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LGA 3103 TOPIC: FOLKTALES (FOLKLORE/MYTHOLOGY), LEGENDS, FABLES, PARABLES

Prepared by:

Josephine Tay

Nurul Syazwani
Noorul Syamimi

Tengku Nurul Masyun

FOLKTALES

DEFINITION
The word folk, which comes from the German word volk, meaning people. A folk story is a tale that originated from a particular cultural group in a distant time and place.

The knowledge and beliefs embedded in a folk culture come intuitively from the heart and from the accumulated experience of a group of people. The folklore of all cultural groups deals with nature and natural remedies for physical and psychological conditions and reveals practical knowledge that is useful in daily life.

FEATURES

Setting

Most folktale settings remove the tale from the real world, taking us to a time and place where animals talk, witches and wizards roam, and magic spells are commonplace. The settings are usually unimportant and described and referred to in vague terms(e.g., Long ago in a land far away and Once upon a time in a dark forest). Some settings reflect the typical landscape of the tales culture, for example, medieval Europe with its forests, castles, and cottages, Africa with its jungles, India and China with its splendid palaces.

Characters

The characters in folk literature are usually flat, simple, and straightforward. They are typically either completely good or entirely evil and easy to identify. They do not internalize their feelings and seldom are plagued by mental torment. The characters are usually stereotypical, for example, wicked stepmothers, weak-willed fathers, jealous siblings, faithful friends. Physical appearance often readily defines the characters, but disguises are common.

Style

The language is typically economical, with a minimal amount of description and a heavy reliance on formulaic patterns, e.g., conventional openings and closings. Repetitious phrases are common; they supply a rhythmical quality desirable in oral tales and perhaps aided in memorization the stories. Dialogue is frequently used; it captures the nature of the character speaking.

LEGEND

DEFINITION
A legend, on the other hand, is a story which is told as if it were a historical event, rather than as an explanation for something or a symbolic narrative. The legend may or may not be an elaborated version of a historical event. Thus, examples of legends are the stories about Robin Hood, which are set in a definite period, the reign of Richard I of England (1189-99), or about King Arthur, which were perhaps originally based on the exploits of a Romano-Celtic prince who attempted to resist the expansion of the Anglo-Saxons in what was to become England. The stories about Robin Hood and King Arthur have been elaborated and expanded on down the years.

FEATURES
Stories told as though they are true A story from the past about a subject that was, or is believed to have been, historical Historical but not always factual. Many legends tell about human beings who meet supernatural creatures Often blends fact with improbable elements

FABLES

Definition: A traditional short story that teaches a moral lesson, especially one with animals as characters; these stories considered as a group. (e.g.: Aesops fables)

FEATURES

Comes on prose or verse The story is very brief, limited use of description. Feature animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects or forces of nature which are given human qualities (e.g. can talk) One character/animal usually display the vice (immoral behaviour) being critiqued. This behaviour of the character is what brings downfall to the character The story drives towards a closing moral statement. Theme: sets out to teach the reader a lesson about life.

The clear presence of a moral lesson distinguishes fables from other folk tales. Plot is overtly fictitious as the point of the story is its message, rather than to convince the reader of a real setting or characters. Fables do not carry any non-essential narrative elements; meaning there are usually few characters and often two who are portrayed as simple stereotypes rather than multidimensional heroes or villains.

Action and dialogue are used to move the story because the all-important moral is most clearly evident in what the main characters do and say. Character: the main character is often named in the title (e.g. The Country Mouse and the City Mouse). Style: Many fables use the rich vocabulary, imagery and patterned language common in traditional tales but generally speaking, the shorter the fable, the more simple its use of language.

Fables tend to use:


formulaic beginnings that establish setting and character very quickly (E.g.: One day a farmer was going to market A hungry fox was sitting by the roadsideIn a field, one spring morning) connectives to explain or show cause and effect

(E.g.: If you will give me so the wolf)

temporal connectives that hold the narrative together and give it a chronological shape

(One morning as he was first he saw then he saw When winter came And then the grasshopper understood)

simple dialogue between two main characters, often questions and answers (E.g.: Why do you howl so loudly?) or statements that reflect on a situation (You seem to have a wonderful life here in the town My feathers may not be beautiful but they keep me warm in winter.).

PARABLES

Definition: A short story that teaches a moral or spiritual lesson, especially one of those told by Jesus as recorded in the Bible. The word "parable" comes from the Greek (parabol), meaning "comparison, illustration, analogy". It was the name given by Greek rhetoricians to any fictive illustration in the form of a brief narrative. Later it came to mean a fictitious narrative, generally referring to something that might naturally occur, by which spiritual and moral matters might be conveyed.

