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CONTOH PERHITUNGAN
MANAJEMEN LOGISTIK

Sekolah Tinggi Manajemen Bandung
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UMUR EKONOMIS
Umur ekonomis suatu aktiva tetap adalah suatu periode yang
memberikan Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost (EUAC) minimum.
Untuk mencari umur ekonomis, kita harus menghitung Total EUAC
dimana k minimum, k = 1,2,3,4n
Rumus Umum Umur Ekonomis :

EUAC =
P(A/P,i%,k)-Sk(A/F,i%,k)+[EAOCj(P/F,i%,k)](A/P,i%,k)
Contoh :
Sebuah Sentral Telepon Digital dibeli dengan harga $ 1.000.000.-
Dengan perkiraan nilai sisa dan biaya operasi tahunan seperti tabel
dibawah ini, jika diketahui MARR = 10 %, pada tahun berapa umur
ekonomis sentral tersebut dicapai?
3
Year - k Salvage Value t Annual
thn ke-n operating
cost
1 900,000 100,000
2 850,000 120,000
3 800,000 120,000
4 750,000 120,000
5 700,000 125,000
6 650,000 130,000
7 600,000 140,000
8 550,000 150,000
9 500,000 200,000
10 450,000 250,000
4
n (A/P,10%,k) (A/F,10%,K) (P/F,10%,K)
1 1.1000 1.0000 0.9091
2 0.5762 0.4762 0.8264
3 0.4021 0.3021 0.7513
4 0.3155 0.2155 0.6830
5 0.2638 0.1636 0.6209
6 0.2298 0.1296 0.5645
7 0.2054 0.1054 0.5132
8 0.1874 0.0874 0.4665
9 0.1736 0.0736 0.4241
10 0.1627 0.0627 0.3855
Factor bunga untuk membantu perhitungan
5
Year EUAC EUAC TOTAL
k CAPITAL OPERA- EUAC
RECOVERY TIONS
1 200,000 100,001 300,001
2 171,430 104,758 276,188
3 160,420 102,713 263,133
4 153,875 99,124 252,999
5 149,280 95,819 245,099
6 145,560 92,751 238,311
7 142,160 90,127 232,287
8 139,330 87,859 227,189
9 136,800 88,717 225,517
10 134,485 91,259 225,744
Jadi Umur Ekonomis Sentral Digital tersebut adalah = 9 tahun
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MODEL-MODEL PERSEDIAAN
Variabel Model - P Model - Q
Apa? Klasifikasi A-B-C
Berapa? Maks.Persediaan = S Besar Pesanan = Q
Kapan? Lama Periode = T Titik Pesan = R
D = Besar pesanan setahun
B = Biaya tiap pesan
i = %, interewst tahunan
S = Unit price
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Contoh :
D = Besar pesanan setahun= 36.000 YARDS, 1 hari = 100Yards
B = Biaya tiap pesan = Rp 1.000 tiap kali pesan
i = %, interest tahunan, 25 % per tahun
S = Unit price, Rp 800 per yards
LT = Lead time
DLT = Demand Lead Time, misal LT = 2 hari,
DLT = 200 yards, makasetiap persedian mencapai
200 yards harus segera dipesan sejumlah EOQ
800 25 . 0
36000 1000 2
x
x x
EOQ=
S i
D B
EOQ
.
. . 2
=
EOQ = 600 yards tiap kali pesan, kebutuhan 1 hari = 100 Yards
T = Periode = 600/100 = 6 hari
Biaya pesan minimum = (360 hari/ 6 hari) x Rp 1000= Rp 60.000,-
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A. LEAD TIME BERSIFAT POSITIF, DEMAND KONSTAN

LT = Lead time
DLT = Demand Lead Time, misal LT = 2 hari,
DLT = 200 yards, makasetiap persedian mencapai 200 yards
harus segera dipesan sejumlah EOQ
B. LEAD TIME BERSIFAT POSITIF, DEMAND KONSTAN

Safety Stock = SS = DLT + ( Z X Standard Deviasi LT) D

Misal : LT (rata-rata) = 2 hari
Standard Deviasi = 1 hari
Service level = 95 % Z = 1.65
Demand per hari = D = 100 yards

Maka SS = 200 + ( 1.65 x 100 ) = 365 yards.


