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# Sequencing

Sequencing
Sequencing problems are of common occurrence in our daily
ordering of jobs for processing in a manufacturing plant waiting aircrafts for landing clearance programmes to be run in a sequence at a computer centre

Such problems exist whenever there is a alternative choice as to the order in which a number of jobs can be done. The selection of an appropriate order or sequence in which to receive waiting customers (or jobs) is called sequencing. the objective is to optimize the use of available facilities to effectively process the items or the jobs.

Scheduling Models
Flow-Shop Scheduling model :
In this model we have m machines and n jobs. Any given job requires an execution on each machine. The ordering of processing on the various machines is same for all jobs ; also the sequence in which the jobs go through the first machine has to be the same as the sequence in which the jobs go through any of the subsequent machine, i.e. a job may not `Pass' another job while waiting for processing on a machine. A flowshop with this restriction is often called a permutation flow-shop.

## Job-Shop Scheduling Model :

In this model we have n jobs and m machines and each job has its own machine order specified.

Scheduling Models
Open shop scheduling model : In this model we have m machines and n jobs. Any given job requires an execution on each of the m machines. The order in which a job passes through the machines is immaterial. Project Scheduling : It is one of a type project where all the resources are brought to the job.

n JOBS

3 1

2
4 n

M1

M2

Mm

## Complete enumeration n! possible sequence for each machine (m machine)

Notations

N= Set of 1, 2, 3,... .., n jobs M= Set of m machines M1,M2,......,Mm tij=Processing time of i-th job on j-th machine Mj

X
i 1

or D(S n )

## Various Performance Measures

In each one of the models it is assumed that the decision maker wishes to minimize a given objective function. Some of the objectives are listed below : Minimum Make-span : It is defined as total completion time in which the set of all jobs finish processing on all the machines. This is also called as Total Elapsed Time or minimum flow time. Minimum Mean Flow Time : It is defined as the average completion time of any job. It is the average time a job spends in the Shop. Minimum In-Process Inventory Time : It is defined as minimization of total in-process inventory waiting time for all jobs. Minimum Penalty Cost : It is defined as the total penalty paid by virtue of jobs being late in completion by their due dates. Minimum Total Production Cost : It is defined as the total production cost for the production of a set of products on machines.

Scheduling Problem The general scheduling problem is described below Determine the sequence and schedule for processing a specified number of jobs on a given number of machines that minimizes a well-defined measure of performance. It may be noted that the technological orders in which the jobs are processed on various machines, due dates of jobs, and the job and machine availabilities are to be considered while determining the sequence.

## Difference between Sequencing and Scheduling

Sequencing simply refers to the determination of ORDER in which the jobs are to be processed on various machines. Scheduling refers to the time-table that includes the start time and completion time of-jobs on machines etc.

Flow-shop (Assumptions)
Regarding Machines :
No machine processes more than one operation at, a time. Each operation on a machine, once started, must be performed to its completion. Each operation takes finite time and it must be completed before any

other operation begins. The given operation time includes set-up time.
Each machine is initially idle at the beginning of the scheduling period. There is only one machine of each type.

available.

## Each machine operates independently of the other.

Flow-shop (Assumptions)
Regarding Jobs :

## All jobs are available for processing at time zero

All jobs allow the same sequence of operations. Jobs are independent of each other. No job is processed more than once on any machine. Each job consists of a specified number of operations and each operation is performed by only one-machine. The processing times of the jobs are independent of the order in which the jobs are performed. Each job, once started, must be processed to completion.

Flow-shop (Assumptions)
Regarding Operating Policies:

## Each job is processed as early as possible.

Each job is considered as indivisible entity even though it may be composed of a number of individual units. Each machine is provided with sufficient waiting space for allowing jobs to wait before starting their processing. Each machine processes jobs in the same sequence, i.e., no passing or overtaking of jobs is permitted.

## Transportation time of a job between machines is negligible.

Set up times are sequenceindependent.

