5 x 10 5 N/m 2 Diameter of the piston D = 0.3 m ; Mass of reciprocating parts m R = 160 kg Find (a) Reaction on the cross head guide F R ; (b) Thrust on crank shaft bearing F B (c ) Torque on crank shaft T

Problem 3: Given: Horizontal steam engine Length of connecting rod l = 1 m Crank radius r = 0.2 m Crank angle = 30 o Speed of the engine N = 400 rpm Net effective pressure P1 P2 = 0.4 N/mm 2 Diameter of the piston D = 0.4 m Mass of reciprocating parts m R = 100 kg Find (a)Inertia force; (b) Gas Force on piston; (c ) Piston effort; (d) Thrust on cylinder wall; (e) Thrust on connecting rod (f) Crank pin effort and (g) Crank effort Answers: = 41.89 r/s; n = 5; sin = 0.1; = 5.740; FI = 33.5 kN; FL= 50.26 kN kN; FP = 16.36 kN; FQ = 16.44 kN; FN = 1.64 kN; FT = 9.6 kN; T = 1.921 kNm

Problem 4: Given: Horizontal steam engine Length of connecting rod l = 1.2 m Crank radius r = 0.3 m Crank angle = 60 o Speed of the engine N = 250 rpm Net effective pressure P1 P2 = 0.35 N/mm 2 Diameter of the piston D = 0.5 m Mass of reciprocating parts m R = 250 kg Find (a)Inertia force; (b) Gas Force on piston; (c ) Piston effort; (d) Thrust on cylinder wall; (e) Thrust on connecting rod (f) Crank pin effort and (g) Crank effort Answers: = r/s; n = 4; sin = ;= FI = kN; FL= kN kN; FP = kN; FQ = kN; FN = kN; FT = kN; T = kNm

0;

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Problem 5: Given: Vertical double acting steam engine Cylinder bore diameter D = 0.3 m Stroke length L = 0.45 m Speed N = 200 rpm Mass of reciprocating parts mR = 225 kg Piston rod diameter d = 0.05 m Connecting rod length l = 1.2 m Crank angle = 180+125 =305o Steam pressure above piston P1 = 30 x 10 3 N/m 2 Steam pressure below piston P2 = 1.5 x 10 3 N/m 2

Find (a) Crank pin effort; (b) Effective turning moment on crank shaft

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Problem 5:

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Problem 6: Given Suspended connecting rod; h = 0.65 m; l1 = 0.625 m; m = 37.5 kg; t p = 1.87s; Find the masses at small end and big end m1 and m2

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Problem 7: Given: Petrol engine Speed N = 1800 rpm; Crank radius r = 0.05 m; Connecting rod length l = 0.2 m; Diameter of piston D = 0.08 m; Mass of reciprocating parts mR = 1 kg; Pressure on the piston P1 = 0.7 N/mm 2 Displacement from IDC = 0.01 m Find (a) net load on gudgeon pin FP; (b) Thrust on connecting rod FQ; Reaction between piston and cylinder FN; Engine speed at which the above values become zero (i.e. FI =FL )

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Problem 1: Given : Single cylinder single acting four stroke engine Power developed P = 20 kW; Speed N = 200 rpm; Flywheel mass m = 1000 kg; Radius of gyration k = 0.6 m; Work done in power stroke = 3 times work done on compression stroke; Find Coefficient of fluctuation of speed C S and coefficient of fluctuation of energy C E Answers: T mean = P/ = 954.93 Nm Work done / cycle = T mean x cycle= 60 P / (N/2) = 12 kNm Work done during expansion stroke = 3 (Work done during compression stroke) (i.e.) (/2 ) T max= 3 (/2 ) T min Net work done / cycle = (/2 ) T max 3 (/2 ) T min = 12 Hence T max = 11459.16 Nm; C E = E / W; E = (1/2) (T max T min )2 / T max E = I 2 C S = m k 2 2 C S = 15125 Nm; C S = 0.096

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Problem 1: Given : Single cylinder single acting four stroke engine Power developed P = 20 kW; Speed N = 200 rpm; Flywheel mass m = 1000 kg; Radius of gyration k = 0.6 m; Work done in power stroke = 3 times work done on compression stroke; Find Coefficient of fluctuation of speed C S and coefficient of fluctuation of energy C E Answers: T mean = P/ = 954.93 Nm Work done / cycle = T mean x cycle= 60 P / (N/2) = 12 kNm Work done during expansion stroke = 3 (Work done during compression stroke) (i.e.) (/2 ) T max= 3 (/2 ) T min Net work done / cycle = (/2 ) T max 3 (/2 ) T min = 12 Hence T max = 11459.16 Nm; C E = E / W; E = (1/2) (T max T min )2 / T max E = I 2 C S = m k 2 2 C S = 15125 Nm; C S = 0.096

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Problem 2: Given : Multi cylinder engine ; Scale: Y axis 1mm = 325 Nm; X axis 1 mm = 3 0 Areas above the mean torque line in mm2 in order are 26, +378, - 256, + 306, - 302, + 244, - 380, +261, - 225 Engine speed N = 800 rpm; Total fluctuation of speed 1.6% of mean speed. Radius of flywheel R = 0.7 m; Find Mass of the flywheel m

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Problem 3: Given: Multi cylinder engine; Scale: Y axis 1mm = 500 Nm; X axis 1 mm = 6 0 Intercepted areas between output torque curve and mean resistance in mm2 in order are -30, +410, - 280, + 320, - 330, + 250, - 360, +280, - 260 Engine speed N = 800 rpm; Stroke length L = 0.3 m Total fluctuation of speed 2% of mean speed. Safe centrifugal stress = 7 N/mm2 ; Density of flywheel material = 7200 kg/m3 Find the diameter of flywheel (Radius of flywheel R)

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Problem 4: Given: 3 cylinder single acting engine ; Angle between cranks = 120 0 Engine speed N = 600 rpm; Turning moment diagram for each cycle is a triangle In power stroke, T max = 90 Nm at 60 0 ; Torque on return stroke = 0 Mass of flywheel m = 12 kg; Radius of gyration of flywheel R = 0.08 m Find (a) Power developed P; (b) Coefficient of fluctuation of speed C S ; (c ) Coefficient of fluctuation of speed C E ; (d) Maximum angular acceleration of flywheel max

= 2 N/60 = 62.832 r/s ; Wcycle =3 (1/2) 90 = 424.115 Nm T mean = Wcycle / cycle = 424.115 / 2 = 67.5 Nm P = Tmean = 67.5 x 62.832 = 4241 W Energy at B = E (1/2) (/6)(67.5-45) = E 5.89 Enery at A B C D E F G E E -5.89 E +5.89 E -5.89 E +5.89 E -5.89 E +5.89 E = E +5.89 (E -5.89) = 11.78 Nm E = m v2 Cs = 2 E Cs = I 2 Cs = m k2 2 Cs 11.78 = 12 x 0.082 x 62.832 2 Cs ; Solving Cs = 0.04 CE = E/ Wcycle = 11.78 / 424.115 = 0.028

Maximum angular acceleration of flywheel, I max = m k2 max = (T max T mean) 12 0.08 2 max = 90 67.5 ; Solving max = 292 rad/s

H E

Problem 5: Given: Two stroke engine Torque developed T = 1000 + 300 sin 2 500 cos 2 Engine speed N = 250 rpm Mass of flywheel m = 400kg Radius of gyration of flywheel R = 0.4 m Find (a) Power developed P; (b) Total percentage of fluctuation of speed ; (c ) angular acceleration of flywheel at = 60 0 ; (d) Maximum angular acceleration of flywheel max

## Answers: Wcycle = 1000 Nm; T mean = Wcycle / cycle = 1000 Nm

P = Tmean = 26180 W T = T mean =at B = 29.5 0 and C = = 119.5 0 E = 583.08 Nm = I 2 Cs Cs = 0.0133; I = (T T mean) = m k2 At = 60 0 , T = ; = 7.965 rad/s2 Tmax occurs at 2 = 149.04 0 , 329.04 0 I = (Tmax T mean) = m k2 ; max = 9.11 rad/s2
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Problem 6: Given: Electric motor drives a punching machine Maximum speed of flywheel N1 = 250 rpm Minimum speed of flywheel N2 = 230 rpm Radius of gyration of flywheel k = 0.5 m Number of holes per hour = 800 Time for punching t = 1.5 sec/hole Energy required for punching E1 = 12000 Nm Find (a) Motor power P; (b) Fluctuation of energy E; (c ) Mass of the flywheel m Motor power P = energy required / sec = = Energy required for punchinga hole x No. of holes punched/hr = 12000 x 800 /(3600 x 1000)= 2.67 kW Energy supplied during punching operation E2 = P t = 2.667 x 1.5 = 4 000 Nm Fluctuation of energy of flywheel E = 12000 4000 = 8000 Nm We know E = (1/2) I (1 2 2 2) = (1/2) m k 2 (1 2 2 2) Solving, m = 607.93 kg

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Problem 7: Given: Electric motor drives a punching machine Maximum speed of flywheel N1 = 225 rpm Minimum speed of flywheel N2 = 200 rpm Radius of gyration of flywheel k = 0.5 m Number of holes per hour = 720 Time for punching t = 2 sec/hole Torque required for punching E1 = 15 kNm Find (a) Motor power P; (b) Fluctuation of energy E; (c ) Mass of the flywheel m