Some scholars apply the term parable only to the parables of Jesus, which is the teaching of Jesus in the bible.

FEATURES:

Similar with fables, but excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors Its a type of analogy. Is a short tale that illustrates universal truth. Expresses a moral lesson. Often involves a character facing a moral dilemma, or making a questionable decision and then suffering the consequences. Though the meaning of a parable is often not explicitly stated, but the meaning is quite straightforward and obvious.

The defining characteristic of the parable is the presence of a prescriptive subtext (a hidden meaning of how things should be done) suggesting how a person should behave or believe. Aside from providing guidance and suggestions for proper action in life, parables frequently use metaphorical language which allows people to more easily discuss difficult or complex ideas. Parables teach an abstract argument, using a concrete narrative which is more easily grasped.

Is realistic story that seems inherently probable and takes place in a familiar setting of life. Characters are exclusively human. Its like an extended metaphor to form a brief, coherent fiction.

The Obstacle in our Path


In ancient times, a King had a boulder placed on a roadway. Then he hid himself and watched to see if anyone would remove the huge rock. Some of the king's wealthiest merchants and courtiers came by and simply walked around it. Many loudly blamed

the king for not keeping the roads clear, but none did anything about getting the stone
out of the way. Then a peasant came along carrying a load of vegetables. Upon approaching the boulder, the peasant laid down his burden and tried to move the stone to the side of the road. After much pushing and straining, he finally succeeded.

After the peasant picked up his load of vegetables, he noticed a purse lying in the
road where the boulder had been. The purse contained many gold coins and a note from the king indicating that the gold was for the person who removed the boulder from the roadway. The peasant learned what many of us never understand. Every

obstacle presents an opportunity to improve our condition.

RECAP:

Folktales: traditional stories from a particular place, passed in spoken form (e.g. Si Tanggang) Folklore: traditional stories of a country or community (e.g. How Dalat Got Its Name) Mythology: ancient myths of particular culture or society (e.g. Zeus) Fables: a traditional short story that teaches a moral lesson, especially one with animals as characters; these stories considered as a group (e.g. The dog and its shadow) Legends: a story from ancient times about people or events, that may or may not be true (e.g. Robin Hood) Parable: a short story that teaches a moral or spiritual lesson, especially one of those told by Jesus as recorded in the Bible. (E.g. Obstacle in our path)

EXAMPLE 1 - FABLES
Sources : http://worldoftales.com/fables/Aesop_fables/Aesop_Fa bles_1.html

SUMMARY
It happened that a Dog had got a piece of meat and was carrying it home in his mouth to eat it in peace. Now on his way home he had to cross a plank lying across a running brook. As he crossed, he looked down and saw his own shadow reflected in the water beneath. Thinking it was another dog with another piece of meat,

he made up his mind to have that also. So he made a snap at the


shadow in the water, but as he opened his mouth the piece of meat fell out, dropped into the water and was never seen more. Beware lest you lose the substance by grasping at the shadow.

SUITABILITY
Level 1 Year 2 Level of pupils: Intermediate Why? Theme: sets out to teach the reader a lesson about life.

Style: Many fables use the rich vocabulary, imagery and patterned language common in traditional tales but generally speaking, the shorter the fable, the more simple its use of language.

Use simple dialogues easy to understand.

EXAMPLE 2 - FOLKTALES
Sources : http://www.aaronshep.com/stories/058.html

SUMMARY
It is time for two brothers to marry, but in Mikko's family a tradition must determine who the brides will be. Each son is to cut down a tree and follow the path to which the fallen tree points. One son deliberately cuts a tree that he knows will fall pointing to the city where he already has a sweetheart waiting for him. Mikko's tree, on the other hand, falls toward a forest, and his journey takes him to a house where only a mouse lives. The mouse has many talents and a heart filled with kindness and love.

It isn't long before Mikko believes her when she says she can be the perfect bride for him. After passing several tests of skill, the wedding day is set. The coach, pulled by a team of mice, carries the excited bride-to-be, but upon arriving at Mikko's home, the older brother kicks her into a stream where she is carried away by a current. Heartbroken, Mikko turns on his brother and professes his love for the mouse. It is this love that breaks the spell that had been cast on the mouse, and she returns from the water, a beautiful princess. She and Mikko marry and live happily ever after.

SUITABILITY
Level 2 / Year 4 Level of students: Intermediate Why? The features. Interesting. The characters in folk literature are usually flat, simple, and straightforward. They are typically either completely good or entirely evil and easy to identify. They do not internalize their feelings and seldom are plagued by mental torment. Create imagination and creative thinking of pupils. Dialogue is frequently used; it captures the nature of the character speaking.