Sequencing
(n Jobs and one machine Flow shop Problem)

Priority rules: Simple heuristics used to select the order in which jobs will be processed. Job time: Time needed for setup and processing of a job. It includes set up time unless setup times are sequence dependent

Priority Rules
- first come, first served - shortest processing time - earliest due date - critical ratio =time remaining / processing time S/O - slack per operation =slack remaining / # of operations remaining Rush - emergency FCFS SPT EDD CR

First Come, First Served Rule Process first job to arrive at a work center first Average performance on most scheduling criteria Appears fair & reasonable to customers

## Important for service organizations Example: Restaurants

Shortest Processing Time Rule Process job with shortest processing time first. Usually best at minimizing job flow and minimizing the number of jobs in the system Major disadvantage is that long jobs may be continuously pushed back in the queue.

Earliest Due Date Rule Process job with earliest due date first Widely used by many companies

If due dates important If MRP(Material Requirements Planning) used Due dates updated by each MRP(Material Requirements Planning) run

## Critical Ratio (CR)

Ratio of time remaining to work time remaining
Time remaining CR Work days remaining Due date - Today' s date Work (lead) time remaining

## Use of the critical ratio can help to:

determine the status of a specific job establish a relative priority among jobs on a common basis relate both stock and make-to-order jobs on a common basis adjust priorities and revise schedules automatically for changes in both demand and job progress dynamically track job progress and location

Performance measures Flow time of a job: Duration of time from a job enters into the system until it leaves Lateness of a job: Amount by which completion date exceeds due date. Could be negative. Tardiness=max(lateness,0) Makespan: total time needed to finish a group of jobs Average number of jobs until the last is finished: =Total flow time / Makespan

## Criteria to Evaluate Priority Rules

Flow times Average completion time # Jobs

## Process times Utilizatio n Flow times

Flow times Average number of jobs in the system Process times
Average job lateness Late times Number of jobs

Example: Average number of jobs Jobs: A and B with processing times 10 each
Number of jobs
2 1 Average number of jobs

A finishes at 10

B finishes at 20 Time

## Example: Sequencing rules

Jobs A B C D E Processing time 11 29 31 1 2 DD=Due date 61 45 31 33 32

Ex: FCFS
Jobs Proc.time Flow time DD Late Tardy

A
B C D E Total

11
29 31 1 2

11
40 71 72 74 268

61
45 31 33 32 202

-50
-5 40 39 42 66

0
0 40 39 42 121

Aver.

53.6

40.4

13.2

24.2

## Ex: SPT to minimize the total flow time

Jobs Proc.time Flow time DD Late Tardy

D
E A B C Total

1
2 11 29 31

1
3 14 43 74 135

33
32 61 45 31 202

-32
-29 -47 -2 43 -67

0
0 0 0 43 43

Aver.

27.0

40.4 -13.4

8.6

## Ex: EDD to minimize the maximum lateness

Jobs Proc.time Flow time DD Late Tardy

C
E D B A Total

31
2 1 29 11

31
33 34 63 74 235

31
32 33 45 61 202

0
1 1 18 13 33

0
1 1 18 13 33

Aver.

47.0

40.4

6.6

6.6

Example summary

Rule
FCFS

53.6

24.2

## Average Number of Jobs at the Work Center

268/74=3.62

SPT
EDD

27
47

8.6

135/74=1.82
235/74=3.17

6.6

CR: This is an Iterative Process using this model: Set Current Time (sum of time of all scheduled jobs so far) Compute:

## Due _ Date Cur _ Time CR

Pr._ Work _ Re maining

Model Starts with current time = 0 Current time updates after each selection by adding scheduled Process Time to current time

Try it:
JOB Pr. D. Time Date
JOB

CR
1 2

Pr. Time 11 29

D. Date 61 45

CR

## Current Time = 31 2.727 .483 5.54 6 1.55 2 1.00 33 16

Current Time = 0
1 2 3 4 5 11 29 31 1 2 61 45 31 33 32

4
5

1
2

33
32

2
0.5

Continuing (CR)
JOB Pr. Time D. Date CR

JOB

## C. D. Tardy Time Date Summary 31 60 61 63 74 289 31 45 33 32 61 0 15 28 31 13 87

Current Time = 60
1 4 5 11 1 2 61 33 32 0.091 do last -27* -14** 3 2 4 5 1 Total:

Summarizing from CR analysis: Mean F. Time: (289)/5 = 57.8 Mean Tardiness: (87)/5 = 17.4 # Tardy: 4

Johnsons Rule

## Used to sequence N jobs through 2 machines in the same order

Jobs (N = 3) Saw Drill

## Job A Job B Job C

1995 Corel Corp. 1995 Corel Corp.

Johnson's Rule - Scheduling N Jobs on Two Machines All jobs are to be listed, and the time each requires on a machine shown. Select the job with the shortest activity time. If the shortest time lies with the first machine, the job is scheduled first; if with the second machine, the job is scheduled last. Once a job is scheduled, eliminate it. Apply steps 2-3 to the remaining jobs, working toward the center of the sequence.