9


C. LEAD TIME KONSTAN, DEMAND PROBABILISTIK

Safety Stock = SS = DLT + ( Z X (LT X Standard Deviasi LT)
Misal : Demand per hari (rata-rata) = D = 100 yards
Standard Deviasi = 80 yards
Lead Time = 2 hari
Service level = 95 % Z = 1.65

Maka SS = 200 + ( 1.65 x (2 X 80 ) = 387 yards.


10




Diketahui : D = 10.000 unit per tahun
B = $ 24 per pesanan
S = $ 3 per unit
K = $ 4 per unit kekurangan
X = 40 unit per hari distribusi normal
dengan Standar Deviasi = 15 unit
Service level = 95 %
LT = 7 hari, 1 tahun = 250 kari kerja,

Dapat dihitung :
a. Periode pesanan (T) = (2.B/D.S) = (2x24/10.000x3) = 0.04
tahun = 10 hari
b. Periode Perencanaan ( Y = T + TL ) = 10 + 7 = 17 hari
c. EOQ atau E = Y x X = 17 x 40 unit = 680 unit
d. Sdy (SD Perencanaan) =( Y ) SDx = ( 17 ) x 15 = 62 unit
e. Maksimum Persediaan = S max = E + Z . (SDy)
= 680 + 1.65 x 62 = 782 unit
Contoh lain persediaan Model P
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SERVICE LEVEL
PROBABILITY
TOCK OUT
PROBABILITY
M R
DISTRIBUSI PERMINTAAN SELAMA LEAD TIME
12
Hubungan Z dengan % Stock Out
Z Service Level (%) Stock Out (%)
0.0 50.0 50.0
0.5 69.1 30.9
1.0 84.1 15.9
1.1 86.4 13.6
1.2 88.5 11.5
1.3 90.3 9.7
1.4 91.9 8.1
1.5 93.3 6.7
1.6 94.5 5.5
1.7 95.5 4.5
1.8 96.4 3.6
1.9 97.1 2.9
2.0 97.7 2.3
2.1 98.2 1.8
2.2 98.6 1.4
2.3 98.9 1.1
2.4 99.2 0.8
2.5 99.4 0.6
2.6 99.5 0.5
2.7 99.6 0.4
2.8 99.7 0.3
2.9 99.8 0.2
3.0 99.9 0.1
13


Contoh Lain:

Diketahui : D = 4.000 unit per tahun
B = Rp 10.000,- per pesanan
S = Rp 10.000,-per unit
Ongkos penyimpanan = Rp 4000,- per th.=Cp
Lead Time = 7 hari, 1 tahun = 365 kari

Ditanya : Tentikan Reorder point, agar jumlah pemesanan (Q) minimal.
Dapat dihitung :

a. EoQ = (2.BD/Ongkos penyimpanan ) = (2x4000x10000)/4000 =
141.4 unit =141 unit
b. Titik Pembelian kembali = (TLxD)/365 =76,7 unit = 77 unit
Jadi pemesanan sebanyak 141 unit bila inventory menurun sampai =
77 unit
c. Berapa kali pesanan per tahun = D/Q =4000/141 kali = 28 kali
d. Periode pesanan (lama antar pesanan) = 365 hari/jumlah pesanan
per tahun = 365/28 = 13 hari.
2BxD
Q = ---------
Cp
14
Manajemen Material ( MM )
Peranan MM :

Mengurangi biaya materal
Memperbaiki ROI :

Profit Sales
ROI = ------------ x --------------------------------------------
Sales Fixed Asset + Current Asset
15
Fungsi Manajemen Material ( MM )
Perencanaan Materal
Pengadaan Material
Penyimpanan Material

