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Chapter-(5) Five Training Design

Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition

P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

Design Phase
Learning Theory



Determine factors that facilitate learning & transfer


Develop Training Objectives

Identify alternative method of instruction
Chapter 6, 7


Organizational Constraints

Evaluation objectives
Chapter 9

Guide to determining time required to prepare training Part 1 of 3

Variables Level Of Effort For Design

1. Designer knowledge and skills related to instructional design 2. Designer knowledge of subject matter 3. Size and complexity of the target training group 4. Designers and clients track record for sticking to plans extensive knowledge and skills extensive knowledge small, homogeneous always stick

Moderate knowledge and skills some knowledge medium size, moderately complex sometimes stick

minimal knowledge and skills no knowledge large, complex never stick

Guide to determining time required to prepare training Part 2 of 3

Low What
5. the number of instruction modules 6. Elements included in the training materials 7. clients or organizations expectations regarding packaging 8. what is considered final product few (5 modules) several (8 modules) instructor and participant manuals modest (desktop publishing) many (12 modules) instructor and participant manuals, overheads, job aids extensive (professionally produced) designer completes all drafts, finalizes after pilot

Level Of Effort For Design

Medium High

trainee manual only minimal (produced inhouse) first draft by designer, client does rest

designer completes up to the pilot

Guide to determining time required to prepare training Part 3 of 3

Variables Level Of Effort For Design

9. data collection a focus group made up of a few well-informed people deals directly with top decision maker

a focus group and a few interviews deals with more than one level of decision makers reviews and approves key materials moderate

several focus groups and several interviews deals with a complex labormanagement committee reviews and approves all materials extensive

10. designers interaction with the client 11. clients level of involvement

approves general direction and final draft minimal

12. Amount of interactivity

Proposal for developing a one day workshop on Effective Communication

Prepare Interview relevant employees to determine issues and context to develop training 1 day $1,000 $1,000




Develop objectives and plan for developing training. Includes identifying appropriate instructional methods and developing evaluation objectives
Develop training materials based on objectives

2.5 days



8 days



Develop usual aids and evaluation material Miscellaneous


2.5 days


$2,500 $1,400

Types of Costs in Training Programs

(1 of 2)

Development Costs (costs related to the development of

the training program; TNA, piloting of the training, materials used to design the program, etc..)

Direct Costs (costs directly attributed to the delivery of the

training; trainer compensation, facilities, materials, etc)

Indirect Costs (cost incurred even if training were cancelled:

preparation, marketing, administrative, & clerical support)

Types of Costs in Training Programs

(2 of 2)

Overhead Costs (costs associated with purchase and

maintenance of training equipment and training facilities)

Participant Compensation (costs associated with

trainees salary and benefits)

Evaluation Costs (costs associated with evaluating the

training; assessment tools, etc)

Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training Part 1 of 2

Developmental Costs 1. 20 days of directors time at $50,000 per year 2. 5 days of trainers time at $30,000 per year 3. Materials Direct Costs 1. 5 days of trainers time at $30,000 per year 2. Training facility rental 5 days at $150 per day 3. Materials and equipment 4. Coffee, juice, and muffins $ 600 $ 750 $ 2,000 $ 600 $ 4,000 $ 600 $ 1,000

Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training Part 2 of 2

Indirect Costs 1. 1 day trainer preparation 2. 3 days administrative preparation at 20,000 per year Participant Compensation (may include travel) $ 120 $ 120

1. 30 supervisors attending 5-day workshop (Average $35,000 / yr.)

Evaluation Costs 1. 6 days of evaluators time at $30,000 per year 2. Materials Total Training Costs


$ 720 $ 800 $32,310


Learning Objective
Objectives are statements which describe what the learner is expected to achieve as a result of training


Developing Objectives
A good objective has three components:
1. 2. 3.

