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Pengantar

Bioteknologi Pertanian

Tim Pengampu
Prof. Sebastian Margino Prof. Andi Trisyono Dr. Taryono Dr. Donny Widianto

Jadual Kuliah & SAP


No Topik Kuliah . 1. Pendahuluan : - Definisi Bioteknologi - Sejarah perkembangan bioteknologi - Peranan Bioteknologi 2. DNA sebagai bahan genetik - Sejarah penemuan DNA - Struktur DNA - Replikasi,transkripsi,dan translasi 3. Struktur gen dan ekspresinya - Gen pada sel prokariot - Gen pada sel eukariot 4. Dasar-dasar kloning gen - Pengertian kloning gen - Enzim restriksi, vektor, & inang - Isolasi, potong, & sambung DNA - Introduksi DNA & seleksi Perakitan mikrobia rekombinan Perbanyakan mikrobia rekombinan - Fermentasi substrat cair - Fermentasi substrat padat Ujian sisipan Tanggal 01-08-2006 Dosen Dr. Donny Widianto Dr. Donny Widianto

08-09-2006

15-09-2006 22-09-2006

Dr. Donny Widianto Dr. Donny Widianto

5. 6. 7.

29-09-2006 06-10-2006 Jadual Fak.

Prof. S. Margino Prof. S. Margino Topik 1 s/d 6

Jadual Kuliah & SAP


No. Topik Kuliah Tanggal Perbanyakan tanaman secara in-vitro 8. 10-11-2006 - Pengertian - Bahan & teknik perbanyakan - Variasi somaklonal - Fusi protoplast & hibridisasi somatik Perakitan tanaman transgenik 9. 17-11-2006 10. Bioteknologi pemuliaan tanaman 24-11-2006 Dosen Dr. Taryono

Dr. Taryono Dr. Taryono

11.
12. 13. 14 15

Bioteknologi lingkungan

Bioteknologi perlindungan tanaman Keamanan, pengaturan, dan HaKI jasad terekayasa secara genetik Bioetika Ujian akhir

01-12-2006
08-12-2006 15-12-2006 22-12-2006 Jadual Fak.

Prof. S.Margino
Prof. Andi T. Prof. Andi T. Prof. Andi T. Topik 8 s/d 14

Buku Acuan
Yuwono, T. 2006. Bioteknologi Pertanian. Gadjah Mada Press. Glick, B.R. and J.J. Pasternak. 1994. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and application of recombinant DNA. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. Watson, J.D., M. Gilman, J. Witkowski, and M. Zoller. 1992. Recombinant DNA. Scientific American Books, New York, USA. Mantell, S.H., J.A. Matthews, and R.A. McKee. 1985. Principles of Plant Biotechnology: an introduction to genetic engineering in plants. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. Brown, C.M., I. Campbell, and F.G. Friest. 1987. Introduction to Biotechnology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. Smith, J.E. 1985. Biotechnology Principles. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co Ltd., Berkshire, UK. Drlica, K. 1984. Understanding DNA and Gene Cloning. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA.

Penilaian
Total Nilai Ujian + Mid + Tugas dari 4 dosen dibagi 4 (Rata-rata dari Nilai Dosen I + II + III + IV) Pengharkatan A : > rata-rata kelas + 1,5 x stdev B : < rata-rata kelas + 1,5 x stdev & > rata-rata kelas + 0,5 x stdev C : < rata-rata kelas + 0,5 x stdev & > rata-rata kelas 0,5 x stdev D : < rata-rata kelas 0,5 x stdev & > rata-rata kelas 1,5 x stdev E : < rata-rata kelas 1,5 x stdev

Tata Tertib
Tepat waktu, toleransi maks. 15 menit Tidak Berisik HP tidak diaktifkan Hadir minimal 70% Paham bahasa Indonesia & Inggris Baca salah satu / dua buku acuan Kerjakan Tugas, Mid, & Ujian

