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NIRMA UIVERSITY

SEMINAR TOPIC ON IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)

Presented by:Amee Prajapati 07DIT015

Index
1. What is IP Addressing? 2. What is IPv6 Addressing?

3. Why a New IP ?
4. Do We Really Need a Larger Address Space? 5. Benefits of 128 bit Addresses 6. IPv6 Address Larger Address Space 7. Types of IPv6 Addresses

11 Transition tools from IPv4 to IPv6 11 IPv6 Advanced Features 12 What is not in IPv6 ? 13 IPv4 & IPv6 Header Comparison 14 Summary of Header Changes between IPv4 & IPv6 15 Extension Headers 11 IPv6 Security

12 Thank you..

What is IP Addressing?
A unique number which identifies a computer and its location on the internet. And we can communication between two nodes.

Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use: IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. Each version defines an IP address differently.

What is IPv6 Addressing ?


It is Internet Protocol Version 6. An IPv6 address is 128 bit value, with a logical structure, which can be assigned on a network interface.

IPv6 is defined in December 1998,by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).

Why a New IP?


Support billions of hosts Reduce size of routing tables Simplify protocol, process packets faster Provide better security (authentication & privacy) Better QoS (particularly for real-time data) Aid multicasting, anycasting Make it possible for a host to roam without changing its address

The existing IPv4 protocol has 32 bit address space that provides approx. 4 billion hosts. IPv6 has 128 address space that can address around 340 undecillions.

Do We Really Need a Larger Address Space?


The larger address space avoids the potential exhaustion of the IPv4 address space without the need for NAT and other devices that break the end-to-end nature of Internet traffic. It is intended to provide more addresses for networked devices, allowing, for example, each cell phone and mobile electronic device to have its own address. A technical reason for selecting 128-bit for the address length is that since most future network products will be based on 64 bit processors, it is more efficient to manipulate 128-bit addresses.

Larger Address Space


IPv4 = 32 bits

IPv4 = 32 bits

IPv6 = 128 bits


IPv4 32 bits = 4,294,967,296 possible addressable devices

IPv6
128 bits: 4 times the size in bits = 3.4 x 1038 possible addressable devices = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 5 x 1028 addresses per person on the planet

Types of IPv6 Addresses


Unicast :- One to One (Global, Link local)
Identify a single interface Delivery to single interface

Multicast :- One to Nearest (Allocated from Unicast)


identify a group of interfaces, such that a packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all of the interfaces in the group

Anycast :- One to Many


identify a set of interfaces such that a packet sent to a anycast address will be delivered to one member of the set.

A single interface may be assigned multiple IPv6 addresses of any type (unicast, anycast, multicast)

Transition tools from IPv4 to IPv6


Tunneling: IPv6 pockets are tunnelled through an IPv4 network A translator device converting IPv4 to IPv6 and vice versa is installed, and communications between IPv4 and IPv6 nodes are enabled via this translator, so to speak, it serves as an interpreter between IPv4 and IPv6. Dualstack : Hosts and routers run both an IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stack. By adapting PCs and network equipment to be both IPv4 and IPv6-ready, IPv6 is used if the other end is IPv6-ready, and IPv4 is used if the other end is IPv4-ready. It is like a bilingual person who can speak two languages of IPv4 and IPv6.

Translation: Translates IPv4 pockets to IPv6 packets and vice versa.


To communicate by using IPv6, sender/receiver PCs and communications equipment such as relaying routers have to be all IPv6-ready. If non-IPv6ready products are on the way, the IPv6 packet is encapsulated into an IPv4 capsule to pass non-IPv6-ready equipment as an IPv4 packet.

IPv6 Advanced Features


Security - Built-in, strong IP-layer encryption and authentication. Mobility - More efficient and robust mechanisms. Quality of Service. Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration. Source address selection.

Feature Address Space Management

Change Increase from 32-bit to 128-bit address space Stateless autoconfiguration means no more need to configure IP addresses for end systems, even via DHCP Predictable header sizes and 64-bit header alignment mean better performance from routers and bridges/switches Built-in features for multicast groups, management, and new "anycast" groups Eliminate triangular routing and simplify deployment of mobile IP-based systems

Performance

Multicast/Multimedia

Mobile IP

Virtual Private Networks

Built-in support for encrypted/authenticated virtual private network protocols; built-in support for QoS tagging

What is not in IPv6


Broadcast
There is no broadcast in IPv6. This functionality is taken over by multicast.

A consequence of this is that the all 0s and all 1s addresses are legal. There are others also it will see later.

A new Header

IPv4 & IPv6 Header Comparison IPv4 Header


Version IHL Type of Service Total Length

IPv6 Header
Traffic Class Flow Label Next Header

Version

Identification

Flags

Fragment Offset

Payload Length
Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum

Hop Limit

Source Address Destination Address


Options Padding

Source Address

Legend

- fields name kept from IPv4 to IPv6


- fields not kept in IPv6 - Name & position changed in IPv6 - New field in IPv6

Destination Address

Field Name Version Traffic Class

Size(bits) Description 4 8 Version: Identifies the version of IP used to generate the datagram. This field is used the same way as in IPv4. Traffic Class: This field replaces the Type Of Service (TOS) field in the IPv4 header. Internet traffic priority deliver value. Flow Label: This large field was created to provide additional support for realtime datagram delivery and quality of service features. A unique flow label is used to identify all the datagrams in a particular flow, so that routers between the source and destination all handle them Payload Length: This field replaces the Total Length field from the IPv4 header, but it is used differently. Rather than measuring the length of the whole datagram, it only contains the number of bytes of the payload. In simpler terms, this field measures the length of the datagram less the 40 bytes of the main header itself. Next Header: This field replaces the Protocol field . When a datagram has extension headers, this field specifies the identity of the first extension header, which is the next header in the datagram. Hop Limit: This replaces the Time To Live (TTL) field in the IPv4 header; each routers that forwards the packet, the hop limit is decremented by 1. When the hop limit field reaches zero, the packet is discarded. Source Address: The 128-bit IP address of the originator of the datagram. As with IPv4, this is always the device that originally sent the datagram.

Flow Label

20

Payload Length

16

Next Header

Hop Limit

Source Address Destination Address

128 128

Destination Address: The 128-bit IP address of the intended recipient of the datagram.

Streamlined

Summary of Header Changes between IPv4 & IPv6


Fragmentation fields moved out of base header IP options moved out of base header Header Checksum eliminated Header Length field eliminated Length field excludes IPv6 header Alignment changed from 32 to 64 bits

Revised
Time to Live Hop Limit Protocol Next Header Precedence & TOS Traffic Class Addresses increased 32 bits 128 bits

Extended
Flow Label field added

Extensions Header
IPv6 currently defines six extension headers: Hop by hop options header - special options requiring hop by hop processing Routing header Fragment header - fragmentation and reassembly Authentication header - integrity and authentication Encrypted security payload header - confidentiality Destination options header - optional information to be examined by the destination node.

IPv6 Security
All implementations required to support authentication and encryption headers (IPsec) Authentication separate from encryption for use in situations where encryption is prohibited or prohibitively expensive Key distribution protocols are under development (independent of IP v4/v6) Support for manual key configuration required

Thank you ..