Desired outcome type of behavior Condition where, when and/or what tools will be used Standards the criteria that will be used to judge the adequacy of the behavior. (minimal acceptable level; speed, accuracy, or quality)


Developing Learning Objectives

Fundamental Rules: Must be measurable and observable Articulates the goal(s) of training Communicates the intent to trainee Provides a means for evaluation Assists in the selection of materials


I. Observable Outcome/Behavior
An action verb that you want the participants to be able to do as a result of the training



Examples Action Verbs

Build Demonstrate Describe Develop Draw Dissect Draw Identify Implement Write


II. Condition
Describes the environment under which the work to be performed How you get to your outcome


Condition Examples
After completing this activity Using a computer After completing this seminar After completing this training session Using the information in the workbook In the classroom On the firing range Given a hypothetical situation

III. Criteria/Standard
A standard which describes how many, how quickly, how well (MAY BE IMPLICIT). What will happen as a result of the training


Criterion Examples
Achieving a score of 75% According to policy Accurately With no errors Within one hour


Example 1: Learning Objective

Condition Using a drop wire, bushing and connectors, but without the use of a manual

Behavior the trainee will splice a drop wire

Standard according to the standard set in the manual

Example 2: Learning Objective

Condition Using a standard climbing harness and spikes Behavior the trainee will climb a standard telephone pole Standard within 5 minutes, following all safety procedures


Mager: Description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent Specify what learners should be able to do, conditions under which they must do it, and criteria in judging success

Program Objectives



Performance Objectives
Discriminate between normal and abnormal X-rays Recall procedure for making a loan Identify transistors on a schematic diagram

Understand how to read X-rays

Knowledge of loans

Ability to read diagrams


Show an appreciation for loan procedures Be able to think critically and analytically Have a deep awareness and thorough humanizing grasp of interpersonal relations

False Objectives


Conditions for Performance

Relevant and important conditions under which performance is expected to occur Repair a motor with two minor defects using a standard set of tools and diagrams


Criterion for Performance

How well trainees should be able to perform in order to be acceptable. Includes speed, accuracy and quality Examples: finish in 20 minutes, no more that 2 errors, within a tolerance of .1 inch


Types of Training Objectives Part 1 of 2 (Kirkpatrick)

1. Trainee Reaction Objectives:

Describes the desired trainee attitudinal and subjective evaluations of training

2. Learning Objectives:

Describes the type of behavior that will demonstrate the learning, the conditions under which the behavior must occur, and the criteria that will signify that a sufficient level of learning has occurred


Trainee Characteristics
Trainability = f(Motivation, Ability, Perceptions of work environment)
Perceptions of training Self-efficacy Factors that increase motivation

Personality and attitudes

Extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, stability


No Trait and Treatment Interaction


Training Design A Training Design B

Low Low Individual Trait



A Trait and Treatment Interaction


Training Design A

Training Design B

Low Low Individual Trait



Social Learning Processes and Corresponding Training Events

Attention/Expectancy Retention Activation of memory Symbolic coding and cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal and cues for retrieval Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement Stimulation of prior related learning Presentation of encoding schemes and images, associations with previously learned material, order of presentation during training Case studies, hypothetical scenarios, aids for transfer (identical elements and principles) Active and guided practice (role plays and simulations) Assessment and feedback (positive and/or negative)

Learning environment, pre-training communications, statement of objectives and process, highlighting of key learning points

Conditions of Practice
Active practice can be mental practice Massed vs. spaced practice
Rest intervals early in training Less meaningful, greater difficulty and amount the better spaced practice Less capable, less experienced learner does better with spaced practice Retention better with spaced practice

Whole vs. part


Conditions of Practice
Overlearning Knowledge of results/feedback
Important aspects Provisions of feedback Specify corrective actions Reward/punishment consequences


Meaningfulness of material Degree of original learning Retroactive interference new learning interferes with old learning Proactive old learning interferes with the retention of new learning


Seven Step Relapse-Prevention Training

1. Choose a skill to retain 2. Set goals 3. Commit to retain the skill 4. Learn coping (relapse prevention) strategies 5. Identify likely circumstances for first relapse 6. Practice coping (relapse prevention) strategies 7. Learn to monitor target skill

Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention Part 1 of 2

Understand the relapse process Recognize difference between training and work setting Create an effective support network on the job

Identify high risk situations


Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention Part 2 of 2

Reduce emotional reactions that interfere with learning Diagnose specific support skills necessary to retain new skill Identify organizational support for skill retention


Transfer of Training
Stimulus same same Response same different Transfer positive negative




Increasing Transfer
Maximize similarity Practice Provide a variety of situations and examples Understand general principles Support Opportunity to perform on the job Feedback and reinforcement Develop and follow learning objectives

A Plan to Apply Skills Back on the Job

1. 2.