## Johnsons Rule Steps

List jobs & activity times Select job with shortest time Ties? No Machine?

Schedule LAST

1
Schedule FIRST Eliminate job from list No

Yes
Break arbitrarily Jobs left? Yes

Stop

Flow-shop
(n Jobs and two machine Flow shop Problem)

Johnson's Rule : Job i precedes job j in an optimal sequence with regard to minimum total elapsed time if
min (ti1, tj2) min (ti2, tj1)

Flow-shop
(n Jobs and two machine Flow shop Problem)
Johnson's Optimal Sequence Algorithm Step 1 : Examine the processing times of n jobs on both machines and find min [(min (ti1, ti2) where i=1, 2,...., n.] Step 2 : (i) If the minimum tk1 is obtained in the column of first machine A for job k, schedule the k-th job in the first available position in sequence from the beginning, i.e., from left end. (ties may be broken arbitrarily). Go to step 3. (ii) If the minimum tr2 is obtained in the column of second machine B for job r, place the r-th job in the last available position in the sequence from the last i.e., from right end. (ties may be broken arbitrarily). Go to step 3. Step 3: Remove the assigned job from further consideration and return to step 1 until all the job are assigned.

## Example Johnsons Rule

Morris Machine Co. Time (hr) Motor Workstation 1 Workstation 2

at the

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5

12 4 5 15 10

22 5 3 16 8

Eliminate M3 from consideration. The next Eliminate M1 and the only jobworkstation 2, shortest time Eliminate M5 from consideration. The next shortest time is Eliminate M2 time isconsideration. The next to be Shortest from 3 hours at remaining shortest time is so isat workstation #2, so schedule M5 nextfirst. M2 at Workstationso schedule M1 M2 to last. 1, so schedule next. scheduled is M4. M1 at workstation #1, M5 schedule job M3 last. Sequence = M2 M1 M4 M5 M3

## Example Johnsons Rule

Morris Machine Co.

at the

The schedule minimizes the idle time of workstation 2 and gives the fastest repair time for all five motors. No other sequence will produce a lower makespan.
Gantt Chart for the Morris Machine Company Repair Schedule
Workstation M2 (4) Idle M2 (5) M1 (12) M4 (15) M1 (22) M5 (10) M3 (5) M4 (16) Idleavailable for further work M5 (8) M3 (3)

Idle

10

15

20

25

30

35 Day

40

45

50

55

60

65

Job
A B C

5 3 8

2 6 4

D
E

10
7

7
12

## Johnsons Rule - Example

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
B B C A A A

B B E

D D

C C

A A

## Graphical Depiction of Job Flow

Time => 0
Work center 1 Work center 2 3 10 20 28 33

E
B
3 9 10

D
E
20 22

C
D
28 29

A
C
33

A
35

Time => 0

E
= Job completed

C A

= Idle

Job A B C D

Lowest

E
F

6
12

8
15

@ work center 1

Job A B C D

Lowest

E
F

6
12

8
15

@ work station 2

Job A B C D

Lowest

E
F

6
12

8
15

A B

Job A B C D

Lowest

E
F

6
12

8
15

@ work station 1

D A E

A B

Job A B C D

## Work Work center 1 center 2 5 4 8 2 5 3 9 7

Lowest

E
F

6
12

8
15

@ work station 1

Final sequence

D A C E A B D A C F A B E

## Example: Two Work Center cont.

Work station 1
0 2 8 16 28 33 37

D E D
2 9

C E
17

F C
26 28

A B F
43

A B
48 51

Work station 2

Makespan = 51

## Example: Johnsons rule

Job Processing time on 1 Processing time on 2

A
B C D

15
8 12 20

25
6 4 18

MC1 MC2

15
15

20
35

8
43

12
55

13 6
58 64

15
15

25
40

18

4
68

Idle time = 28
Makespan = 68