Motor power P = energy required / sec = = Energy required for punchinga hole x No. of holes punched/hr = 15000 x 720/(3600 x 1000)= 3 kW Energy supplied during punching operation E2 = P t = 3000 x 2 = 6000 Nm Fluctuation of energy of flywheel E = 15000 6000 = 9000 Nm We know E = (1/2) I (1 2 2 2) = (1/2) m k 2 (1 2 2 2) Solving, m = kg

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Unit 3

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
;

Derive the differential equation of motion for spring controlled simple pendulum Spring Force Fs = - ka; Where a is expansion in the spring Accelerating Torque Restoring Torque Equating the two,
l a

Hence

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
FREE VIBRATION Given: Shaft Freely supported; Shaft diameter = 0.025 m; Length of shaft = 0.7 m Load at mid point = 1 kg; Density of shaft material = 40000 kg/m3 ; Youngs modulus E = 210 x 10 9 m2 To find: Whirling speed of the shaft

Moment of inertia for circular shaft, Moment of inertia for rectangular beam, For simply supported beam with point load static deflection,

For simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load static deflection,
Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transverse vibration for beams,

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
FREE TRANSVERSE VIBRATION
Given: Shaft Freely supported; Shaft diameter = 0.010 m; Length of shaft = 0.4 m Load at mid point = 12 kg; Density of shaft material = 7500 kg/m3 ; Youngs modulus E = 200 x 10 9 N/m2 To find: Whirling speed of the shaft Ans: I = 4.91x10-10 m4; = 1.598x10-3 m; fn = 12.47 Hz; Nc = 748 rpm; s= 1.962x10-5 m; fn = 12.41 Hz; Nc = 744.6 rpm;

Moment of inertia for circular shaft, Moment of inertia for rectangular beam, For simply supported beam with point load static deflection,

For simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load static deflection,
Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transverse vibration for beams,

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Steel bar Dimensions: 2.5 cm wide, 5 cm deep; Freely supported at 1 m apart; Mass at mid point m = 200 kg; Weight of the bar is negligible; E = 27 x 1010 N/m2 To find: (a) frequency of natural transverse vibration; (b) Frequency of vibration if additional mass of 200 kg is distributed uniformly along the length of the shaft.

Moment of inertia for rectangular beam, For simply supported beam with point load static deflection, For simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load static deflection, Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transverse vibration for beams,

## Ans: I = 2.6x10-7m4; = 58.23x10-5 m; fn = 20.66 Hz s= 36.39x10-5 m; fn 16.20Hz;

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Spring, Upper end fixed; Mass attached to lower end m = 5 kg; Natural period t = 0.45 s; To find natural period if both ends of spring are fixed and m = 2.5 kg acts at midpoint.

Let k be keq of two half springs with stiffness k1 n = 13.96 rad/s ; k = 974.4 N/m
When springs are in parallel (i.e. spring is fixed at both ends),

## fn = 6.28 Hz; t = 0.16 sec

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
EQUATIONS OF MOTION Given: Vibrating system; Mass m = 3.5 kg; Spring stiffness k = 2.5 N/mm; Damping coefficient c = 0.018 N/mm/s To find: (a)Damping factor; (b) Natural frequency of damped vibrations Circular frequency of undamped vibration Critical damping coefficient Damping factor

## Natural frequency of damped vibration

Logrithmic decrement Ratio of successive amplitudes (n=1)

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY Given: Vibrating system; Mass m = 20 kg; Spring stiffness k = 4 N/mm; Amplitude at the beginning of 4th cycle = 0.8 times previous amplitude; To find: (a) Damping factor per unit velocity; (b) Ratio of frequency of damped and undamped vibrations.

n = 14.14 rad/s; = 0.035; cc = 565.6 Ns/m; c = 19.796 Ns/m; d = 14.13 rad/s; d / n = 0.999

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: damped free vibration; Mass m = 25 kg; Spring stiffness k = 15 kN/m; Damping = 15% of critical damping; To find: (a) Critical damping coefficient; (b) Damping factor; (c ) Natural frequency of damped vibration; (d) laogarithmic decrement; and (e) Ratio of two consecutive amplitudes of the vibrating system
Damping factor = 0.15 (given) Circular frequency of undamped vibration Critical damping coefficient Circular frequency of damped vibration Natural frequency of damped vibration Periodic time for damped vibration Logarithmic decrement Ratio of successive amplitudes (n=1) n = 24.5 rad/s; cc = 1225 Ns/m; c = 183.75 Ns/m; fd = 3.855 Hz;d = 24.22 rad/s; = 0.9532; X0/X1 = 2.594

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: vibrating system; Mass m = 3 kg; Spring stiffness k = 100 N/m; Damping coefficient, c = 3 Ns/m; To find: (a) Damping factor; (b) Natural frequency of damped vibrationl; (c ) Logarithmic decrement; (d) Ratio of two consecutive amplitudes; and (e) Number of cycles after which amplitude is reduced to 20%. Circular frequency of undamped vibration

## Critical damping coefficient

Circular frequency of damped vibration Damping factor Natural frequency of damped vibration Periodic time for damped vibration Logarithmic decrement No. of cycles for X0/Xn = 1/0.2

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Displacement vs Time Plot for under damped system

td

X0

Displacement x

## Time Displacement vs Time Plot for under damped system

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Damped oscillations; Mass m = 7.5 kg; Time for 60 oscillations t = 35 s; Ratio of 1st and 7th displacement = 2.5; To find: (a) Stiffness of the spring; (b) Damping resistance c in Ns/m; and (c ) Damping resistance required for critical damping. Natural frequency of damped vibration
Circular frequency d Logarithmic decrement (n=7) Damping factor Circular frequency of undamped vibration n Stiffness of spring k Critical damping resistance cc Damping resistance c

fd = 60/35 = 1.714 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Instrument; Frequency of vibration if there is no damping = 1 Hz; Frequency of damped vibration = 0.9 Hz; To find: (a) Damping factor; (b) Logarithmic decrement Given fn = 1 Hz; fd = 0.9 Hz Circular frequency of undamped vibration n Circular frequency of damped vibration d Time period td

Damping factor
Critical damping coefficient cc

## Ratio of successive amplitudes (n = 1), X0/X1

Logarithmic decrement

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
TRANSVERSE VIBRATION Given: Cantilever shaft; Shaft diameter d = 0.05 m; Length of shaft l = 0.3 m; Mass of disc at free end, m = 100 kg; Youngs modulus E = 200 x 10 9 N/m2 ; To find: (a) Frequency of longitudinal vibration; (b) Frequency of transverse vibration of the shaft. Longitudinal vibration: Displacement Area of cross section of shaft A
Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of longitudinal vibration Transverse vibration: Moment of Inertia of shaft I

## Static deflection for point load at the end of cantilever

Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transverse vibration

, ,

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF TRANSVERSE VIBRATION SYSTEM
Given: Simply supported shaft; Diameter of shaft d = 0.02 m; Length of shaft l = 0.6 m; Load at mid point m = 248.2 N; Youngs modulus of shaft material E = 200 x 10 9 N/m2 ; To find: Critical speed of shaft in rpm. Moment of inertia of shaft I Static deflection due to point loads Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transversevibration Critical speed Nc

## Ans: = 0.000711 m; Nc = 18.4 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
TRANSVERSE VIBRATION
Given: Simply supported shaft; Diameter d = 0.05 m; Length l = 3 m; Youngs modulus of shaft material E = 200 x 10 9 N/m2 ; Point Loads Distance from left support 1000 1 1500 2 750 2.5 N m

To find: Frequency of transverse vibration Moment of inertia of shaft I Static deflection due to point loads Load1 Load2 Load3 1000 1500 750 a = 1 2 2.5 b = 2 1 0.5

## Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transversevibration Critical speed Nc

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
TRANSVERSE VIBRATION

Given: Vertical shaft carrying a disc at centre, supported at ends; Diameter of shaft d = 0.005 m; Length of shaft l = 0.2 m; Mass of disc m = 50 kg; Speed of shaft = 0.75 critical speed; Distance of centre of disc from axis of shaft e = 0.00025 m; Youngs modulus of shaft material E = 200 x 10 9 N/m2 ; To find: (a) Critical speed; (b) Maximum bending stress at above speed

## Moment of inertia of shaft I

Static deflection
Dunkerleys formula for natural frequency of transversevibration Critical speed Nc Speed of the shaft N = 0.75 Nc at speed N, Max. bending stress

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF SINGLE ROTOR SYSTEM Given: Single rotor system; Natural frequency = 5 Hz; Diamter of steel rod d = 0.02 m; Inertia of mass fixed at free end I = 0.0098 kgm2 Modulus of rigidity C = 0.85 x 10 11 N/m2 To find: Length of steel rod. d Mass moment of inertia of mass ay free end, I I = 0.0098 kg m2
A

## Polar momemt of inertia J

Node

Antinode

Natural frequency considering inertia of the constraint Natural frequency neglecting inertia of the constraint L = 1.32 mm Note: q = q1 + q2 for parallel shafts; 1/q = 1/q1 + 1/q2 for series shafts;

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Free torsional vibration; Shaft length l = 1.5 m; Shaft carries flywheels at two ends;
Length Diameter Flywheel at Mass 0 0.6 0.095 0.6 1.1 0.06 1.1 1.5 0.05
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF TWO ROTOR SYSTEM

m m

## 0.05 dia end 700 Kg

0.85

0.55

To find: (a)Location of node; (b) Natural frequency of torsional vibrations Assume Modulus of rigidity G = 80 x 10 9 N/m2 ; L eq= 8.97 m Ia = ma ka2 = 650.25 kgm2 Ib = mb kb2= 211.75 kgm2 Ia La = Ib Lb La + Lb = L eq= 8.97 m On equivlent shaft, La = IbLb/Ia = 2.2 m; Lb = 6.77 m

