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JOURNAL CLUB

American Journal Of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics (Volume139, Number 1, January 2011)

PRESENTED BY DR. YASHPAL

PG (ORTHODONTICS) ACDS SECUNDERABAD

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CONTENTS
1. RESIDENTS JOURNAL REVIEW 2. POINT / COUNTERPOINT 3. SPECIAL ARTICLE 4. ONLINE ONLY 5. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES 7. CASE REPORTS 8. CLINICIANS CORNER 9. TECHNO BYTES 10. ABO
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1. RESIDENTS JOURNAL REVIEW

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Success Of Maxillary Canine Auto Transplantation: A Retrospective Investigation (by Patel et al, EJO-2010; e-pub)

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to evaluate the survival

&

success rate after auto transplantation of maxillary permanent canine with closed apices.

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THE RESULTS: low complete success rate but can have a favorable survival rate over a long term.

The technique should be considered as an interim measure to maintain bone level before placement of

implants in patients who are unwilling to undergo


lengthy orthodontic canines. treatment to align ectopic

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Systematic Review Of Intraoral Splints For Treating TMD (by Fricton et al, J Orofac Pain
2010;24:237-54)

THE AIM OF REVIEW & META-ANALYSIS: Was to assess the efficacy of intra oral orthopedic appliance to

reduce pain in TMD patients compared with a placebo,


no treatment, or other treatment as reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

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CONCLUSION :
Hard stabilization of TMD appliances pain when when adjusted with properly have good evidence of modest efficacy in treatment compared nonocculding appliance and no treatment.

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Effects of facemask therapy on profile change in class III subjects (Kilic N et al, EJO 2010;32:41924)

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to investigate soft tissue


profile changes induced by maxillary protraction(MP) only.

THE RESULTS:
Significantly greater anterior movement in maxilla, upper lip, & superior sulcus, with greater

proclination of maxillary incisors in the treatment


group than in control group.
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CONCLUSION:
Concave facial profile of the subjects were corrected by anterior movement in maxilla resulting in increased fullness of upper lip. The concave skeletal profile were corrected by backward and downward rotation of the mandible.

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Role Of Preoperative Orthodontics In Correcting Class- III Malocclusion (Wang YC et


al, J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68:1807-12)

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to test the hypothesis that the transverse dimensional change in patients with a skeletal class III malocclusion undergoing surgicalorthodontic treatment with a phase of preoperative orthodontic were the same as without preoperative orthodontics treatment.

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CONCLUSIONS: 1. Changes in molar and canine inclination showed buccal tilting of the mandibular molars and

maxillary

canines

and

lingual

tilting

of

the

maxillary molars and mandibular canines. 2. Inclination changes of canines and molars

demonstrated no significant differences with or


without a phase of preoperative orthodontics. 3. Inclination changes of the canines and molars

during treatment showed similar trends in SF & OF


groups.

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Randomized Orthodontic

2010;32:542-7)

Controlled Trial Of PostStability (Edman et al, EJO

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to use randomized controlled trial methodology to evaluate and compare 3 retention methods. 1. A vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and

bonded canine to canine retainer in mandible (group V-CTC)

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2. A vacuum formed retainer in maxilla combined with stripping of the 10 interproximal surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth( group V-S). 3. A prefabricated positioner covering the teeth in maxilla and mandible (group P) CONCLUSION: After 1 year retention, all 3 retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment

results.

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2. POINT/COUNTERPOINT

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Relationship Between Occlusion And Temporomandibular Disorders: Implication For The Gnathologist (Rudolf Slavicek, AJO-DO
2011;139:10-6)

Biological direction.

system

is

an

open

system

with

time

Processes in biological system are irreversible. A major aspect of open system is that all interventions are irreversible.

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When we separate teeth with occlusal aids and then


remove the appliance, a condition of restitutio ad integrum can be achieved, from a scientific point of

view, this is absolutely incorrect.

The phase of the mature deciduous dentition is the

period of extreme psychic narrowing and loading, at


this age bruxing is a normal function to unload the psyche.????????

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The resulting abrasion favors the required protrusive advancement of the mandible.