Pendistribusian Material
Penghapusan Material
Pengendalian Material
Quality ( material yang tepat)
Reasonable Cost (harga wajar)
Delivery ( Waktu/saat tepat)
Flexible
Service level
16
Manajemen Material ( MM )
Persoalan Persediaan Tradisoional Persediaan Kebutuhan
Material
Objek Komponen Produk
Data Penglaman masa lalu Keterkaitan antar
komponen
Orientasi Masa lalu Masa y.a.d
Metode Statistik Komputasi
Pemakaian Independent Demand Dependent demand
Asumsi Pemakaian uniform Pemakaian (bisa grdual)
Pesanan Reorder Point atau waktu
pesan tetap
Sesuai kebutuhan
17
Persediaan Tradisional
Dasar Kebijakan
Pola permintaan : Probabilisti - Deterministik
Statis - Dinamis
Pola Pengadaan : Sekaligus Bertahap - Kontinu
Lead Time : Deterministik - Probabilistik
Kendala Fisik : Gudang transportasi - dll
Struktur Biaya : Biaya Pengadaan (B)
Biaya Penyimpanan (S)
Biaya Kekurangan Persediaan (K)
Pola Manajemen : Kebijakan Delivery, Cara
Pembayaran
Pencatatan Biaya, dll
18
Logistical Management
LOGISTICAL RESOURCES
CH.8 : INVENTORY STRATEGY &
CH.9 : INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
19
Chapter. 8 :
INVENTORY STRATEGY
Key words :
High risk and high impact
Sales lost and customer satisfaction decline
Over stock may increase cost and reduce
profitability
Inventory type and characteristics
Basic inventory decision rules
Uncertainty
20
Chapter. 8 :
INVENTORY STRATEGY
1. Inventory functionality and
principles.
2. Planning the inventory
resources.
3. Accommodating the
uncertainty.

21
1. Inventory functionality and principles

Relation between formulating inventory and
manufacturing / marketing .
Inventory as a % (percentages) of assets
Opportunity of increasing inventory productivity
vs. integrated supply chains ability to use
information exchange and management focus to
reduce uncertainty


Chapter. 8 :
INVENTORY STRATEGY
22
1. Inventory functionality and
principles
a. Inventory type and characteristics
b. Inventory functionality
c. Inventory related definitions
d. Cost of carrying inventory
23
1. Inventory functionality
and principles
A. Inventory type and characteristics
Inventory risk due to capital investment and
potential for obsolescence
I. Investment of inventory
II. Possibility of risk

Nature of risk is vary depend on an enterprises position in
the distribution channel. :
a. Manufacturing long term dimension
b. Wholesale narrow but deeper and longer duration
c. Retailer wide but not deep.

24
1. Inventory functionality and
principles
B. Inventory functionality

1) Geographical Specialization - resources vs. distance need
individual operating unit
2) Decoupling - provide maximum operating efficiency, the process
permit each product to be manufactured and distribute in economical
lots size.
3) Balancing supply and demand - is concern with elapsed
time between consumption and manufacturing, its reconcile supply
availability with demand
4) Buffer uncertainty - the safety stock or buffer stock function
concern short range variation in either demand or replenishment. Its
protect two type uncertainty : forecast and delay



25
C. Inventory related definitions
Inventory Policy - guide line what to purchase and manufacture, when
and what quantity
Service Level is target specified by management.it defined the
performance objectives
Average Inventory - consist of material, components, W-I-P, and finished
goods typically stocked in logistical facilities
Cycle inventory is the portion of average inventory that result from
replenishment process
Safety stock inventory - the second part of average inventory held to
protect against uncertainty on each facility
Transit inventory stock in moving or awaiting for transportation



Inventory functionality and principles
26
Example of average inventory over
performance cycle
200
100
0
20 40 60
days
Average
inventory
Order
placement
Order
arrival
i
n
v
e
n
t
o
r
y