On actual shaft, L a act = L1 +(La L1) (d2/d1)4 = 0.855 m; q = CJ/L Polar moment of inertia J =

## Natural frequency fn = fna = fnb = 3.37 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF TWO ROTOR SYSTEM Given: Shaft carrying flywheel and dynamo at ends; Modulus of rigidity C = 83 x 103 N/mm2 Dynamo Mass Radius of gyration Effective shaft dia Effective length 120 0.0225 0.05 0.2 Flywheel 180 0.03 0.05 0.25 Kg m m m

To find: (a) Position of node; (b) Frequency of torsional oscillations L eq= 0.45 m Ia = ma ka2 = 0.06075kgm2 Ia La = Ib Lb La + Lb = L eq= 0.45 m On equivlent shaft, La = IbLb/Ia = 0.327m; Lb =0.123 m q = CJ/L

Ib = mb kb

2=

0.162

kgm2

On actual shaft, L a act = L1 +(La L1) (d2/d1)4 = 0.327 m; Polar moment of inertia J =

## Natural frequency fn = fna = fnb = 254.6 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF TWO ROTOR SYSTEM
Length m Dia of shaft m 0 0.275 0.075 0.275 0.775 0.125 0.775 1.15 0.0875 1.15 1.25 0.175

Given: Total length of shaft l = 1.25 m as above; Shaft carries two rotors at its ends; Mass moment of inertia of Rotor 1: 75 kgm2 Mass moment of inertia of Rotor 2: 50 kgm2 Modulus of rigidity of shaft material C = 80 x 10 9 N/m2 To find: Frequency of natural torsional vibrations of the shaft

L eq=

0.545 m

Ia = ma ka2 = 75kgm2

Ib = mb kb

2=

50kgm2

Ia La = Ib Lb La + Lb = L eq= 0.545m

## On equivlent shaft, La = IbLb/Ia = 0.218 m; Lb =0.327 m

On actual shaft, L a act = L1 +(La L1) (d2/d1)4 = 0.218 m;La < L1 hence L a act = La Polar moment of inertia J = q = CJ/L

## Natural frequency fn = fna = fnb = 19.60 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF TWO ROTOR SYSTEM

## Given: two rotor systems; Length of shaft l = 0.5 m; A B

Mass Radius of gyration Shaft diameter 300 0.3 500 0.45 Kg m

0.07 m upto 0.25 m long; 0.12 m for next 0.07 m long; 0.10 m for remaining length Modulus of rigidity C = 80 x 10 9 N/m2 To find: (a) Position of node; (b) Frequency of torsional vibrations of the shaft. L eq0.301m Ia = ma ka2 = 27kgm2 Ia La = Ib Lb La + Lb = L eq= 0.301 m

Ib = mb kb2= 101.25kgm2

On actual shaft, L a act = L1 +(La L1) (d2/d1)4 = 0.145 m; Polar moment of inertia J =

q = CJ/L

## Natural frequency fn = fna = fnb = 27.27 Hz

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THREE ROTOR SYSTEM
Given: Three rotors A, B, C; Shaft diameter d = 0.04 m; Modulus of rigidity C = 85x 10 9 N/m2 Distance between A and B = 1.25 m; Distance between B and C = 4 m A B C

Moment of Inertia

7.5

22.5

12.5

kgm2

To find (a) Frequency of torsional vibrations; (b) position of nodes; (c ) Amplitudes of vibrations IA = 7.5 kgm2; IB =22.5 kgm2; IC = 12.5 kgm2; d = 0.04 m; C = 8.5E10 N/m2 ; L1 = 1.25 m; L2 = 4 m; In a three rotor system, fnA = fnB = fnC ; ..(1) ..(2) Solving (1) and (2), Answer1: la > l1 and lc <l2 Answer2: lc < l1 and lc <l2 m (or) m Hence single node system Hence two nodes system

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THREE ROTOR SYSTEM
Given: Three rotors A, B, C; Shaft diameter d = 0.07 m; Modulus of rigidity C = 84x 10 9 N/m2 Distance between A and B = 1.5 m; Distance between B and C = 1.0 m A B C

Moment of Inertia

0.3

0.6

0.18

kgm2

To find (a) Frequency of torsional vibrations; (b) position of nodes; (c ) Amplitudes of vibrations IA = 0.3 kgm2; IB =0.6 kgm2; IC = 0.18 kgm2; d = 0.07m; C = 8.4E10 N/m2 ; L1 = 1.5 m; L2 = 1.0 m; In a three rotor system, fnA = fnB = fnC ; ..(1) ..(2) Solving (1) and (2), Answer1: Answer2: m (or) m Hence single node system Hence two nodes system

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THREE ROTOR SYSTEM Given: Three rotors A, B, C; Modulus of rigidity C = 80x 10 9 N/m2 Distance between A and B = 0.05 m dia, 2 m long; Distance between B and C = 0.025 m dia, 2 m long Engine A Moment of Inertia 800 Flywheel B 320 Propeller C 20 kgm2

To find (a) Natural Frequency of torsional vibrations; (b) position of nodes; IA = 800 kgm2; IB =320 kgm2; IC = 20 kgm2; d1 = 0.05 m;d2= 0.025 m; C = 8.0E10 N/m2 ; L1 = 2.0 m; L2 = 2.0 m; In a three rotor system, fnA = fnB = fnC ; ..(1) ..(2) Solving (1) and (2), Answer1: Answer2: m (or) m

## Hence single node system Hence two nodes system

Unit 4

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Helical spring; Fixed at one end and mass at the other end; Mass m = 10 kg; Stiffness of spring k = 10 N/mm; Decrease in amplitude in 4 complete revolutions = (1/10) initial value; Periodic force on mass in vertical direction = 150 cos 50 t N To find: (a) Amplitude of forced vibration; (b) Amplitude value of resonance

A = 0.0827 m

At resonance,

A = 0.0824 m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass suspended from a spring; Mass of body m = 15 kg; Static deflection = 0.012 m; To find: (a) frequency of free vibration; (b) Viscous damping force if motion is periodic with speed 1 mm/c; (c ) Amplitude of ultimate motion if maximum value of disturbing force is 100 N and frequency of vibration is 6 Hz.

Damping force required to make the motion aperiodic at a speed of 1 mm/s: Motion is aperiodic when frequency fn = 0 or when it is critically damped =n = n = 28.59 rad/s C = cc = 2 m n = 857 Ns/m = 0.857 Ns/mm Damping force required to make the motion aperiodic at a speed of 1 mm/s = 0.857 N Amplitude of forced vibration A or x max : For forced vibration, = 2 f = 2 6 = 37.7 rad/s Hence stiffness of spring k = mg/ = 37.7 rad/s Frequency ratio /n = 37.7/28.59 = 1.319 Amplitude of forced vibration A or x max = 0.0029 m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Single cylinder vertical petrol engine; Mass of engine m = 200 kg; Mass mounted on steel chassis frame; Static deflection of frame = 0.0024 m; Mass of reciprocating parts mR = 9 kg; vertical stroke of SHM = 0.16 m; Dash pot is used; Damping coefficient C = 1 Ns/mm; Speed of driving shaft N = 500 rpm; To find: (a) Amplitude of forced vibration under steady state; (b) Speed of driving shaft at which resonance will occur.

2.005

Hence A = 0.0072 m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of machine m = 75 kg; Stiffness of spring k = 1200 kN/m; Damping factor = 0.2; Mass of reciprocating piston mR = 2 kg; Stroke length L = 0.08 m; Speed = 3000 cycles/min Motion is SHM. To find: (a) Amplitude of motion of machine; (b) Phase angle with respect to exciting force; (c ) Force transmitted to foundation; (d) Phase angle of transmitted force with respect to exciting force;

e = L/2 = 0.04 m
Unbalanced force F0 = mR 2 e = 7895.68 N Phase angle A = X max = 0.00125 m FT = 2112.62 N Phase angle of transmitted force

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of machine m = 1000 kg; External Force F = 2450 N; Frequency of external force = 1500 rpm; Isolator used is Rubber; Static deflection of isolator = 0.002 m; Estimated damping = 0.2; To find: (a) Force transmitted to foundation; (b) Amplitude of vibration; and (c ) phase angle

## K = mg/ = 4905000 N/m; = 2N/60 = 157.14 rad/s; /n = 2.244 28000 Ns/m

= 0.325; FT = 798.8 N

A = 1.2 x 10 -4 m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of refrigerator unit m = 30 kg; No. of support springs n =3; Force transmitted to support structure = 0.1 impressed force Speed of the unit = 420 rpm To find: (a) Stiffness of each spring; (b) Deduce the expression for transmissibility. m = 30 kg; n = 3; FT = 0.1 Fo ; N = 420 rpm;
= FT /FO = 0.1 = 2N/60 = 43.98 rad/s;