First premolar is the most important preparatory basis for the final dynamics of lateral, retrusive, and

protrusive mandibular movements, extractions in this


region are functionally critical.???????????

The masticatory organ of human is a new organ.

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During the maturation of dentition, the position of mandible is determined 3-dimensionally by the

occlusion of teeth.

Bruxing and clenching (the role of teeth in stress

management)?????

What

is

the

role

occlusion

in

coping

with

the

stress?????

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Relationship Implications

(Charles S. Green AJO-DO 2011;139:10-6 )

Between For

Occlusion And TMD: The Orthodontist

TMJ is remarkably resilient and capable of putting up

with a lot of diverse dental concepts.


It does not mean that an untreated person with a malocclusion is at risk for developing TMD.

Finally, it does not mean that patient with active TMD


symptoms will need orthodontic treatment to become healthy.

Sleep bruxism is part of a disordered sleep cycle.

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What should orthodontists know and do about


the TMJ ?
1. Understand the processes of growth and development of masticatory system, of which TMJ is a major component. 2. They patients. 3. Should study & understand the effect of functional appliance on growing mandible and avoid use in a mature patients.
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should of

recognize the TMJ

about discs in

internal growing

derangements

4. They should try to finish treatment with the TMJ in a reasonable & biological acceptable retruded position.

5.Orthodontists

should

screen

their

patients

for

pretreatment TMD sign and symptoms.

6. Orthodontists need to say NO to their referring dentist and to the TMD patients they send to you for

orthodontics as a solution to their TMD problems.

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7. Occlusion changing and jaw-realignment procedure are


no longer considered appropriate treatment for most TMD patients. 8. Patients are treated in a biopsychosocial framework. 9. Treatment should be selected from the universe of

conservative reversible procedures.


10. Orthodontists can play an important role in this new treatment paradigm because they have advanced

biomedical training and good clinical skills.

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3. SPECIAL ARTICLE

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Survey Of Orthodontics Residency Programs: Teaching About Occlusion, Temporomandibular Disorders In Joints, And

Temporomandibular

Postgraduate

Curricula (John Stockstill et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:17-23) INTRODUCTION: Teaching orthodontic postgraduate students about occlusion and TMJ is a fundamental component of their education, but faculty member confronted with disputes and controversies about these topics.

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The purpose of this study was to ascertain where the orthodontic teaching community currently stands on the topics of occlusion, TMJ, and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A 46-question survey was sent to every orthodontic program director in the USA & Canada. Results: Three interrelated topics are being taught in diverse ways in these postgraduates orthodontic programs.

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4.ONLINE ONLY ABSTRACTS

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Lip Pressure At Rest And During Function In A 2 Group Of Patients With Different Occlusions
(Domizia et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:e1-e6) INTRODUCTION : Of the forces from soft tissues, those

from the tissues in the passive resting state are


believed to be more important than force exerted on the teeth during various function such as speech &

swallowing.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY : To measure upper lip pressure at rest and during swallowing in 2 group of

patients with different occlusion and to evaluate any


difference among the groups.

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CONCLUSIONS: In healthy patients 1. Upper lip pressure does not change at rest and during swallowing. 2. Upper lip pressure was similar in the 2 groups (Class I, 24.33 g/cm2 ; Class II, 24.61 g/cm2). 3. Lip pressure was higher in adults than in young subjects. further studies need to measure the pressure of lower lip.

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Electron- Beam Irradiation Of Polymer Bracket Materials (Andreas et al, AJO-DO 2011; 139:e7-e11)
INTRODUCTION: Electron beam irradiation can be used

to influence the properties of polymers. Electron beam


cause cross-linking that enhance the molecular mass of the polymer; this leads to branched chain until, a 3-

D network is formed.
CONCLUSIONS: Electron beam post-curing improved Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of polymer

with lower mechanical properties(polycarbonate &


polyurethane).

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Ployoxymethylene, fracture toughness,

with

sufficient not be

hardness improved

and with

could

electron-beam post-curing.

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Integration of parts in the facial skeleton and cervical vertebrae (Brendan et al, AJO-DO
2011;139:e13-e30) INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to

undertake an exploratory analysis of the relationship


among parts in the facial skeleton & cervical vertebrae and their integration as 2-D shape by

determining their individual variation and co-variation.