Figure 8.2 : Inventory relationship : constant sales and performance cycle
27
Illustration of figure 8.2 :
Assume the following condition :
i. Replenishment cycle 20 days
ii. Sales rate during replenishment 10 units
iii. Ordering upon delivery
iv. Replenishment order quantity 200 units

Figure 8.2 is called saw tooth diagram, rate sales is 10 units per day
and take 20 days to complete inventory replenishment,
its mean that order 200 units every 20 days.
Formulation :
Reorder point is specified as 200units on hand whatever happened
Average inventory 100 units, since stock on hand is 100 units.
Assume that work days is 240 days a year, so 12 time of
purchase is needed during one year.
Sales 10 units per day , so became 2400 per year
Thus Inventory turn became 2400 divided by 100 unit = 24
28
What happen if order more frequently than once
every 20 days?
Order 100 units every 10 days? Or 600 units every 60 days?
Assuming that inventory cycle is constant 20 days.
The policy of ordering 600 units every 60 days would result
that average inventory became 300 units and turn over
became 2400units/300units = 8 ( see figure 8.3 a).

If the order 100 units per 10 days means that two order
be outstanding. Thus reorder point remain 200 units
Average inventory became 50 units ( See Figure 8.3 b )
29
600
300
0
20 60 100
Days
Average
inventory
Order
arrival
i
n
v
e
n
t
o
r
y

400
200
40
80 120
Figure 8.3 : Alternative order quantity and
average inventory
30
100
50
0
20 40
60
days
Order
placement
Order
arrival
i
n
v
e
n
t
o
r
y

Average
inventory
Figure 8.3 Alternative order quantity
and
average inventory
31
Inventory Carrying cost components :
Element Average Ranges

Capital cost 15.00 % 8 - 40 %
Taxes 1.00 0.5 - 2
Insurance 0.05 0 - 2
Obsolescence 1.20 0.5 - 2
Storage 2.00 0 4
------------ ---------
Totals 19.25 % 9 50 %
Impact on Financial Result and
Impact on Decision and Strategy
See Table 8.3

32
PLANNING THE INVENTORY RESOURCES
Determining Order Point ( When to Order)

Basic reorder formula : R = D X T

Where R = Reorder point in units
D = Average daily demand
T = Average performance cycle length
e.g Demand = 10 units per day
Performance cycle = 20 days
R = 10 units /day X 20 days = 200units

With buffer stock or Safety Stock (SS)
R = D X T + SS
33
Determine Lots Size by
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ )
Formulation
THE FAMOUS FORMULA IS:


2 CO D
EOQ = ---------------
Ci U

Remark :
1) Co = cost per order
2) Ci = annual inventory carrying cost
3) D = annual sales volume, units
4) U = cost per unit


34
Example using EOQ Formula
Annual demand volume = 2400 units
Unit value at cost = $ 5.00
Inventory carrying cost percentage = 20 % annually
Ordering cost = $ 19.00 per order
By substituting from above , we have :

2 X 19 X 2400
EOQ = ----------------------
0.20 X 5.00

EOQ = 90200 = 302 9 rounded to 300 units
35
EOQ extension :
EOQ formulation is straight forward, but there are some other factor
must be considered in actual application :
Volume transportation rates
Quantity discount
Other EOQ adjustment : (I) production lots size
(ii) Multiple item purchase
(iii) Limited capital
(iv) Private trucking
Discrete Lot Sizing
Lot-for lot sizing
Period order quantity ( POQ)


EOQ = 300 units
Forecast per year = 2400 units
Order per year = 2400/300 = 8 times
Order interval = 12/8 = 1.5 months
36
ACCOMMODATING UNCERTAINTY
a. Accommodating demand uncertainty
Forecast vs. actual
Frequency demand
Normal distribution
Standard deviation
b. Performance cycle uncertainty
Inventory policy can not assume consistent delivery
Table 8.11
c. Determining Order Point with Uncertainty
Table 8.12
d. Replenishment Ordering MRP Formulae