No damper is used = 0

## = 0.1; hence /n= 3.32; n = 13.26 rad/s

Hence, keq = 5275.2 N/m; n = 3 in parallel For each spring, k = keq/3 = 1758.4 N/m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of machine m = 80 kg; No. of support springs n = 4; Mass of reciprocating parts mR = 2.2 kg; Vertical stroke of SHM L = 0.1 m; Neglect damping; Force transmitted to foundation = (1/20) impressed force; Speed of machine crank shaft = 800 rpm; Damping reduces amplitudes of successive vibrations by 30%; To find: (a) Combined stiffness of spring; (b) Force transmitted to the foundation at 800 rpm; (c ) Force transmitted to the foundation at resonance; and (d) Amplitude of vibration at resonance.
m =80 kg; mR = 2.2 kg; n = 4; X1 = 0.7 X0 ; N = 800 rpm; FT = Fo / 20 ; L = 0.1 m; e = L/2 = 0.05 m = 2N/60 = 83.81 rad/s; No damper is used = 0

= 0.1; hence /n= 4.583; n = 18.287rad/s Hence, keq = 26739 N/m; n = 4 in parallel For each spring, k 1 = keq/4= 6684.8 N/m

## Logarithmic decrement = ln (X0/X1) = ln(1/0.7) = 0.3567

Contd. Given: Mass of machine m = 80 kg; No. of support springs n = 4; Mass of reciprocating parts mR = 2.2 kg; Vertical stroke of SHM L = 0.1 m; Neglect damping; Force transmitted to foundation = (1/20) impressed force; Speed of machine crank shaft = 800 rpm; Damping reduces amplitudes of successive vibrations by 30%; To find: (a) Combined stiffness of spring; (b) Force transmitted to the foundation at 800 rpm; (c ) Force transmitted to the foundation at resonance; and (d) Amplitude of vibration at resonance. Fo = mR 2 e = 772.63 N

= 0.067

## = 0.0586; At resonance, = n = 18.28 rad/s; At resonance,

FT = 0.0586x772.63 = 45.3 N

## =7.53; FT = 276.73 N At resonance, A = 7.463x772.1/26739 = 0.0.01 m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of machine m = 100 kg; Spring stiffness k = 700 kN/m = 700000 N/m; Disturbing force due to unbalanced rotating parts = 350 N; Speed N = 3000 rpm; Damping factor = 0.2 To find: (a) Amplitude of motion due to unbalance; (b) Transmissibility; and (c ) Transmitted force.

/n = A=

FT = 4789 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Electric motor supported on springs and dashpot; Spring stiffness k = 6400 N/m; Dashpot resistance = 500 N at 4 m/s; Unbalanced mass = 0.5 kg; Radius of unbalanced mass r = 0.05 m; Total mass of vibratory system = 20 kg; Speed of motor N = 400 rpm; To find: (a) Damping factor; (b) Amplitude of vibration; (c ) Phase angle; (d) Resonant speed; (e) Resonant amplitude; and (f) Force exerted by spring and dashpot on the motor.
c = F/v = 500/4 = 125 Ns/m; cc = 2m n = 2x20x 17.885 = 715.5418 Ns/m; = c/ cc = 0.175

A = 0.0015 m

At resonance, A res = 0.00357 m = 2N/60 = 41.905 rad/s; FC = cA = 125x41.905x0.0015 = 7.86 N FS = kA = 6400 x 0.0015 = 9.60 N; = 12.4 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Mass of electric motor = 120 kg; Speed of motor N = 1500 rpm; Armature mass = 35 kg; CG of armature mass lies 0.5 mm from the axis of rotation; Number of support springs n = 5; Damping is negligible; Force transmitted = (1/11) impressed force To find: (a) Stiffness of each spring; (b) Natural frequency of the system; and (c ) Dynamic force transmitted to the base at the operating speed.
m = 150 kg; N = 1500 rpm = 2N/60 = 157.08 rad/s; e = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m; mo = 35 kg; = FT/Fo = 1/11 Total mass m = 150+35 = 185 k When damping is negligible, = 0; k= 32480.7 N/m

## Fo = mo 2 e = 35x157.08 2x0.0005 = 431.7972 N FT = Fo = (1/11)431.7972 = 39.25 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Number of isolators = 6; Stiffness of each isolator k = 32000 N/m; Number of dashpots =6; Damping resistance = 400 Ns/m (?) Mass of rotating device m = 30 kg; Rotating speed = 600 rpm; Amplitude of vibration Y = Xo = 0.06 m; To find: (a) Amplitude of vibration of body; (b) Dynamic load on each isolator.
Check with key 10417 14b

A/Y = 1.4549; A = 0.06x1.4549 = 0.087 m Dynamic load on each isolator: = 2N/60 = 62.86 rad/s; FC = cA = 400x62.86x0.087= 2187.528 N FS = kA = 32000 x 0.087 = 2784 N;

= 3540.6 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Refrigerator mass =40 kg; Number of support springs =3; Speed = 520 rpm; % of shaking force allowed to be transmitted to support structure = 12% To find: Stiffness of each spring k , m = 40 kg; N = 520 rpm = 2N/60=54.45 rad/s; c = 0 since no damping, hence = c/cc = 0; = 0.12

## = 0.12 Solving, /n = 3.056 ; n = 17.82 rad/s;

K eq = 12706.3 N/m 3 springs are parallel k eq = k + k + k Hence for each spring, k = k eq/3 = 4235.4 N/m

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Given: Machine mass = 100 kg; Supported on spring; Total stiffness k = 7.84 x 105 N/m; Unbalanced rotating masses cause disturbing force 392 N at a speed 3000 rpm; Damping factor =0.2; To find: (a) Amplitude of motion due to unbalance; (b) Transmissibility; and (c ) Force transmitted.
, m = 100 kg; k =7.84x105 N/m; F0 = m 2 e = 392 N; N = 3000 rpm = 2N/60=314.16 rad/s; = 0.2

A = 4.3x10 -5 m

= 0.149

FT = F0 = 392x0.149 = 58.58 N

Unit 5

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 1: Given: two wheeler; Wheel Radius r = 0.35 m Radius of turn R = 70 m; Speed of the vehicle v = 100 kmph = 27.8 m/s; Mass of the vehicle and rider m = 250 kg; CG of the rider above ground h = 0.6 m; Mass moment of inertia of engine flywheel Ie = 0.3 kg m2 Mass moment of inertia of each road wheel Iw = 1.0 kg m2 Ratio of speed of engine to speed of wheel G = 5 To find angle of heel of the vehicle Gyroscopic couple CG = (2 Iw + G Ie ) cos v2 / (R r) = 110.22 cos Nm Centrifugal couple CC = (m v2 /R) h cos = 1652.5 cos Nm Total overturning couple C = CG + CC = 1762.72 cos Nm Balancing couple CB= mgh Sin Nm = 1471.5 sin Nm Equating C = CB , tan = 1762.72/1471.5 = 1.198; = 50.14 0

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 2: Given: Motor cycle - two wheeler; Wheel Diameter = 0.6 m, hence Radius r = 0.3 m Radius of turn R = 30 m; Speed of the vehicle v = 15m/s; Mass of the vehicle and rider m = 180 kg; CG of the rider above ground h = 0.6 m; Mass moment of inertia of engine flywheel Ie = 1.5 kg m2 Mass moment of inertia of rotating parts Iw = 8.0 kg m2 Ratio of speed of engine to speed of wheel G = 6 To find angle of heel of the vehicle Gyroscopic couple CG = (2 Iw + G Ie ) cos v2 / (R r) = 312.5cos Nm Centrifugal couple CC = (m v2 /R) h cos = 810 cos Nm Total overturning couple C = CG + CC = 1122.5 cos Nm Balancing couple CB= mgh Sin Nm = 1059.48 sin Nm Equating C = CB , tan = 1122.5/1059.48 = 1.0595 = 46.6 0

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 3: Given: Aeroplane; turns left; Radius of turn R = 50 m; Speed of the flight v = 200 kmph = 55.6m/s; Mass of the rotary engine m = 400 kg; Radius of gyration of mass k = 0.3m Engine speed N = 2400 rpm To find (a) Gyroscopic couple on the aircraft; and (b) Effect of couple on the aircraft if it turns right I = mk2 = 400 x 0.32 = 36 kg m2 Spin velocity = 2 N/60 = 251.4 r/s Precession velocity p = v/R = 55.6/50 = 1.11 r/s; Gyroscopic couple CG = Iw p = 36 x 251.4 x 1.1 = 10.05 kNm Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn Effect of Gyroscopic couple Rear side Clockwise Left Lift the nose Dip the tail Rear side Clockwise Right Dip the nose Lift the tail

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 4: Given: Aeroplane; turns left; Radius of turn R = 2000 m; Speed of the flight v = 1000 kmph = 277.78 m/s; Mass of the rotary engine m = 200 kg; Radius of gyration of mass k = 0.25m Engine speed N = 10000 rpm
To find (a) Gyroscopic couple on the aircraft; and (b) Effect of couple on the aircraft if it turns right I = mk2 = 200 x 0.252 = 12.5 kg m2 Spin velocity = 2 N/60 = 1047.2 r/s Precession velocity p = v/R = 277.78/2000 = 0.1389 r/s; Gyroscopic couple CG = Iw p = 12.5x 1047.2 x 0.1389 = 1818.2 Nm Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn Effect of Gyroscopic couple Front side Clockwise Left Lift the tail Dip the nose Front side Clockwise Right Lift the nose dip the tail

## Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn Effect of Gyroscopic couple