What skill/technique: (be specific) What will using skill/technique look like: (be specific)

3. What are the positive and negative consequences of using and not using the skill. Positive (+) Negative (-) Using Skill Not Using Skill


What will a slip look like?

How will you feel if you slip back to old techniques?


Under what circumstances is a slip likely to occur?

What support is needed?

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction Part 1 of 2

Instructional Event Gain attention Informing the trainee of Goal (objectives) Stimulate recall of prior knowledge (learning) Present the material Relation to Social Learning Theory Attention Attention

Retention: Activation of memory

Retention: Activation of memory, Semantic coding, Cognitive organization


Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction Part 2 of 2

Instructional Event Provide guidance for learning Relation to Social Learning Theory Retention: Semantic coding/ cognitive organization through guided discovery Retention: Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement

Elicit performance (practice) Provide informative feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer



Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 1 of 5
Social learning Theory Pretraining Attention/Expectancy Influence expectations & attitudes of trainees. Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider

Identify those with low expectations/ send to pre-training workshop Provide information to influence expectancies/ identify positive outcomes.

Demonstrate the need for training and set goals

Do needs analysis so only relevant trainees attend. Have supervisors discuss performance of trainee and set mutual goals. Have learning objectives distributed ahead of time. 43

Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 2 of 5
Social learning Theory Training Beginning Attention/ Expectancy Create/reinforce positive attitude toward training Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Gain Attention Factors to Consider Allow time for instructor and trainee introductions and develop a relaxed atmosphere

Inform trainee of goals

Allow for time to go through needs analysis, show learning objectives, and discuss usefulness on the job; draw example from trainees Choose site where anxiety level will be low (see classical conditioning). Choose proper facilities.

Eliminate distractions

Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 3 of 5
Social learning Theory During Retention Make relevant Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider

Continue to focus on training objectives

Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

Develop links between previous learning and the new learning (activation of memory). Use multiple media and make interesting Ask questions and get involvement

Present material


Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 4 of 5
Social learning Theory Make interesting Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Provide guidance for learning

Factors to Consider
Get trainees involved (symbolic rehearsal) Use relevant examples and offer many of them

Behavioral Elicit Reproduction/ performance Reinforcement Encourage learning

Provide relevant practice process (including maximum similarity and/or different situations).

Provide feedback

Let trainees know how they are doing.


Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 4 of 5
Social learning Theory Ending Reinforcement Be sure trainees see results of training Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider

Assess Provide time for examining objectives performance to see what was accomplished. Provide time to evaluate performance level accomplished and provide feedback Enhance retention and transfer Incorporate relapse-prevention strategy. Provide commitment of trainer to meet with trainees to facilitate transfer. Develop trainees goals for transfer of training

Sensitize trainees to difficulty in transfer of training

Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design 5 of 5
Social learning Theory PostTraining Reinforcement Facilitate transfer Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider Obtain support from supervisor/ peers/ trainer to help trainee in transferring the training to the workplace. Ensure that reward systems are in line with newly trained behaviors.


Learning Curves
Negatively accelerated material easy, experienced learner, high ability Positively accelerated material complex, learner inexperienced S shaped positively accelerated in early stages negatively in later (common)


Plateaus in Learning
Hierarchy of habits Motivation declines Incorrect learning being eliminated Learning material that is complex whole composed of several simple parts


Perceptual Preferences
Print Visual Aural Interactive Tactile/manipulative Kinesthetic/psychomotor Olfactory