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Casting Defects

Classification of Casting Defects


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. DEFECTS DUE TO EVOLUTION OF GASES
(Blow holes, Pin hole porosity, Dispersed Shrinkage, Blister, etc.)

DEFECTS DUE TO POURING OF MELT


(Misrun, Cold shut, Inclusion, etc.)

DEFECTS DUE TO METALLURGICAL FACTORS


(Hot tears)

DEFECTS CAUSED BY MOULDING MATERIAL


(Scab, Metal penetration, Flash, Run out, Lug, etc).

DEFECTS CAUSED DUE TO OTHER FACTORS


(Mismatch, Hot cracking, etc)

DEFECTS DUE TO SHRINKAGE


(Shrinkage cavity)

DEFECTS DUE TO EVOLUTION OF GASES

Blow Holes Pin hole porosity, Dispersed Shrinkage, Blister.

Blow Hole
Balloon-shaped gas cavity caused by release of mold gases during pouring

Blow Holes
Causes of Blow Holes:
1. Excess mould. moisture in the

2. Slag in the metal reacts with carbon in the metal and liberates CO.
3. Iron oxide in the mould wall reacts with carbon in the metal and liberates CO.

Blow Holes
Remedial measures 1. Provide vent holes. 2. Avoid excessive compaction of mould. 3. Avoid excessive moisture in the mould. 4. Segregate slag from molten metal. 5. Avoid using rusted chills and chaplets.

Pin Hole Porosity


Formation of many small gas cavities at or slightly below surface of casting Large number of uniformly dispersed
tiny holes

Causes: Hydrogen is absorbed by the molten metal inside the furnace and also in the cavity. As the melt gets solidified it loses the temperature and liberates dissolved hydrogen.

Pin Hole Porosity


Remedial Measures: 1. Vaccum melting 2. Vaccum degassing 3. Avoiding very high pouring temperature.

Defects Due to Pouring of the Melt Misrun Cold shut Slag or dross inclusion

Misrun
A casting that has solidified before completely filling mold cavity. Molten metal could not fill the thin sections of the mould cavity.

Misrun
Causes:
1. 2. 3. 4. Insufficient Fluidity Low Pouring Temperature Too small Ingates Low pouring speed

Remedial Measures:
1. Increasing Pouring Temperature Increasing Pouring speed Make Ingates larger

2.
3.

Cold Shut
Two portions of metal flow together but there is a lack of fusion due to premature freezing causing a discontinuity or weak spot.

Cold Shut
CAUSES: 1. Larger distance between the Ingates. 2. Large surface area to volume ratio. REMEDIAL MEASURES: 1. Use more number of Ingates. 2. Increasing the pouring temperature.

Cold Shot
Metal splatters during pouring and solid globules form and become entrapped in casting

Inclusions
Undesirable foreign material present in the metal. (Oxides, Slag, Dirt etc.).

Causes:
1. Impurities present in the molten metal. 2. Sand cracked and broken from gating system and mould cavity.

Inclusions
Remedial Measures:
1. Skimming of molten metal before pouring. 2. Choosing a moulding sand with adequate hot strength. 3. Using ceramic foam filters.

Defects due to Metallurgical factors

Hot tear

Hot Tears in Castings

Figure 10.12 Examples of hot tears in castings. CAUSES: These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling, owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores. Exothermic (heat-producing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing.

Hot tear
Causes: 1. Casting could not undergo shrinkage freely during solidification, due to casting design or presence of cores. 2. Chemical Composition: high sulphur content promotes hot tear. 3. Long freezing range of an alloy.

Defects caused by mould material


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Scab liquid metal flows beneath the mould and mixes with sand. Metal penetration metal goes inside the mould. Flash molten metal flows into the gap between cope and drag box. Run-out metal flows along the parting line Lug metal solidifies in unwanted cavities surrounding the mould.

Mold Shift
A step in cast product at parting line caused by sidewise relative displacement of cope and drag

Common Casting Defects

Figure 10.13 Examples of common defects in castings. These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures. Source: After J. Datsko.