Front side Clockwise Left Lift the tail Dip the nose

Front side Clockwise Right Lift the nose dip the tail Front side Anticlockwise

Lift the nose

## Right Dip the nose

Lift the tail Rear side Clockwise Right Dip the nose Lift the tail

## Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn Effect of Gyroscopic couple

Rear side Clockwise Left Dip the tail Lift the nose

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 5: Given: Four Wheeler; Total mass m = 3000 kg; Each axle with 2 wheels and gear has total moment of inertia I = 32 kg m2 Each wheel Radius r = 450 mm = 0.45 m; Centre distance between two wheels on the axle x = 1.4 m; Each axle is driven by a motor with speed ratio 1:3 i.e. G = 3 Each motor along with its gear has a moment of inertia Ie = 16 kg m2 Motor and axle rotate in opposite directions Centre of mass of the is am above the rail i.e. h = 1 m; To find (a) limiting speed v of the car when car travels around a curve (R =) 250 m radius without the wheels leaving the rails Moment of inertia of each wheel Iw = 32/2 = 16 kg m2 Moment of inertia of each motor Ie = 16 kg m2 Reaction due to weight R w = mg / 4 = 3000 x 9.81 /4 = 7357.5 N Gyroscopic couple (a) of wheels Cw = 4 Iw v2 / (Rr) = 0.569 v2 Gyroscopic couple (b) of motor Ce = 2 Ie v2 / (Rr) = 0.853 v2 Net Gyroscopic couple CG = Cw Ce = = 0.569 v2 - 0.853 v2 = - 0.284 v2 Reaction due to Gyroscopic couple RG = CG / 2x = - 0.1014 v2 Centrifugal couple CC = (m v2 /R) h = (3000x1/250) v2 = 12 v2 Reaction due to Centrifugal couple RC = CC / 2x = 4.286v2

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Reaction due to weight R w = mg / 4 = 3000 x 9.81 /4 = 7357.5 N Gyroscopic couple (a) of wheels Cw = 4 Iw v2 / (Rr) = 0.569 v2 Gyroscopic couple (b) of motor Ce = 2 Ie v2 / (Rr) = 0.853 v2 Net Gyroscopic couple CG = Cw Ce = = 0.569 v2 - 0.853 v2 = 0.284 v2 Reaction due to Gyroscopic couple RG = CG / 2x = 0.1014 v2 Centrifugal couple CC = (m v2 /R) h = (3000x1/250) v2 = 12 v2 Reaction due to Centrifugal couple RC = CC / 2x = 4.286v2 Reaction due to wheel Gyroscopic couple Centrifugal couple Total Condition R 0 0 Inner wheel 7357.5 N +0.1014 v2 -4.286 v2 Outer wheel 7357.5 N -0.1014 v2 4.286 v2 14714.5 N

Total reaction on the inner wheel , R = 7357.5 -0.1014 v2 +4.286 v2 = 0 Solving v = 41.93 m/s = 151 kmph Substituting for v, Reaction on outer wheel Ro = 14714.5 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 6: Given: Racing car; Mass of the car m = 2.3 tonnes = 2300 kg = 23000x9.81 = 22563 N ; Wheel base l = 2.5 m; Track x = 1.4 m; Height of CG above the ground h = 0.6 m; Distance of CG from rear axle lr = 1.5 m; equivalent mass of engine parts m1 =150 kg; Its radius of gyration k = 160 mm = 0.16 m; Back axle ratio G = 5; The engine shaft and flywheel rotate clockwise viewed from front; Diameter of each wheel d = 0.7 m; Moment of inertia of each wheel Iw = 0.7 kgm2 ; Speed of the car v = 74 kmph = 20.56 m/s; Radius of curve R = 100 m; To find: (a) Load distribution on each wheel when it turns left; and (b) ) Load distribution on each wheel when it turns right. Let Fi and Fo be inner and outer wheel at Front end F; and Ri and Ro be inner and outer wheel at rear end R Weight on each front wheel = WF / 2; Weight on each rear wheel = WR / 2; Reaction due to weight of the car: Using relations, W = WF + WR = 22563 N Moment about R, WF l W lr = 0; WF = 22563x1.5/2.5 = 13537.8 N; WR = 22563 13537.8 = 9025.2 N

Reaction due to overturning centrifugal couple: Centrifugal force CF = (m v2 /R) = 2300x20.562x / 100 = 9722.41 N; Centrifugal Overturning couple Co = CF x h = 9722.41x0.6 = 5833.45 Nm Reaction on ground on Inner wheel Rfi = Rri = Co / 2x = 5833.45/(2x1.4) = 2083.375 N; Reaction on ground on Outer wheel Rfo = Rro = Co / 2x = 5833.45/(2x1.4) = 2083.375 N; Reaction due to Gyroscopic couple for wheels (Left Turn; View from right: clockwise) Angular velocity of wheel = v/r = 20.56/0.35 = 58.743 r/s; Precession velocity p = v/R = 20.56 / 100 = 0.2056 r/s Gyroscopic couple Cgw = 4 Iw p = 4 x 0.7 x 58.743 x 0.2056 = 33.82 Nm Reaction on ground on Outer wheel Rfo = Rro = Cgw / 2x = 33.82/(2x1.4) = 12.08N; Reaction on ground on Inner wheel Rfi = Rri = Cgw / 2x = 33.82/(2x1.4) = 12.08 N; Reaction due to Gyroscopic couple for engine (Left Turn; View from front: clockwise) Inertia of engine IE = m1 k2 = 150 x 0.162 = 3.84 kgm2 ; G = 5; Gyroscopic couple CgE = IE G p = 4 x 3.84x 5 x 58.7432 x 0.2056 = 231.89 Nm Reaction on ground on Front wheel Rfi = Rfo = CgE / 2l = 231.89/(2x2.5) = 46.83 N; Reaction on ground on Rear wheel Rri= Rro = CgE / 2l= 231.89/(2x2.5) = 46.83 N;

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Reaction on inner wheels downwards (negative) Front Reaction on rear wheels downwards (negative)

lr

Rear h

## Vector diagram for engine

Direction of view Direction of rotation Wheel Direction of rotation Engine Direction of Turn Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (wheel) on the road Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (engine) on the road

Front side Clockwise Left Front Inner wheel negative Rear inner wheel negative

Right side Clockwise Left Rear Inner wheel negative Rear outer wheel negative

\ on

## Gyroscopic couple - wheel

Gyroscopic couple - engine Total reaction in N

12.08
46.83 4719.825

12.08
46.83 8910.735

12.08
46.83 2370.765

12.08
46.83 6561.675

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Reaction due to weight Centrifugal couple Gyroscopic couple - wheel \ on Front Inner 6768.9 2083.375 12.08 Front Outer Rear Inner 6768.9 2083.375 12.08 4512.6 2083.375 12.08 Rear Outer 4512.6 2083.375 12.08

## Gyroscopic couple - engine Total reaction in N

46.83 4719.825

46.83 8910.735

46.83 2370.765

46.83 6561.675

For Right Turn, change all negative terms to positive and vice-versa except for the first row.
Reaction due to Weight Centrifugal couple \ on Front Inner 6768.9 2083.375 Front Outer Rear Inner 6768.9 2083.375 4512.6 2083.375 Rear Outer 4512.6 2083.375

## Gyroscopic couple - wheel Gyroscopic couple - engine

Total reaction in N

12.08 46.83
8864.355

12.08 46.83
4627.065

12.08 46.83
6654.435

12.08 46.83
2463.525

PROBLEM 7: Given: Four wheeled trolley car; Mass = 2000 kg; Rail gauge x = 1.6 m; Curve radius R = 30 m; Speed v = 54 kmph = 15 m/s; Track is banked at 8o (=); Diameter of wheel d = 0.7 m(hence radius of wheel r = d/2 = 0.35 m); Each pair with axle has a mass of 200 kg; Radius of gyration of each pair, k = 0.3 m; Height of CG of the car above wheel base h = 1 m; To find: (a) The centrifugal force; (b) Gyroscopic couple action; and pressure on each wheel. Reaction due to mass and centrifugal couple Here we shall combine components of Fc and W Fc cos RA + RB = W cos + Fc sin = 21518 N Moment about B, Fc h RA x = (W cos + Fc sin ) (x/2) + (W sin - Fc cos ) h = 5091 Solving for RA + and RB , RA = 3181.875 N and RB = 18336 .125N Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = 1590.938 N Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 9168.032 N W sin Reaction due to gyroscopic couple Inertia I = m1 k2 = 200 x 0.3 2 = 18 Angular velocity of wheels , = v/r = 15/0.35 = 42.857 r/s Angular velocity of precession , p= v/R = 15/30 = 0.5 r/s Gyroscopic couple Cg = 2 I p cos = 763.92 N Reaction at each wheel due to gyroscopic couple Cg/2x = 763.92/(2x1.6) = 238.725 N
W
W cos + Fc sin

Direction of view Direction of rotation Wheel Direction of rotation Engine Direction of Turn Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (wheel) on the road Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (engine) on the road

Front side Not applicable Left Front Inner wheel negative Nil

Reaction due to

\ on

## Gyroscopic couple - engine

Total reaction in N

Nil
1352.213

Nil
9406.787

Nil
1352.275

Nil
9406.787

PROBLEM 8: Given: Four wheeled trolley car; Mass = 2000 kg; Rail gauge x = 1.6 m; Curve radius R = 30 m; Speed v = 54 kmph = 15 m/s; Track is banked at 8o (=); Diameter of wheel d = 0.7 m(hence radius of wheel r = d/2 = 0.35 m); Each pair with axle has a mass of 200 kg; Radius of gyration of each pair, k = 0.3 m; Height of CG of the car above wheel base h = 1 m; To find: (a) The centrifugal force; (b) Gyroscopic couple action; and pressure on each wheel.