37
Table 8-8 Typical Demand Experience
During Replenishment Cycle
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Forecast cycle 1 Stock out cycle Over stock cycle 3
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ------------------------------
Day Demand Accum. Day Demand Accum Day Demand Acumm
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 9 9 11 0 0 21 5 5
2 2 11 12 6 6 22 5 10
3 1 12 13 5 11 23 4 14
4 3 15 14 7 18 24 3 17
5 7 22 15 10 28 25 4 21
6 5 27 16 7 35 26 1 22
7 4 31 17 6 41 27 2 24
8 8 39 18 9 50 28 8 32
9 6 45 19 so 50 29 3 35
10 5 50 20 so 50 30 4 39
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
38
Table 8-9 Frequency of Demand
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Demand/day Frequency (days) Demand Frequency (days)
--------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------
Stockout 2 Five units 5
Zero 1 Six units 3
One unit 2 Seven units 3
Two units 2 Eight units 2
Three units 3 Nine Units 2
Four Units 4 Te units 1
39
Historical analysis
of demand history
1
2
3
4
5
0 1 4 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
Daily sales
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

d
a
y
s

40
Normal Distribution
99.73
95.45
68.27
Mean
Median
Mode
Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation
+ 1
+ 2
+ 3
41
Calculation of standard deviation
of daily demand
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Units Frequency Deviation Deviation
from Mean Squared
(FJ) (Di) (Di) FiDi
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0 1 -5 25 25
1 2 -4 16 32
2 2 -3 9 18
3 3 -2 4 12
4 4 -1 1 4
5 5 0 0 0
6 3 1 1 3
7 3 2 4 12
8 2 3 9 18
9 2 4 16 32
10 1 5 25 25
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
2
N = 28

S =5

FiDi = 181
2
42
2
181
28
o =
o =
43
Chapter .9 :
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
1. Inventory Management Policies
a) Inventory Control
b) Reactive Method
c) Planning Method
d) Adaptive Logic


2. Management Process
a) Strategy Development Process
b) Method of improvement Inventory Management
44
Chapter .9 :
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
Chapter 8 focused on inventory decision for single item at a single
location, while chapter 9 discussed inventory management for a range of
SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) and at multiple location.
Inventory management is the integrated process that operationalizes the
firms and the value chains inventory policy.

Reactive approach or pull inventory approach, uses customer demand
to pull product through the distribution channel
Planning approach, - proactively schedule product movement,
according to the forecast.
Combination of two approach abov,respon to the product and market
environment
45
Inventory Control
Inventory control is a mechanical procedure for implementing an
inventory policy. Accountability and tracking should be done either
manually or computerized. The primary differential are : speed,accuracy
and cost.Inventory control procedure can be characterized as perpetual
or periodic.
Perpetual Review : A perpetual inventory control process reviews
inventory status daily to determine replenishment needs, implemented
through Reorder point and Order Quantity.

ROP = D X T + SS

Order quantity determine using EOQ Formulation, EOQ extension or
another approach
46
Example :
Average daily demand = 20 units
Performance cycle = 10 days
Order quantity = 200 units
ROP = D X T + SS SS = 0
= 20 X 10 + 0 = 200 units
There are two type inventory in this case,
on - order - inventory or inventory on order Qo and
on - hand inventory or inventory on hand I

Mathematically we can say that :

If I + Qo < ROP then order Q
Average inventory can be calculate :

I = Q/2 + SS I = 200/2 + 0 = 100
47
Periodic Review

The formula for calculating periodic review reorder point :

ROP = D(T + P/2) + SS

ROP = Reorder Point
D = Average Daily Demand
T = Average performance cycle length
P = review period in days
SS = Safety Staock

The Average Inventory Formula for periodic is

I = Q/2 + (P X D) / 2 + SS

I = average inventory in units

48
Modified Control System :

To accommodate specific situation, variations and combinations
of the basic periodic and perpetual control systems have been
Developed. Most common are :
The replenishment level system and
The optional replenishment system.

