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Fabric Defects Causes Types 4 point system for measuring

What is fabric Defect?


Defect is defined as the departure or non conformance of some characteristics of the fabric from its intended level or state. ASTM 1996. There are two types of defects related to materials and products. A) Patent Defects- are those flaws and irregularities that can be seen during inspection of material. These are clearly visible and defined by the buyer. So some buyer may define something as a defect others may not. B) Latent Defect- is a hidden problem that is not apparent even after careful inspection. These are problems related to performance, age, testing and use.

Common Patent Defects


Curled selvedge Scalloped or wavy selvedge Slack or uneven or tight selvedge Stringy selvedge Torn selvedge Spots or stains Tight end or pick Uneven warp or filling Hole, Tear Knot, slub Chafe fabric damage due to abrasion Color run Float

Causes & Types of defects


I)Bow & Skew- When lengthwise or width wise yarn are distorted from a straight perpendicular line. In Bow, the cross wise yarns forms one or more arcs as it moves across the fabric . In Skew, the cross wise yarns forms some angle other than 90 degree as it moves across the fabric. Bow & Skew occur in both knitted and woven fabrics. The problem can occur while weaving/knitting or during finishing. These cause problems in spreading, cutting , matching seams, patterns for plaids or checks. These also create problems in the way product falls or drapes. To measure a straight perpendicular line is drawn on the entire width of fabric ,starting at a particular place for a specific weft. The actual path of that yarn is traced and the difference between actual path and perpendicular path is measured . Formula for Bow % = 100 (D/W) , where D= Maximum Bow, W= width of fabric measured. Skew % = 100 (O/W) ,where O= difference b/w perpendicular line

II) Crimp & Take up:- It is the relationship between length of a piece of fabric and the length of yarn removed from that fabric. Crimp shows the additional amount of yarn needed to interlace with other yarns. Yarns in a fabric are not perfectly straight , when ever they loop or interlace they become crimped. Take up is the additional length of a yarn needed to produce a piece of fabric. For testing a length in a fabric is marked and then yarns are removed with markings on them. These yarns are then held under tension till they become straight (crimp tester) and straight length is measured. Formula for yarn crimp( C ) %= 100(Y F)F , where F= distance b/w marks in fabric, Y= distance b/w same two marks on the yarn removed from fabric.

III) Barre- is the optical result of physical or dye differences in the yarn, geometric differences in fabric structure or any combination of the differences. This problem is commonly seen as a subtle shade variation in materials or products. It is measured by AATCC 178 test. Under Standard light conditions fabric is observed by trained observers. Fabric is compared to Uniform Reference Scale. A numerical step is reported with a term describing barre pattern.

System for Inspecting Fabric


Fabric is inspected to identify the Severity and Type Number Size Location of defect. A Grade is a numerical value given to fabric based on number , size and severity of defect seen during Visual examination. (ASTM D 5430) As per ASTM D 3990, Standard Terminology Relating to Fabric Defects defects are named and identified for woven fabrics. Inspection is done using inspection machines. A detailed map of defects can be created for ease in cutting and spreading.

Several options for assigning numerical values or points exist. Defect , Demerit , Penalty point are based on length of the defect. Longer Defects have more penalty points. In the four point system, the greatest number of points assigned to any one defect is 4. So for one yard of fabric a maximum of 4 points can be given ,regardless of number and length of defects. Short defects of up to 3 inches 1 points Defects 3 to 6 inches in length 2 points Defect 6 to 9 Inches in length 3 points Greater than 9 inches 4 points Inspections are done by trained inspectors with automated or computerized inspection system .