Fc cos

Reaction due to mass : RA + RB = W cos = 19429.06 ; Moment about B, RA x = W cos (x/2) + (W sin ) h = 18273.82 Hence RA = 11421.14 N; RB = 8007.92 N Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = 5710.57 N ..(1) Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 4003.96 N ..(2) Reaction due to centrifugal couple RA + RB = Fc sin = 2087.597 ; Moment about B, RA x = Fc sin (x/2) - Fc cos ) h =-13183.9 Nm Hence RA = -8239.9649 N; RB = 10327.5614 N Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = -4119.98 N ..(3) Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 5163.78N ..(4)
W sin W

Fc

W cos + Fc sin

PROBLEM 8 Continued
Reaction due to mass : Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = 5710.57 N ..(1) Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 4003.96 N ..(2) Reaction due to centrifugal couple Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = -4119.98 N ..(3) Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 5163.78N ..(4) Reaction due to gyroscopic couple Inertia I = m1 k2 = 200 x 0.3 2 = 18 Angular velocity of wheels , = v/r = 15/0.35 = 42.857 r/sW sin Angular velocity of precession , p= v/R = 15/30 = 0.5 r/s Gyroscopic couple Cg = 2 I pcos = 763.92 N Hence RA = RB = Cg /x = 477.45 N Reaction at each inner wheel = RA /2 = -238.725N ..(5) Reaction at each outer wheel = RB /2 = 238.725N ..(6)
Fc cos Fc

W W cos + Fc sin

## Direction of rotation Wheel Direction of rotation Engine

Direction of Turn Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (wheel) on the road Reaction Effect of Reactive Gyroscopic couple (engine) on the road Reaction due to Weight Centrifugal couple \ on Front Inner 5710.57 4119.98

Nil Clockwise
Left Front Inner wheel negative Nil

Clockwise Nil
Rear Inner wheel negative Nil

## Gyroscopic couple - wheel

Gyroscopic couple - engine Total reaction in N

238.725
1351.865

238.725
9406.465

238.725
1351.865

238.725
9406.465

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
PROBLEM 9: Given: Pair of locomotive driving wheels with axle have inertia I2w = 190 kg m2; Diameter of the wheel treads d = 1.8 m; (hence , r = 0.9 m); Distance between wheel centres , x = 1.5 m;Speed v = 90 kmph = 90/3.6 = 25 m/s; Raise and fall due to ballasting defects on the road is 6 mm in a total time of 0.1 s (= t); (hence amplitude A = raise/2 (or) fall/2 = 6/2 = 3 mm); Displacement is SHM; To find: (a) Gyroscopic couple set up; (b) Reaction between wheel and rail due to couple. I2w = 190 kg m2; r = 0.9 m; x = 1.5 m; v = 25 m/s; A = 0.003 m; t = 0.1 s; Gyroscopic couple set up: Angular velocity of wheel = v/r = 2.5/0.9 = 27.78 r/s Amplitude A = raise or fall /2 = 6/2 = 3 mm = 0.003 m Maximum velocity during raise or fall v max = 2A/t = 2/0.1 = 0.1885 m/s Angular velocity of precession (tilt) , p max = v max /R = 0.1885/1.5 = 0.1266 r/s Therefore Gyroscopic couple set up Cg = I2w p max = 190 x 27.78 x 0.1266 = 663.278 Nm Gyroscopic couple acts in horizontal plane. Effect of gyroscopic couple: Tend to swerve i.e. turn the locomotive aside. Reaction between wheel and rail R = Cg / x = 663.278 / 1.5 = 442.185 N

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS View from stern,Anticlockwise a Left turn, raises the stern
b

b
o

o b a a

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 10a: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 2500 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 3200 rpm counter clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 0.4 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship turns left at radius R = 80 m and speed v = 15 knots (1 knot = 1860 m/h). Solution: Mass, m = 2500 kg; k = 0.4m; I = mk2 = 2500 x 0.4 2 = 400 kg m2 N = 3200 rm; = 2 N/60 = 335.1 r/s; v = 15 knots = 15 x 1860/3600 = 7.75 m/s; R = 80 m; p = v/R = 7.75/80 = 0.0969r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 400 x 335.1 x 0.0969 = 12988.5 Nm

## Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn Effect of Gyroscopic couple

Rear side (Stern) Counter Clockwise Left Raise the stern Lower the bow

Rear side (Stern) Counter Clockwise Right Raise the bow Lower the stern

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 10b: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 2500 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 3200 rpm counter clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 0.4 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship pitches 5o above and 5o below normal position and bow is descending with maximum velocity. Pitching motion is SHM with periodic time tp = 40 s; (b) Maximum angular acceleration a max . Solution: Mass, m = 2500 kg; k = 0.4m; I = mk2 = 2500 x 0.4 2 = 400 kg m2 N = 3200 rm; = 2 N/60 = 335.1 r/s; = 5o= 5 x /180 = 0.0873 rad; tp = 40 s; o = 2 / tp = 2 / 40 = 0.157 r/s; p = o = 0.0873 x 0.157 = 0.0137 r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 400 x 335.1 x 0.0137 = 1836.5 Nm Direction of view Direction of rotation During Pitching Effect of Gyroscopic couple Rear side (Stern) Counter Clockwise Bow descends Turns towards right (Starboard side) Rear side (Stern) Counter Clockwise Bow raises Turns towards left (port side)

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 10c: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 2500 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 3200 rpm counter clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 0.4 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship rolls and at that instant its angular velocity is 0.04 rad/s clockwise viewed from stern; Solution: Mass, m = 2500 kg; k = 0.4m; I = mk2 = 2500 x 0.4 2 = 400 kg m2 N = 3200 rm; = 2 N/60 = 335.1 r/s; p = 0.04 r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 400 x 335.1 x 0.04 = 5360 Nm During Rolling, axis of spin and axis of rolling are same; Hence Effect of Gyroscopic couple No effect No effect

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 11a: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 8000 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 1800 rpm clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 0.6 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship turns left at radius R = 75 m and speed v = 100 kmph. Solution: Mass, m = 8000 kg; k = 0.6 m; I = mk2 = 8000 x 0.62 = 2880 kg m2 N = 1800 rm; = 2 N/60 = 188.5 r/s; v = 100 kmph = 100/3.6 = 27.78 m/s; R = 75 m; p = v/R 27.78/75 = 0.3704 r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 2880 x 188.5 x 0.3704 = 201082.75 Nm Direction of view Direction of rotation Direction of Turn (Steering to) Effect of Gyroscopic couple Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Left Raise the bow Lower the stern Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Right Raise the stern Lower the bow

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 11b: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 8000 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 18200 rpm clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 1.2 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship pitches with total angular movement between extreme positions is 10o (=2 ), and bow is descending with maximum velocity. Pitching motion is SHM with periodic time tp = 20 s; (b) Maximum angular acceleration a max . Solution: Mass, m = 8000 kg; k = 0.6 m; I = mk2 = 8000 x 0.6 2 = 2880 kg m2 N = 1800 rm; = 2 N/60 = 188.5 r/s; v = 100 kmph = 100/3.6 = 27.78 m/s; = 5o= 5 x /180 = 0.0873 rad; tp = 20 s; o = 2 / tp = 2 / 20 = 0.314 r/s; p = o = 0.0873 x 0.314 = 0.0274 r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 2880 x 188.5 x 0.0274 = 14875 Nm Direction of view Direction of rotation During Pitching Effect of Gyroscopic couple Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Bow descends Turns towards left (port side) Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Bow raises Turns towards right(star board side)

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 11c: Given: Ship; Mass of turbine rotor m = 8000 kg; Speed of rotor, N = 1800 rpm clockwise viewed from stern (aft)side; Radius of gyration of rotor, k = 1.2 m; To find: (a) gyroscopic couple and its effect if the ship rolls with angular velocity p = 0.03 rad/s clock wise viewed from stern. Solution: Mass, m = 8000 kg; k = 0.6m; I = mk2 =80x 0.64 2 = 2880 kg m2 N = 1800 rm; = 2 N/60 = 188.5 r/s; p = 0.03 r/s; gyroscopic couple Cg = I p = 2880 x 188.5 x 0.03 = 16286.4 Nm

During Rolling, axis of spin and axis of rolling are same; Hence Effect of Gyroscopic couple No effect No effect

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 12: Given: Boat with turbine rotor on boat; Rotor speed N = 1500 rpm; Direction of rotation: Clockwise; Direction of view: from stern; Mass of rotor, m = 750 kg; radius of gyration, k = 0.3 m; Boat pitches in longitudinal vertical plane; Velocity of pitching p = 1 rad/s; To find: (a) Torque acting on the boat; and (b) Direction of turn at this instant Solution: Mass, m = 750 kg; N = 1500 rpm; k = 0.3 m; p = 1 rad/s I = mk2 = 750 x 0.32 = 67.5 kg m2 ; = 2 N/60 = 157.08 r/s; p= 1 rad/s; Gyroscopic couple Cg = = I p = 67.5 x 157.08 x 1= 10602.9 Nm

## Direction of view Direction of rotation During Pitching Effect of Gyroscopic couple

Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Bow descends Turns towards left (port side)

Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Bow raises Turns towards right(star board side)