The target of replenishment can be calculated by using the
following formula :

TGT = D(T + P) + SS

Where : TGT = replenishment level
SS = Safety Stock
D = Average daily demand
P = Review period in days
T = Average performance cycle length
49
The General reorder rule became

Q = TGT - I Qo

Where : Q = order quantity
TGT = Replenishment Level
I = Inventory Status at review time
Qo = Quantity on order

The Average Inventory became :

I = (DP) / 2 + SS

Replenishment order can be guarantee at least be equal to
the difference between max level (S) and min level (s)

If I + Qo < s Then Q = S I - Qo
50
Example :
The minimum or (s) level is determined similarly to ROP,
where there is no uncertainty

s = D X T ROP

When demand and performance-cycle uncertainty exist, the
Minimum stock level (s) must be incremented by an allowance for
safety stock.For example both maximum and minimum are defined
in term of specific number say 100 units and 400 units respectively,
The result is :

If I + Qo < 100 then Q = 400 I - Qo

E.g : Quantity = 75 units
Quantity on order = 0 units
Quantity to order = 400 75 0 = 325 units
51
Reactive Methods
Replenishment era initiated when stock levels fall bellow
minimum or order point. The review to anticipate these condition,
the following assuming and assumption should be discussed :
i. The system should contribute equally profit.
ii. Infinite availability at the source that means no constraints exist.
iii. No constraint on facility capacity or inventory availability.
iv. Performance cycle time can be predicted and independent.
v. Demand pattern are relatively stable and consistent.

Figure 9.1 explained reactive inventory environment.
I 250
ROP 200
OQ 400
I 80
ROP 75
OQ 200
D 14
I 45
ROP 50
OQ 200
D 5
Ws A
Ws B
Distr. Ctr
Resupply order for 200 units need for Ws A
I ( current inventory) above ROP for Ws B
Ws A more independent
Ws B will stock out because Inventory level
close to ROP

52
Planning Method
Use common information base to coordinate inventory requirement
across multiple locations or stages in the value added chain,
Two type of planning method are commonly used :
1. Fair Share allocation -> equitable inventory see Figure 9.2
2. DRP (distribution requirement planning) -> more sophisticated,
similar with MRP see. Figure 9.3
53
Adaptive Logic
A combined inventory management system may be use to overcome
some of the problem s in Reactive or Planning method.
Description
Adaptive decision factor

Suggested inventory management logic

Use proactive logic Use reactive logic
- Highly profitable segment - Cycle time uncertainty
- Dependent demand - Demand uncertainty
- Economics of sales - Destination capacity limitations
- Supply uncertainty
- Source capacity limitations
- Seasonal supply buildup

54
FUNGSI INVENTORY
Menyelaraskan antara penyediaan dan
kebutuhan
Menyelaraskan kebutuhan konsumen
dengan barang jadi
Menyelaraskan barang jadi dengan
komponen pembentuknya
Menyelaraskan kebutuhan operasi dengan
output dari operasi sebelumnya
Menyelaraskan komponen dan bahan baku
dengan supplier material
55
DILIHAT DARI FUNGSI DAN
PERANNYA INVENTORY DAPAT
DIBAGI MENJADI :
Anticipation Inventory
Fluctuation Inventory
Lot Size Inventory
Transportation Inventory
56
Tujuan Manajemen Persediaan
(Inventory Management)
Maximum, customer service
Low cost plant operation
Minimum Inventory Investment
57
CUSTOMER SERVICE
Availability
Management effectiveness
- percentage order shipped on schedule
- percentage line items shipped on schedule
- days of out of stocks
58
OPERATING EFFICIENCY
Mengembangkan Inventory Investment
dengan hal-hal berikut :
1. Customer Service
2. Biaya untuk merubah tingkat produksi
: overtime, hiring, training, lay-off
3. Ongkos pemesanan
4. Ongkos transportasi
59
INVENTORY COST
Item cost
Carrying cost
Ordering cost
Stock-out cost
Capacity-Related cost
60
PENENTUAN
ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY,
RE ORDER POINT &
SAFETY STOCK
61
Perhitungan : Economic Order Quantity ;
Reorder Point dan Safety untuk
Independent - material
Fixed Order Quantity Inventory System (System-Q).
Diketahui :
Kebutuhan Material pertahun =3.000 unit (D)
Order Cost = $500 Perkali pesan (O)
Harga Material = $ 30 per unit (M)
Storage Cost/Carrying Cost / Holding cost = $ 3 /unit.tahun
(C)
1 tahun terdiri dari 300 hari kerja
Lead time 10 hari