The study was motivated by consideration applicable to clinical orthodontics & maxillofacial surgery, in

which such relationship bear directly on pretreatment


analysis & assessment of post treatment outcome.

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METHODS:
Lateral radiograph of 61 adolescents of both sexes without major malocclusion were digitized and marked by using continuous outline spline curve for 8 defined parts in the facial skeleton, including the cervical vertebrae. Individual part variation was analyzed by using principal components analysis, and paired part covariation was analyzed by using 2- block partial least square analysis in 2 models: relative size, position, and shape only.

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CONCLUSION
The integration of shape of parts in the facial skeleton and cervical vertebrae is weak; it is the

relative size, position, and orientation of parts that


form the strongest correlations.

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Mechanical Effects Of Third-order Movement In Selfligated Brackets By The Measurement Of Torque Expression (Thomas et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:e31-e44.)
INTRODUCTION: Axial rotation of orthodontic wire produces buccal or lingual root movement and is often referred to as third-order movement or torque

expression.

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to quantify torque expression in 3 self-ligation bracket system.

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CONCLUSION: Generally, In-ovation expressed the most torque at a given angle of twist, followed by Damon and then Speed.

However , there was no significant difference between bracket below 34 Nmm of torque.

From clinical perspective, the torque plays between brackets were virtually indistinguishable.

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Treatment Of Posterior Cross Bite Comparing 2 Appliance: A Community-based Trial (Fabina et al,
AJO-DO 2011; 139:e45-e52)
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this community-based trial

was to compare the effectiveness of the quad-helix


appliance and removable plates for treating posterior cross bite.

RESULTS: 1. The length of treatment and cost were higher in expansion group than quad helix group. 2. The success rate were similar for the quad helix and the expansion plate groups.

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3. The number of complication was higher in quad helix group.

4. No self correction was observed in untreated group,


and relapses occurred in both experimental groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The average treatment time was significantly

shorter and 11% less expensive than in quad-helix group, making it the more cost effective choice for treatment.
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Effects

Orthodontic (Shreena patel et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:e53-e58)

Of

Analgesic

On

Pain

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was too asses the

effectiveness

of

analgesics(ibuprofen,

naproxen

sodium & acetaminophen) and a placebo administered before and after the placement of separators in

reducing the severity of post-separator placement


pain. CONCLUSION: Ibuprofen was superior to placebo in

relieving postoperative pain as measured by the VAS


pain summery scores.

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Three dimensional modeling and finite element analysis in treatment planning for orthodontic tooth movement (Hussein et al, AJO-DO 2011;
139:e59-e71)

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to


demonstrate the potential of 3-D modeling and finite element analysis as clinical tools in treatment

planning for orthodontic tooth movement.


CONCLUSIONS: This model can be adapted as A patient specific clinical orthodontic tool for planning

movement of 1 tooth or several teeth.

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Drift Characteristics Of Miniscrews And Molars For Anchorage Under Orthodontic Force: 3dimensional Computed Tomography Registration Evaluation (Hong et al, AJO-DO
2011;139:e83-e89)
INTRODUCTION: Although miniscrews have been used as absolute anchorage for a long time, their behavior under orthodontic loading is still unclear clinically.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that the miniscrews and maxillary first molars were mesially displaced under orthodontic loading. A mesial site for miniscrews might be a better choice for long-term stability.

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Smile Esthetics From The Laypersons Perspective (Nathan et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:e91-e101)

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to quantify the ideal and the range of acceptable values for smile variables judged by layperson from a full-face perspective for comparison with lower-face data.

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CONCLUSIONS:

Reliability was fair to moderate with the exception of buccal corridor limits.

Detailed knowledge of the ideal values of the various variables is important and can be incorporated into orthodontic treatment to produce an optimal esthetic smile.

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5. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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Effectiveness of orthodontic treatment with functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term (Elvira et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:24-36)
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze

the current literature for the best evidence about


efficacy of functional appliance on mandibular growth in the short term.

CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the effect of treatment with functional appliance vs an untreated control

group showed that skeletal change were statistically


significant, but unlikely to be clinically significant.