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS IN SHIPS

PROBLEM 13: Given: Turbine Yacht rotor rotates clockwise viewed from stern; Rotor speed N = 1200 rpm; Mass of rotor, m = 750 kg; Radius of gyration, k = 0.25 m; Pitching of yacht with angular velocity, p = 1 rad/s; To find: (a) Gyroscopic couple transmitted to hull; and (b) Effect of gyroscopic couple. Solution: Mass, m = 750 kg; N = 1200 rpm; k = 0.25 m; p = 1 rad/s I = mk2 = 750 x 0.252 = 46.875 kg m2 ; = 2 N/60 = 125.664 r/s; p= 1 rad/s; Gyroscopic couple Cg = = I p = 46.875 x 125.664 x 1= 5890.5 Nm Direction of view Direction of rotation Rear side (Stern) Clockwise Rear side (Stern) Clockwise

Porter Governor

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 14 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N

## 2.5 25 0.25 0.25 0.04 0.05 0.125 0.15 20

kg kg m m m m m m N

Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 14 For minimum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg-F)/2 Nmin ^ 2 Nmin = For maximum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg+F)/2 Nmax ^ 2 Nmax =

0.235106 m 0.361538 0.314485 0.869853 155.2207 1.869853 112.625 36495.06 191.0368 rpm
0.224499 m 0.489979 0.436436 0.890724 162.5544 1.890724 132.625 44748.34 211.538 rpm

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 15: Given : Porter governor; Length of each arm = 0.2 m; Pivoted on the axis of rotation; Mass of each ball m = 4 kg; Mass of sleeve M = 20 kg; Radius of rotation of balls when governor begins to lift = 0.1 m; Radius of rotation of balls when governor is at maximum speed = 0.13 m; To find: Range of speed.

PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 15 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N

## 4 20 0.2 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.13 0

kg kg m m m m m m N

Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 15 For minimum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg-F)/2 Nmin ^ 2 Nmin = For maximum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg+F)/2 Nmax^ 2 Nmax =

0.1732 m 0.57735 0.57735 1 131.684 2 98.1 31003.7 176.078 rpm 0.15198 m 0.85533 0.85533 1 150.068 2 98.1 35332.0 187.968 rpm

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 16: Given : Porter governor; Length of each arm = 0.25 m; Pivoted on the axis of rotation; Mass of each ball m = 5 kg; Mass of sleeve M = 25 kg; Radius of rotation of balls when governor begins to lift = 0.15 m; Radius of rotation of balls when governor is at maximum speed = 0.2 m; To find: (a) Maximum speed; (b) Minimum speed; and (c ) Range of speed. Solution in the next slide

PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 16 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 16 For minimum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg-F)/2 Nmin ^ 2

## 5 25 0.25 0.25 0 0 0.15 0.2 0

kg kg m m m m m m N

## 0.2 m 0.75 0.75 1 91.23344 2 122.625 26850

Nmin =

163.8597 rpm

PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 16 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 16 For maximum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg+F)/2 Nmax ^ 2 Nmax =

## 5 25 0.25 0.25 0 0 0.15 0.2 0

kg kg m m m m m m N

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 17: Given : Porter governor; Length of arms = 0.4 m; Upper arm pivoted on the sleeve axis of rotation; Lower arm pivoted on sleeve at 0.045 m from axis of rotation; Mass of each ball m = 8 kg; Mass of sleeve M = 60 kg; To find: (a) Equilibrium speed for 250 mm radius of rotation of balls; (b) Equilibrium speed for 300 mm radius of rotation of balls; Solution in the next slide

PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 17 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 17 For minimum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg-F)/2 Nmin ^ 2

## 5 25 0.25 0.25 0 0 0.15 0.2 0

kg kg m m m m m m N

## 0.2 m 0.75 0.75 1 91.23344 2 122.625 26850

Solution: PORTER GOVERNOR - Problem 17 Mass of each ball,m = Mass of sleeve, M = Length of upper arm, PB = Length of lower arm, DB = Pivot distance for upper arm, PQ = Pivot distance for lower arm, DH = Radius of rotation for minimum speed, r1 = Radius of rotation for maximum speed, r2 = Friction in N For maximum speed conditions: Height, h = Tan Tan q = Tan /Tan Term 1 = 895/mgh Term2 = (1+q) Term3 = (Mg+F)/2 Nmax ^ 2 Nmax = Range of speed = Nmax-Nmin=

## 5 25 0.25 0.25 0 0 0.15 0.2 0

kg kg m m m m m m N

0.15 m 1.333333 1.333333 1 121.6446 2 122.625 35800 189.2089 rpm 25.35 rpm

Proell Governor

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 18: Given : Proell governor; open arms; Length of all arms = 0.2 m; Distance of pivot of arm from axis of rotation = 0.04 m; Length of extension of lower arms to which each ball is attached = 0.1 m; Mass of each ball m = 6 kg; Mass of central load M = 150 kg; Radius of rotation of balls at inclination of arm with axis of rotation 40o = 0.18 m; To find: equilibrium speed.

## Solution in the Next Slide

Solution: PROELL GOVERNOR PROBLEM 18 Given: PF3 = 0.2 m; DF3 = 0.2 m; PQ = 0.04 m; DH = 0.04 m; BF3 = 0.1 m; = 40 0 M = 150 kg; m = 6 kg; r = 0.18 m;

B F3 D

P F2 F1

To find: N eq Soln: Lift h = PF3 cos = 0.153 m; Tan = 0.839; F FF3 = r PQ PF3 sin = 0.011 m; BF = (0.1 2 0.011 2) 0.5 = 0.099 m; M F3F2 = r FF3 DH = 0.129 m; Tan = Tan ( Sin -1 (F3F2/DF3)) = 0.845; q = Tan / Tan = 1.0072; FM= (DF3 2 F3F2 2) 0.5 = 0.153 m; BM = BF + FM = 0.099 + 0.153 = 0.252 m N2 = (FM/BM)(895/mgh) [mg+(MG-F)(1+q)/2] = 92539.9; N = 304.2 rpm

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 19: Given : Hartnell governor; Spring loaded; Mass of each ball m = 1 kg; Bell crank lever: Vertical arm length = 0.1 m; Horizontal arm length = 0.05 m; Distance of fulcrum of each bell crank lever from axis of rotation = 0.08 m; Extreme radii of rotation of balls = 0.075 m and 0.1125 m Minimum equilibrium speed = 360 rpm; Maximum equilibrium speed = 5% greater than minimum equilibrium speed; Neglect obliquity of arms; To find: (a) Initial compression of spring; (b) Equilibrium speed at radius of rotation = 0.1 m. Given: m = 1 kg; x = 0.1 m; y = 0.05 m; r = 0.08 m; r1 = 0.075 m; r2 = 0.1125 m; N1 = 360 rpm; N2 = 1.05 N1 = 378 rpm; (since not given , M = 0 ; F = 0) To find: 1 and Neq at r = 0.1 m Fc = m 2r ; = 2N/60; 1 = 2360/60 = 37.7 rad/s; 2= 2378/60 = 39.6 rad/s; Fc1 = 1 x 37.7 2 x 0.075 = 106.6 N; Fc2 = 1 x 39.6 2 x 0.1125 = 176.4 N; S1 + Mg-F = 2 Fc1 (x/y); S1 = 2 Fc1 (x/y) Mg + F = 2x106.6x(0.1/0.05) = 426.4 N S2 + Mg+F = 2 Fc2(x/y); S2 = 2x176.4 x(0.1/0.05) = 705.6 N Lift , h = (r2 r1) (y/x) = 0.01875 m; k = (s2-s1)/h = 14891 N/m; Initial compression, 1 = S1/k = 426.4/14891 = 0.0286 m; Fc at r = 0.1 m = Fc1 + (Fc2 Fc1) (r r1)/(r2 r1) = 153.1 N; Fc = m 2r ; 153.1 = 1 x 2 x 0.1; = 39.1; ; = 2Neq /60 ; Neq = 373.7 rpm;

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
Hartnell Governor

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 20: Given : Hartnell governor; Masses rotate in circle of diameter 0.13 m; When sleeve in mid position and ball arms are vertical, if friction is nil, equilibrium speed = 450 rpm; Maximum sleeve movement = 0.025 m; Maximum variation in speed = 5% of mid position speed with friction; Mass of sleeve M = 4 kg; Friction = 30 N at sleeve; Power of governor sufficient to overcome friction by 1% change of speed either way at mid position; Neglect obliquity of arms; To find: (a) Value of each rotating mass; (b) Spring stiffness; and (c ) Initial compression of spring. Solution in the next slide