Tujuan Perkuliahan
Mengenalkan dan memahamkan bahasa bioteknologi : Kosakata (istilah dalam bioteknologi), tatabahasa (Ilmu & Teknologi pendukung bioteknologi), struktur kalimat (Perakitan jasad rekombinan) dan arti (Manfaat, bioetika)

What is Biotechnology ?

mouse with human ear

Biological production

Food & Medicine production

Industrial Fermentation

What is Biotechnology ?
using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop micro-organisms for specific uses

What is Biotechnology ?
manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either
Transferring them to another organism Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations

Related Knowledge & Industry


Molecular Biology Molecular Genetic Microbiology Biochemistry Process Engineering

Cell Biology

Biotechnology Health Diagnostic Chemical Industry

Fermentation Industry

Pharmaceutical Industry

Energy & Environtment

Food & Feed Industry

Goals of Biotechnology
To understand more about the processes of inheritance and gene expression To provide better understanding & treatment of various diseases, particularly genetic disorders To generate economic benefits, including improved plants and animals for agriculture and efficient production of valuable biological molecules

biotechnology development
Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine Modern biotechnologymanipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering

ancient biotech
History of Domestication and Agriculture
Paleolithic peoples began to settle and develop agrarian societies about 10,000 years ago Early farmers in the Near East cultivated wheat, barley, and possibly rye 7,000 years ago, pastoralists roamed the Sahara region of Africa with sheep, goats, cattle, and also hunted and used grinding stones in food preparation Early farmers arrived in Egypt 6,000 years ago with cattle, sheep, goats, and crops such as barley, emmer, and chick-pea Archaeologists have found ancient farming sites in the Americas, the Far East, and Europe

fermented food, 1500 BC Yeast - fruit juice wine Brewing beer - CO2 Baking bread, alcohol Egyptians used yeast in 1500 B.C. 1915-1920 Bakers Yeast

classical biotech
Describes the development that fermentation has taken place from ancient times to the present Top fermentation - developed first, yeast rise to top 1833 - Bottom fermentation - yeast remain on bottom 1886 Brewing equipment made by E.C. Hansen and still used today World War I fermentation of organic solvents for explosives (glycerol) World War II bioreactor or fermenter:
Antibiotics Cholesterol Steroids Amino acids

old biotech meets new


Fermentation and genetic engineering have been used in food production since the 1980s Genetically engineered organisms are cultured in fermenters and are modified to produce large quantities of desirable enzymes, which are extracted and purified Enzymes are used in the production of milk, cheese, beer, wine, candy, vitamins, and mineral supplements Genetic engineering has been used to increase the amount and purity of enzymes, to improved an enzymes function, and to provide a more cost-efficient method to produce enzymes.
Chymosin, used in cheese production, was one of the first produced

first DNA cloning


Boyer, Helling Cohen, and Chang joined DNA fragments in a vector, and transformed an E. coli cell Cohen and Chang found they could place bacterial DNA into an unrelated bacterial species In 1980 Boyer and Cohen received a patent for the basic methods of DNA cloning and transformation

Summary of biotechnology development


1750: B.C. Sumerians Brew Beer 1944: DNA confirmed as genetic material 1967: First protein synthesized by automation 1973: First recombinant DNA experiment by Cohen and Boyer 1973: Voluntary moratorium on certain cloning experiments 1974: Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee founded at NIH 1976: NIH Guidelines established 1980: Boyer Cohen patent issued (shared equally between Boyer, UCSF, Cohen, and Stanford) 1982: 1st animal vaccine made by DNA recombinant technology 1985: DNA Finger printing by Alec Jeffreys

Summary of biotechnology development


1987: First authorized field test of a GMO-Frostban, Adv. Genetic Sciences 1988: PCR developed by K. Mullis 1990: 1st Gene Therapy Trials in U.S. 1994: Flavr Savr Tamato- Calgene 1995: 1st DNA sequences of free-living organism completed 1996: Human Genome Project under way 1997:Dolly-First cloned mammal 2000: Human Genome sequence is complete 3 billion bases, 2 yrs ahead of schedule 2001: Copy Cat, Cloning pets for profit. 2002: First Human Clone? 2003: Dolly is put down, Final version of Human DNA Sequence published.