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IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This meta analysis showed that the treatment resulted in a change of skeletal pattern. These data seem to support recent reports that 2phase treatment has no advantages over 1-phase treatment.

IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH:


Class II studies should separate patients into at least the with hypodivergent, different neutral, and and hyperdivergent different phenotypes, different rotation patterns are associated phenotypes require treatments.

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6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

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Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Bone Formation And Its Stability Over Time (Sona et al AJO-DO
2011;139:37-43)

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic tooth movement can lead to the creation of bone. The purpose of the study were to investigate the amount during of bone formed in orthodontic patients treatment (maxillary

canine distalization) and to assess the long term


stability of new bone.

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CONCLUSIONS: The bone created through orthodontic tooth movement was stable in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Changes in the width of the alveolus were not related to the amount of bone at place of agenesis at T1.

In patients with agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, it is possible to move canine distally during adolescence and then wait to place implants when facial growth is complete.

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In Vitro Assessment Of The Forces Generated By Lingual Fixed Retainers (Losif et al, AJO-DO
2011; 139:44-8)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to assess

the effect of wire adaptation on lingual surfaces of


mandibular anterior teeth with 3 type of retainers on the development of lingual and vertical

labiolingual forces.

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CONCLUSIONS:
The forces recorded from the lingual retainer wires during 0.2-mm simulated intrusion extrusion and buccal lingual produce movements might generate high tooth movement during forces that exceed 1 N and be large enough to unwanted

retention.

The only significant determinant of the generated

forces was the amount of wire displacement


not the type of wire used in this study.

and

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Incidence Of Open Gingival Embrasures After Mandibular Incisor Extractions: A Clinical Photographic Evaluation (Flavio et al, AJO-DO
2011;139:49-54)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study were to determine the incidence of open gingival embrasures

after a single mandibular incisor extraction and


investigate whether age, sex,

to

interproximal

pretreatment and post treatment contact location, or

the type of mandibular incisor were predictors of the


incidence and magnitude of open gingival embrasures.

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RESULTS: The incidence of open gingival embrasures was 68%; the embrasures were moderately noticeable to very

noticeable in 52% of those patients.


Age, sex, incisor type, and location of interproximal contact before pretreatment were not predictors of open gingival embrasures after mandibular incisor extractions. An interproximal contact in the incisal third at the end of treatment was associated with the formation of an open gingival embrasure.
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Nickel: Periodontal Status And Blood Parameters In Allergic Orthodontic Patients


(Camila et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:55-9)

INTRODUCTION: compare blood

The

aim

of

this

study

were

to

parameters

and

periodontal

characteristics of orthodontic patients allergic to


nickel with those of nonallergic patients and to determine correlation between blood components and periodontal abnormalities.

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CONCLUSIONS: Nickel can have an influence over the periodontal status of allergic orthodontic patients, causing an increase in band quantification that was correlated to gingival index.

Orthodontist should be aware of medical history of their patients and seek alternative, such as braces

with

low

nickel

content,

as

well

as

strictly

monitoring patients dental hygiene.


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Histological Evaluation Of Root Response To Intrusion In Mandibular Teeth In Beagle Dogs (Juan et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:60-9)
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this article was to histologically evaluate root resorption and repair after orthodontic intrusion with different force magnitudes

and fixed anchorage.

CONCLUSIONS: 1. Light constant intrusive forces between 50 and 200 gm produced similar degrees of resorption.
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2. There was no relationship between root resorption and position of posterior mandibular teeth in the arch and the amount of force applied. 3. The reparative process was seen in 24.14% of lacunae observed. 4. Roots resorption occurred more frequently at the apices and interradicular regions. 5. Ankylosis was rare & appeared in association with cellular cementum repair of lacunae.

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Discrepancy Index Relative To Age, Sex, And The Probability Of Completing Treatment By One Resident In A 2 Year Graduate Orthodontics Program (Sean et al, AJO-DO
2011;139:70-3)

INTRODUCTION: The ABO discrepancy index(DI) was designed to objectively quantify the complexity of a malocclusion before orthodontic treatment.

