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A REVIEW ON NEUROPROSTHETICS

PRESENTED BY

M.H.SIDDIQUI
sidhamed@gmail.com (FINAL YEAR BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING) GUIDED BY

PROF.V.KRISHNA MANOHAR
DEAN(R&D), HEAD DEPARTMENT OF BME

DR.BHAUSAHEB NANDURKAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY YAVATMAL 445001 (MS) INDIA

Contents
Introduction to neuroprosthetics

History
Types of neuroprosthetics Applications Obstacles Current developments Future directions Conclusions

References

Introduction to neuroprosthetics
Neuroprosthetic is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses Neural prostheses are a series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease

Block diagram of neuroprosthetics

Figure: Block diagram for neuroprosthetics

History
The first known cochlear implant was created in 1957

The first motor prosthesis for foot drop in hemiplegia in


1961

The first auditory brainstem implant in 1977 In 1988, the lumbar anterior root implant facilitated

standing and walking, respectively, for a group of


paraplegics

Types of neuroprosthetics
Sensory prosthetics Visual prosthetics Auditory prosthetics Prosthetics for pin relief Motor prosthetics Bladder control implants Motor prosthetics for conscious control of movement Sensory/motor prosthetics Cognitive prosthesis

Visual prosthetics
A visual prosthesis can create a sense of image by electrically stimulating neurons in the visual system A camera would wirelessly transmit to an implant The implant would map the image across an array of electrodes Stimulating these optic neurons in the retina thus will create an image

Auditory prosthetics
Cochlear implants (CI) acquire and process the sound and convert it into electrical energy for subsequent delivery to the auditory nerve

The microphone of the CI system receives sound from the external environment and sends it to processor
The processor digitizes the sound and filters it into separate frequency bands that are sent to the appropriate tonotonic region in the cochlea

Prosthetics for pain relief


The SCS (Spinal Cord Stimulator) device has two main components, electrode, generator The technical goal of SCS for neuropathic pain is to mask the area of a patient's pain with a stimulation induced tingling, known as "paresthesia Because this overlap is necessary (but not sufficient) to achieve pain relief

Bladder control implants


To paraplegia patients have difficulty emptying their bladders Brindley developed the sacral anterior root stimulator

This device is implanted over the spinal cord, controlled by an external transmitter, it delivers intermittent stimulation which improves bladder emptying

Motor prosthetics for conciuos control of movement


Researchers are attempting to build motor neuroprosthetics that will restore movement and ability to communicate with the outside world Researchers have built interfaces that allow patients to move computer cursors Beginning to build robotic limbs that patients can control by thinking about movement

Sensory/motor prosthetics
In 2002 an array of 100 electrodes was implanted directly into the nerve fibers of the scientist Kevin Warwick

The recorded signal was used to control a robot arm developed by Warwick's colleague, Peter Kyberd and was able to mimic the actions of Warwick's own arm.

Cognitive prostheses
Cognitive prostheses use to restore cognitive functions of brain tissue loss due to injury, disease An area of the brain traditionally associated with a particular function (e.g. auditory cortex) can perform functions associated with another portion of the brain (e.g. auditory cortex processing visual information) Implants could take advantage of brain plasticity to restore cognitive function even if the native tissue has been destroyed

Applications
Alzheimer's Disease Hippocampal Deficits

Traumatic Brain Injury


Parkinson's Disease

Speech Deficits
Paralysis Spinal Cord Injuries Societal Impact/Market Information

Alzheimers/Hippocampal disease
Dr. Theodore Berger at the university of southern California is working on the these two disease It is an disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking ability Research is still going on cognitive implants to overcome the diseases

Parkinsons disease
The symptoms for Parkinson disease is shaking, rigidity, slowness of the movement Parkinson disease result from the death of dopamine generating cell A possible solution for the disease is a device that supplements the dopamine when given specific neural inputs

Speech deficits
The success of cochlear implants suggest that cortical implants to the speech areas of the brain can be developed to improve speech in such patients This field is still need more development

Paralysis
Paralysis results from many sources, stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases Many patients would benefit from a prosthetic device that controls limb movement via devices that read neurons in brain

Social impacts/market information


1 million people in the United States are affected by Parkinson's disease Alzheimer's disease is projected to affect more than 107 million people worldwide by the year 2050 More than 1.4 million people in the United States suffer traumatic brain injury Approximately 7.5 million people in the United States have trouble speaking

Obstacles
Mathematical Modeling Size Power Consumption Bio Compatibility Data Transmission Correct Implantation

Current developments
Andersen Lab

Hippocampal Prosthetic

Future directions
Self-charging implants that use bio-energy to recharge would eliminate the need for costly and risky surgeries to change implant batteries Controlling complex machinery with thoughts instead of converting motor movements into commands for machines Other future directions include devices to maintain focus, to stabilize/induce mood, to help patients with damaged cortices feel and express emotions

Conclusions
Research into neuroprosthetics is an ongoing and cuttingedge area of science. We should expect to see many more developments in the future It is an exciting time within the field of neuroprosthetics. Currently, research is only beginning to crack the electrical information encoding the information in a human subjects thoughts

these issues should not be viewed as obstacles but rather as milestones that will be achieved

References
Daniel Garrison. "Minimizing Thermal Effects of In Vivo Body Sensors" http://www.springerlink.com/content/qjjwu2l4n363j278/ Retrieved May 5, 2010 Laura Bailey. "HUniversity of Michigan News Service" http://www.umich.edu/news/index.html?Releases/2006/Feb06/r 020606a Retrieved February 6, 2006 Handa G (2006) "Neural Prosthesis Past, Present and Future" Indian Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 17(1) A. Y. Chow, V. Y. Chow, K. Packo, J. Pollack, G. Peyman, and R. Schuchard, "The artificial silicon retina microchip for the treatment of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa," Arch.Ophthalmol., vol. 122, p. 460, 2004

Thanks a lot