Anda di halaman 1dari 8

20.

2 The Urination System in Human Beings


Consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, the

urinary bladder and the urethra. Blood is carried to each kidney by the renal artery and away from it by the renal vein. The blood is filtered within the kidney. Waste products i.e urea and excess substances i.e mineral salts and water are converted into urine. The ureters carry the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder stores urine . Urine is expelled to the exterior via the urethra. This process urination. The system of tubes leading from the kidney to the exterior is called the urinary tract.

THE KIDNEYS
A pair of red-brown, bean shaped organ , size of a fist,

covered and protected by thick layers of fats. Cortex dark red outer region Medulla pale red inner region filled with coneshaped tissues called pyramids. Pyramids cone-shaped tissues fill the medulla. The apices of the pyramids open into a funnel shaped cavity called the pelvis, that drains urine into the ureter.

The blood is filtered within the kidney. Waste products i.e urea and excess substances i.e mineral salts and water are converted into urine. The ureters carry the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder stores urine . Urine is expelled to the exterior via the urethra. This process urination. The system of tubes leading from the kidney to the exterior is called the urinary tract.

Functions of the kidneys


1. Remove nitrogenous waste products such as urea

2.

3. 4. 5.

and urine acidalong with excess water and mineral salts in the form of urine. Keep the water and mineral contents in our body in balance./ Regulating the amount of water and mineral salts in the body./ Eliminating excess water and mineral salts from the body. Control the amount of mineral salts in the body fluid. Maintain the pH of blood and tissue fluid. Regulating the blood concentration.

Living with kidney failure


Kidney failure due to :

- bacterial infection, injury, high blood pressure

2 ways to treat kidney failure : i. dialysis machine or kidney machine ii. Kidney transplant

Kidney health
Ways to maintain healthy kidneys include : a. Taking urine and blood tests. b. Limiting salt and protein intake. c. Maintaining blood sugar control for diabetics. d. Drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day. e. Learning about sym

20.3 Excretion in Plants


Produce relatively smaller amounts of waste products

compared with animals due to : a. Plants form organic molecules which they actually need. b. Plants are less active than animals so they accumulate waste more slowly. c. Animals eat food rich in protein and some of the amino acids are not needed by the animals. These amino acis are converted to urea for excretion. d. Plants do not have specialized excretory organs to eliminate their excretory products. Certain excretory products are converted into insoluble crystals and stored in leaves, flowers and fruits which are later lost from the plant. Some other complex waste products of plants include latex, resins and gum. These substances are stored in plants and are released when the plants die an decay.

20.3 Excretion in Plants