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to assessed the influence of age and sex on the DI distribution of large mixed sample of patients.
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An

additional
can

objective
complete

was
the

to

ascertain
of

the
the

effectiveness of DI for predicting the probability that 1 resident treatment malocclusion in a 24-month residency.

Conclusions: The DI was found to be reliable for assessing malocclusion complexity. It is independent of age, sex, or time when patients were evaluated

It was a significant predictor for patients who


required transfer to second resident for completion of treatment.
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Static Frictional Force And Surface Roughness Of Various Bracket And Wire Combinations
(Umal H et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:74-9)
INTRODUCTION: During sliding mechanics, frictional

resistance is an important counterforce to orthodontic


tooth movement, which must be controlled to allow application of light, continuous forces.

THE AIM OF STUDY: Was to investigate the static frictional resistance between 3 modern orthodontic brackets - ceramic with gold-palladium slot, ceramic, and stainless steel & 4 arch wire (0.019 x 0.025-in) stainless steel, NiTi, TMA, low friction colored TMA.

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CONCLUSIONS:
1. The traditional ceramic bracket in showed all the greatest frictional values tested

combinations.

2. The

ceramic the

with least and

gold-palladium frictional it seems to

slot be

bracket in all

showed

values

combinations,

promising

alternative to solve the problem of friction.

3. TMA wire showed highest, & SS wire showed the


lowest, frictional values.
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4. Frictional values for colored TMA were comparable with SS wires and thus seem a good alternative to SS wires during space closure in sliding mechanics.

5. There was a positive correlation between bracket slot roughness and frictional resistance.

6. No correlation was found between wire roughness and frictional resistance.

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Three-year Follow-up Of Bimaxillary Surgery To Correct Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: Stability And Risk Factors For Relapse
(Jakobsone et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:80-9)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term skeletal and occlusal stability after bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal class III malocclusion.

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CONCLUSIONS: Bimaxillary stability. surgery resulted in good occlusal

Maxillary

advancement

was

stable,

whereas

relapse of the mandibular set-back varied.

Risk factors for horizontal relapse of the mandible were large setback and inferior repositioning of

posterior maxilla.

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Dental Health Assessed After Interproximal Enamel Reduction: Cries Risk In Posterior Teeth (Zachrisson et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:90-8)

INTRODUCTION: The aim the study to investigate whether careful interdental enamel reduction (using extra fine diamond disks with air cooling, followed by contouring with triangular diamond burs and polishing) leads to increased caries risk in premolars and first molars.

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CONCLUSIONS: Interdental enamel reduction with this protocol did not result in increased caries risk in posterior teeth.

There is no

evidence that proper mesiodistal

enamel reduction within


and supporting structures.

recognized limits and in

appropriate situation will cause harm to the teeth

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7. CASE REPORT

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Maxillary Protraction With Miniplates Providing Skeletal Anchorage In A Growing Class III Patient (Cha et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:99-112)

INTRODUCTION: Maxillary protraction headgear

has

been used in treatment of class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency. However, loss of dental anchorage has been reported with tooth-born anchorage such as lingual arches and expansion devices.

This side effect can be minimized with skeletal anchorage device such as miniplates. implants, onplants, mini-plants, and

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The use of miniplates for maxillary protraction in the mixed dentition has not been reported in the literature.

This case report describes the treatment of an 8 year old with a class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency.

Miniplates

were

used

as

skeletal

anchorage

for

maxillary protraction followed by phase 2 orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance.

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CONCLUSIONS: 1. Maxillary protraction with miniplates as anchorage is a viable skeletal anchorage system when critical anchorage is demanded for orthodontic or orthopedic treatment.

2. This system is useful in patients in the mixed dentition, those oligodontia, or older patients when greater anchorage needed.

3. Undesirable effects of conventional facemask therapy


were either reduced or eliminated with miniplates.

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4. This method is comfortable for patients.

5. Maintenance of good oral hygiene is easy.

6. Appliance does not invade the tongue space.

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Efficient Usage Of Implant Anchorage To Treat Over Erupted Maxillary First Molar And Mesially Inclined Mandibular Molars (Ohura et al, AJO-DO
2011;139-22)

This case report describes a 14-year-old girl had an over erupted maxillary right first molar, possibly because of severely inclined mandibular right molars.