62
Rata-rata kecepatan pemakaian material adalah
10 unit perhari dengan simpangan baku
(standard deviation)= 1,2 unit
Service level : Diinginkan kemungkinan
terjadinya Stock -Out adalah 0,05 atau 5 %
63
Ditanya :

a. Economic Order Quantity
b. Reorder Point
c. Safety Stock
d. Total Inventory Cost Pertahun
64
| |
Quantity Order Economic 1000 * Q
93,125 1,125 90,000 2,000 * T 750 * Q
93,000 1,500 90,000 1,500 * T 1000 * Q
93,250 2,250 90,000 1,000 * T 1500 * Q
95,000 4,500 90,000 500
2
3000 x 3
30 x 3000
3000
3000 x 500
* T 3000 *
=
= + + = =
= + + = =
= + + = =
= + + =
+ +

= = Q
65
EOQ
$
Order Cost
Carrying Cost
Total Cost (T*)
Q*
66
Jawab :
a. EOQ =
b. Kebutuhan material pertahun = 3000 unit
jumlah hari kerja pertahun = 300 hari
jadi kebutuhan material rata-rata perhari
= 3000 =10 unit/hari
300
Lead Time = 10 hari
Reorder Point = kebutuhan selama lead time
= 10 x 10 unit = 100 unit
1000
3
3000 500 2 . . 2
= =
x x
C
D O
67
c. Safety Stock = Z.S
X

Z = Nilai koefisien distribusi normal untuk
sevice level tertentu. Bila diinginkan
Probabilitas Stock Out = 0,05
(Probabilitas dapat terpenuhi kebutuhan
material sebesar 0,95 ) maka Z= 1,65
Sx = Deviasi standard pemakian material
perhari =1,2 unit
t = Lead time ( dalam hari ) = 10 hari
SS= 1,65x1,2 x =6,26 unit


t
10
68
d. Total Inventory Cost pertahun

=

= 500 x 3000 + (3000 x 30) + (3 x 1000)+(6,26x3)
1000 2
Lt = 1500 + 90000+1500 + 18,78 = 93018,78
OD x MD + CQ* + (SS). C
Q* 2
69
Fixed Order Period inventory system
( system P)
Untuk soal yang sama dengan system Q, bila Rate
pemakaian material konstan, maka system P dan Q
menunjukkan karakteristik yang sama, kecuali dalam
penentuan safety stock nya.
Dalam hal pemakaian material tidak sepenuhnya
konstant, maka Order Quantity (Order size) bergantug
kepada persediaan di gudang (inventory on hand) pada
saat perioda pemesanan tiba.
misalnya: Pada Suatu perioda pemesanan inventory on
hand = 150 unit ( termasuk SS)
70
Safety stock = Z.S x
Dimana t+r = waktu siklus = waktu rata-rata dari
suatu pemesanan ke pemesanannya berikutnya
dalam contoh t+r = EOQ
kecepatan pemakaian perhari
= 1000 = 100 hari
10
Dengan Faktor keamanan 0,95 maka diperoleh :
SS= 1,65 x 1,2 x = 19,8 unit unit
Order size = EOQ + SS - Inventroy on Hand +
Pemakaian selama lead time
= 1000 + 20 - 150 + 100 = 970 unit

t r +
100
~ 20

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