Organisms involved in biotechnology

Biotechnology in Agriculture

Drought-tolerance in APX-expressing plants

Water was withheld from transgenic tobacco plants that express ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and wildtype control plants (WT) for 18 days then the plants were re-watered for 2 days before the photograph was taken. Wildtype plants showed severe damaged while transgenic plants showed very little damage.

Insect Resistance

Testing of Bt cotton for resistance to bollworms

Resistance to Fungal Disease


Transgenic Wild-type

Sunflower White mold resistance

Control and transgenic tomato plants that express an oxalate oxidase gene construct two days after inoculation with the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia which causes stem-rot diseases in a wide variety of economically important plants.

Viral Resistance
Coat protein based protection from Papaya Ringspot Virus

Herbicide Resistance

current: soybean, corn, canola, cotton, alfalfa coming: sugarbeet (on hold), lettuce, strawberry, wheat (on hold), Turf grass resistance gene from bacteria is source

Modification of Cotton Fiber Length

Transgenic Cotton that Express KC22

Biotechnology in Health

Vitamin fortified staple food

Golden Rice

Increased Vitamin A content Transgenes from bacteria and daffidol Controversory: large amount needed to solve problem and is a culture issue!!

Edible Vaccines A Biopharming


A pathogen protein gene is cloned Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato) Plant must be isolated and highly regulated! Humans eat the plant The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein Human are immunized against the pathogen Examples: Diarrhea Hepatitis B Measles

Biotechnology in Husbandry
bST (bovine somatotropin) increases milk production gene from cow protein harvested from GE bacteria replaces cow protein originally harvested from pituitary glands of slaughtered cows Biotech chymosin enzyme used to curdle milk products gene from yeast harvested from GE bacteria replaces the calf enzyme

Biotechnology in Environment

Indicator bacteria contamination is detected in the environment microbes sensitive to certain pollutants

Bioremediation cleanup contaminated sites uses microbes designed to degrade the pollutant

Biotechnology in Environment
Land Mine Detection

Mine detected

transgene added plants

Plant turns from green to red

Biotechnology in Environment
Turfgrass Herbicide resistance Slower growing reduced mowing = reduced pollution

Bio Steel Spider silk strongest known protein Protein expressed in goat milk Protein used to make soft-body, bullet proof vests (Nexia)

The Crop Biotech Market

58.8%/118 ma
(63%/106 ma)

6.7%/13 ma
(6.0%/10 ma)

4.6%/9 ma
(3%/7 ma)

6.2%/12 ma
(3%/7 ma)

20.0%/40 ma
(21%/36 ma)

Top Five Countries = 96% of market 20 % increase in biotech acreage from 2003

Worldwide GM Crop Production

GM crops are grown on 5% of the 3.7 billion acres of cultivated land in the world

Biotechnology in Indonesia

Report on Adoption of Plant Biotech


Commercial approval: cotton - Lepidoptera resistance (Bt) Field studies cotton - herbicide tolerant, Lepidoptera resistance maize - herbicide tolerant, Lepidoptera resistance soybean - herbicide tolerant Laboratory Trials cacao - Lepidoptera resistance cassava - starch composition coffee - fungal resistant maize - Lepidoptera resistance oil palm - Lepidoptera resistance, lower saturated fatty acid peanut - virus resistant pepper - unspecified potato - Lepidoptera resistance, virus resistant rice - Lepidoptera resistance shallot - unspecified soybean - Lepidoptera resistance sugar cane - drought tolerant sweet potato - virus resistance tobacco - virus resistance tomato - unspecified

Report on Adoption of Plant Biotech


Responsibility for biotechnology research in agriculture is with Ministry of Agriculture and the State Ministry of Research and Technology; responsible for environmental aspects of biotechnology is the State Ministry of the Environment Agricultural biotechnology research institutions include: Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) Indonesian Institute of Sciences Bogor Agricultural University / Padjadjaran University; Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University

End

From dust to dust From monkey to (smart) monkey .. ??????