Two-step use of miniplate anchorage in the right zygomatic process was proposed.

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As the first step, the over erupted maxillary first molar was intruded with elastic chain from the miniplate for 10 months.

Then the maxillary right molars were distalized by using the miniplate to correct the class II molar relationship.

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In

mandible,

the

first

molar

was

extruded

with

intermaxillary elastic applied from the miniplate to molar for 7 after the up righting of mandibular right second molar.

The results suggest that the use of 2-step implant anchorage is efficient for intrusion and distalization of maxillary molars and extrusion and uprighting of mandibular inclined molars.

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8. CLINICIANS CORNER

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Accidental Ingestion Of A Fractured Twin Block Appliance (Rohida & Bhad et al, AJO-DO 2011;139:1235)

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic appliances that become


dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract.

This

article

reports

the

accidental

ingestion

of

fractured Twin-Block appliance.

The ease with which removable appliance can become dislodged if retention is inadequate.

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The following precautions should be taken by the orthodontist during the use of removable appliance: 1. All components of removable appliances should be smooth and rounded.

2. Hooked or C-clasps should be avoided if possible or alternative retentive components used to reduce the risk of puncturing or irritating the lining of alimentary canal.

3. All removable appliance must be suitably retentive


and of adequate size.
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4. Mandibular removable appliance have a tendency to fracture from the inadequate bulk of acrylic, especially in anterior lingual sulcus, so the appliance can be strengthened in this region by incorporation of rigid wire in the acrylic.

5. Use a color other than pink (or clear) acrylic for orthodontic appliance.

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6. Patients should always be advised both verbally and with written instruction at the time of appliance placement.

7. The orthodontist & general dentist must be able to recognize sign and symptoms off air obstruction in

case a dental object is lost in the oropharynx.

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7. Universal sign for chocking is hands clutched to the throat.

8. If

person

does

not

give

signal,

look

for

these

indication: Inability to talk, breath, or noisy breathing.

Skin, lips, and nails turning blue or dusky.


Loss of consciousness.

10. Keep up to date with cardiopulmonary resuscitation


technique.
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9.TECHNO BYTES

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Comparison Of Mesiodistal Root Angulation With Post Treatment Panoramic Radiograph And Cone-beam Computed Tomography (Bouwens et al, AJO-DO 2011;126-32)
INTRODUCTION: Orthodontists assess mesiodistal root angulation treatment position. before, as an during aid in and after orthodontic proper root establishing

Panoramic imaging has been useful for this purpose and is a valuable screening tool in diagnosis and planning treatment of orthodontic patients.
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Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for imaging of the craniofacial complex creates the opportunity to evaluate 3-dimensional image compared with traditional 2-dimensional image.

CONCLUSIONS: instrument for the evaluation of present and missing or supernumerary sequence. reliable teeth, dental regarding age, image and eruption less tooth However, information panoramic provide

1. The panoramic radiograph remains a useful screening

mesiodistal

angulations and might exhibit deviations in both mesial distal directions for all teeth.

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CBCT allows clinicians to obtain 3D image of the craniofacial complex with similar absorbed doses as dental radiographs, and the 3D volume renderings provide a powerful tool for the visualization of root angulation.

The assessment of mesiodistal tooth angulation with panoramic radiography should be approached with caution and reinforced by thorough clinical examination.

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10. AMERICAN BOARD OF ORTHODONTICS

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Common Errors In Preparing For And Completing The American Board Of Orthodontics Clinical Examination (English et al,
AJO-DO;139:136-7)

The 3 components of ABO clinical examination are: 1. Case Report Examination

2. Case Report Oral Examination


3. The Board Case Oral Examination Since most error occur in the Case Report

Examination & Case Report Oral Examination.

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The discrepancy index (DI) is first measured by the examiner for each case.

The most common deficiencies found in The Cast Radiograph Evaluation.

Cephalometric tracing errors are also common.

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It is important to know the particular bracket system

used in case treatment and why it was chosen.

Adequate periodontal documentation for all adult, as well as younger patients if the diagnostic records were produced after March 1, 2007.

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THANK YOU

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