Given: M = 4 kg; r = d/2 = 0.065 m; N = 450 rpm; h = 0.025 m; F = 30 N; x = y; To find mass of each ball, m: N1 = 0.99x450 = 445.5 rpm; 1 = 2445.5/60 = 46.65 rad/s; N2 = 1.01x450 = 454.5 rpm; 1 = 2454.5/60 = 47.6 rad/s; Fc1 = m 2r = 141.47m N; S + Mg F = 2 Fc1 (x/y); S + 39.24 30 = 282.94m ..(1) Fc2 = m 2r = 147.3m N; S + Mg + F = 2 Fc1 (x/y); S + 39.24 + 30 = 294.60m.(2) (2) (1) gives 60 = 11.66m ; m = 5.15 kg. To find r1 and r2: (r2-r1)(y/x) = h; r2 r1 = 0.025 ..(3) (r2+r1)/2 = r; r2+r1 = 0.13 ..(4); Solving (3) and (4); r1 = 0.0525 m and r2 = 0.0775 m; N1 = 0.95 N = 1.05x450 = 427.5 rpm; 1 = 2427.5/60 = 44.77 rad/s; N2 = 1.05 N = 1.05x450 = 472.5 rpm; 2 = 2472.5/60 = 49.48 rad/s; S1 + Mg F = 2 Fc1 (x/y); S1 = 2(5.15x44.772x0.0525) + 30 4x9.81 = 1085.14 S2 + Mg + F = 2 Fc2 (x/y); S2 = 2(5.15x49.482x0.0775) + 30 4x9.81 = 1904.07 Stiffness, k = (S2-S1)/h = (1904.07 1085.14)/0.025 = 32757.2 N/m; Initial compression ,1 = S1/k = 1086.14/32757.2 = 0.033 m ; 1 = 33 mm

## DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Problems on Governors

PROBLEM 21: Given : Hartnell governor; Speed range is 390 to 410 rpm; Lift = 2 cm; Sleeve arm = 10 cm; Ball arm = 5 cm; Radius of rotation of balls from governor axis = 15 cm, when ball arm is vertical; and speed of governor is minimum; Mass of each ball m = 2 kg; To find: (a) Load on the sleeve for minimum and maximum speeds; and (b) Spring rate. (c ) Initial compression Given: M = 0; m = 2 kg; N1 = 390 rpm; N2 = 410 rpm; h = 0.02 m; r = 0.15 m; ; x = 0.05; y = 0.10 m; Fc1 = m 1 2 r1= 483.7 N; (r r1)(y/x) = h/2; r1 = 0.145 m; 1 = 2N1/60 = 40.84 rad/s; Fc2 = m 2 2 r = 571.3 N; (r2 r)(y/x) = h/2; r2 =0.155 m; 2 = 2N2/60 = 42.93 rad/s; S1 = 2Fc1(x/y) Mg + F = 2 x 483.7x(0.05/0.1) 0 + 0 = 483.7 N S2= 2Fc2(x/y) Mg F = 2 x 571.3x(0.05/0.1) 0 0 = 571.3 N Stiffness, k = (S2-S1)/h = (571.3 483.7 =)/0.02 = 4380 N/m; Initial compression ,1 = S1/k = 483.7/4380 = .11 m ; 1 = 110 mm

m1 m2 m3 m4 Unit

Mass

200
0.2

300
0.15

240
0.25

260
0.3

kg
m

## Find the magnitude and angular position of the balancing mass

Problem 2 Four masses A,B,C,D are attached to a rotating shaft A B C D Mass 20 10 8 Radius 50 62.5 100 75 Distance between planes of successive masses A and B B and C C and D 600 600 600

Unit kg mm

mm

Shaft is in complete balance Find (a) the mass of A; (b) Angular positions of A, B, C, and D

Problem 3 Four masses A,B,C,D are attached to a rotating shaft A B C D Mass 200 300 400 200 Radius 80 70 60 80 Distance from Plane A 0 300 400 700 Angle between cranks measured anticlockwise A and B B and C C and D 450 70 0 120 0 Balancing masses in planes X and Y Distance between planes A and X X and Y Y and D 100 400 200 Balancing masses at radius 100 mm Find (a) the balancing masses; (b) Angular positions of the balancing masses.

Unit kg mm

mm

mm

Problem 4 Four masses A,B,C,D are to be balanced. A B C D Unit Mass 30 50 50 kg Radius 180 240 120 150 mm Angle between planes B and C B and D C and D BD and CD are 90 0 210 0 120 0 in same sense Planes B and C are 300 mm apart Find (a) the mass of rotor A; (b) angular position of A; (c ) Position of plane A and D .

Problem 5 Four masses A,B,C,D are in order along the axis. Shaft and masses are in complete balance. A B C D Unit Mass 30 50 40 kg Radius 180 240 120 150 mm Angular spacing C and B D and B 90 0 210 0 Planes B and C are 300 mm apart Find (a) the mass of rotor A; (b) angular position of rotor A; (c ) Position of plane A and D .

Problem 6 Four masses A,B,C,D are attached to a rotating shaft A B C D Mass 200 300 400 200 Radius 80 70 60 80 Distance from Plane A 0 300 400 700 Angle between cranks measured anticlockwise A and B B and C C and D 450 70 0 120 0 Balancing masses in planes X and Y Distance between planes A and X X and Y Y and D 100 400 200 Balancing masses at radius 100 mm Find (a) the balancing masses; (b) Angular positions of the balancing masses.

Unit kg mm

mm

mm

Problem 7 A shaft carries Four masses A,B,C,D in parallel planes. Shaft is in complete balance A B C D Mass 18 21.5 Eccentricity 80 60 60 80

Unit kg mm

Angle between masses B and C B and A 100 0 190 0 in same sense Distance between planes A and B B and C 100 200 mm Find (a) mass of A and D; (b) Distance between A and D; (c ) Angular position of mass at D.

Problem 8 Four Cylinder Vertical Engine Crank radius r = 225 mm Plane of rotation of 1st crank from 3rd crank at 600 mm Plane of rotation of 2nd crank from 3rd crank at 300 mm Plane of rotation of 4th crank from 3rd crank at 300 mm Reciprocating masses of 1st cylinder 100 kg. Reciprocating masses of 2nd cylinder 120 kg. Reciprocating masses of 4th cylinder 100 kg. Find (a) Reciprocating mass for 3rd cylinder; (b) Angular positions of 1st, 2nd,3rd, and 4th cylinders for complete balance.

Problem 9 Four Cylinder Vertical Engine Crank radius r = 150 mm Plane of rotation of 1st crank from 3rd crank at 400 mm Plane of rotation of 2nd crank from 3rd crank at 200 mm Plane of rotation of 4th crank from 3rd crank at 200 mm Reciprocating masses of 1st cylinder 50 kg. Reciprocating masses of 2nd cylinder 60 kg. Reciprocating masses of 4th cylinder 50 kg. Find (a) Reciprocating mass for 3rd cylinder; (b) Angular positions of 1st, 2nd,3rd, and 4th cylinders for complete balance.

Problem10 Six Cylinder Vertical 4 stroke inline engine Firing order 1-4-2-6-3-5 Stroke length L = 2 r = 0.1 m Connecting rod length l = 0.2 m Pitch distance between cylinder centre lines 100, 100, 150, 100, 100 mm Reciprocating mass per cylinder mR = 1 kg. Engine speed N = 3000 rpm Find Unbalanced primary and secondary forces and couples. Consider plane midway between cylinders 3 and 4 as reference.

Problem11 Three Cylinder inline IC engine Cranks are set at angle = 120 0 Pitch of the cylinders = 1 m Stroke length of the piston L = 0.6 m Reciprocating mass for inside cylinder = 300 kg Reciprocating mass for outside cylinder = 260 kg Distance between plane of rotation of balancing mass from inside crank = 0.8 m Percentage of reciprocating masses to be balanced, c = 0.4 Radius of balancing masses = 0.6 m Find (a) magnitudes and (b) angular positions of balancing masses; (c ) Hammer blow/wheel at axle speed = 6 rps.

Problem12 Uncoupled outside cylinder Mass of rotating parts per cylinder = 360 kg. Mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder m R= 300 kg. Angle between cranks 90 0 Crank radius r = 0.3 m Cylinder centres = 1.75 m Radius of balancing masses = 0.75 m Wheel centres = 1.45 m All the rotating masses and 2/3 of reciprocating masses are balanced in planes of driving wheels. Find (a) magnitudes and (b) angular positions of balancing masses; (c )Limiting speed in kph ( for the wheel to lift off the rails) if load on each driving wheel is 30 kN and diameter of the wheel is 1.8 m (d) Swaying couple at the above speed.

Problem13 Two cylinder inside uncoupled locomotive Mass of rotating parts per cylinder = 250 kg. Mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder m R= 300 kg. Angle between cranks 90 0 Crank radius r = 0.3 m Distance between cylinders = 0.6 m Radius of balancing masses = 1 m Distance between driving wheels = 1.5 m Diameter of driving wheels = 2 m Speed of locomotive = 80 km/hr All the rotating masses and 2/3 of reciprocating masses are balanced in planes of driving wheels. Find (a) Hammer blow; (b ) Maximum variation in tractive effort; (c ) Maximum swaying couple.

Problem14 Two cylinder inside uncoupled locomotive Mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder m R= 300 kg. Angle between cranks 90 0 Crank radius r = 0.3 m Distance between cylinders = 0.65 m Distance between driving wheels = 1.6 m Diameter of driving wheels = 1.8 m Maximum hammer blow = 45000 N at Speed of locomotive = 100 km/hr All the rotating masses and 2/3 of reciprocating masses are balanced in planes of driving wheels. Find (a) Fraction of reciprocating masses to be balanced c; (b) Variation in tractive effort; (c ) Maximum swaying couple.

Problem15
Four cylinder inline engine Speed N = 1800 rpm Crank radius r = 0.06m Connecting rod length l = 0.24 m Spacing between cylinders = 150 mm Mass of reciprocating parts per cylinder m R= 1.5 kg. Angular positions of cranks 1-4-2-3 at 90 o intervals in end view. Cylinders are numbered in sequence 1-2-3-4 from one end. Find Unbalanced primary and secondary forces and couples with reference to central plane of engine.