Anda di halaman 1dari 54

SESSION 4

System Life Cycle Methodologies

4-1

The Systems Life Cycle (SLC)


Methodology
Recommended way of doing something

An application of the systems approach to the task of developing and using a computer-based system Often called waterfall approach

4-2

Phases in the SDLC


1) Planning 2) Analysis 3) Design 4) Implementation 5) Use

4-3

The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

SDLC is the phrase that encompasses the planning, analysis, design, and implementation phases of the system life cycle Who participates
IS personnel User Information specialists can consult

Traditional Information specialists working with users. A new strategy: Outsourcing


4-4

Life Cycle Management


An upward migration Executive responsibility MIS steering committee

Functions
Set policy Control the purse strings Resolve conflicts

4-5

Managers of Systems Life Cycles are Arranged in a Hierarchy


Executives MIS Steering Committee

Marketing

Project leader -Warehouse location model team Project leader MRP 11 team Project leader Credit approval system team Project leader ISDN system team

Manufacturing

Finance

Human Resources

Project leader HRIS team

4-6

Main Advantages of the Steering Committee


Total firm support Projects will be characterized by good planning and control Establishes policies, provides fiscal control, and resolves conflicts

Since the steering committee will probably not get involved with the details of the work, a project team is usually appointed.
4-7

Planning Phase

Benefits
Define scope of the project

Spot potential problems


Arrange tasks in sequence Provide basis for control
4-8

Steps
1. Recognize problem (the trigger) 2. Define problem 3. Set objectives 4. Identify constraints
Recall that objectives, standards, and constraints are problem-solving elements.
4-9

Steps (cont.)
5. Conduct feasibility study (TENLOS)
Technical Economic return Noneconomic return Legal and ethical Operational Schedule

4-10

Steps (cont.)
6. Prepare study project proposal
Goes to MIS steering committee

7. Approve or disapprove (go/no go)


Key questions? 1. Will the system accomplish its goals? 2. Is this the best way to go about it?

4-11

Steps (cont.)
8. Establish a control mechanism
Think in terms of:
1. What 2. Who 3. When (Person-months versus calendar months)

PERT and CPM network diagrams

4-12

The Planning Phase


MIS Steering Comm Manager Systems Analyst

1. 2. 3. 4.

Recognize the problem Define the problem

Set system objectives

Consult

Identify system constraints Conduct a feasibility study Prepare a system study proposal

5. 6. 7. 8.
Approve or disapprove the study project

Establish a control mechanism


4-13

Outline of a System Study Proposal


1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. System objectives and constraints 4. Possible system alternatives 5. The recommended system study project 5.1 Tasks to be performed 5.2 Human resource requirements 5.3 Schedule of work 5.4 Estimated cost 6. Expected impact of the system 6.1 Impact on the firms organization structure 6.2 Impact on the firms operations 6.3 Impact on the firms resources 7. General development plan (analysis, design, and implementation
phase)
4-14

8. Summary

A Project Schedule
Functional System: Subsystem: Model: Marketing Product Product Deletion

Subtask

Responsibility

Time Estimate
(Person Months)

1. Identify Systems analyst deletion criteria Product manager 2. Identify output information requirements Systems analyst Network specialist Product manager

0.75 0.25
4-15

Project Schedule (cont.)


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identify input data requirements Prepare new system documentation Design network Design database Review design Prepare program documentation Systems analyst DBA Systems analyst Network specialist DBA Product manager Systems analyst Programmer 0.50 2.00 1.50 0.50 0.25 1.00

4-16

Project Schedule (cont.)


9. Code program 10. Test program 11. Approve program Programmer Programmer Operations staff Product manager VP of marketing DBA Systems analyst Operations staff 1.25 0.75 0.50

12. Prepare database 13. Educate users 14. Cutover to model

2.00 0.50 0.75

4-17

Analysis Phase

Steps
1. Announce
Reasons for project Purpose: inform and counteract fear

2. Organize project team


User(s) Specialists Define roles
4-18

Analysis Phase (cont.)


3. Define information needs
Methods
Personal interview (the preferred method) Observation Record search (includes review of existing documentation) Surveys

A project directory can be maintained as an encompassing set of documentation to describe the system

4-19

Analysis Phase (cont.)


4. Define system performance criteria 5. Prepare design proposal (Compare to system study proposal) 6. Approve or disapprove the design project

4-20

The Analysis Phase


MIS Steering Committee 1. Manager Systems Analyst

Announce the system study


2. Organize the project team Define information needs Define system performance criteria
Prepare design proposal
4-21

3.
4.

5.

6.

Approve or disapprove the design project

Outline of a Design Proposal


1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. Problem definition 4. System objectives and constraints 5. Performance criteria 6. Possible system alternatives 7. The recommended design project 7.1 Tasks to be performed 7.2 Human resource requirements 7.3 Schedule of work 7.4 Estimated cost 8. Expected impact of the system 8.1 Impact on the firms organization structure 8.2 Impact on the firms operations 8.3 Impact on the firms resources 9. General development plan (analysis, design, and implementation) 10. Summary
4-22

MIS Steering Committee

Manager

Systems Analyst
1.
Prepare the detailed design system Identify alternate system configurations

The Design Phase

2.

3.

Evaluate system configurations

4.

Select the best configuration Prepare the implementation proposal

5.
Approve or disapprove the system implementation

6.

4-23

Design Phase
1. Prepare detailed design
Structured design (top down)
System level Subsystem level

Documentation tools

2. Identify alternate system configurations


Refine to a manageable set

4-24

Popular Documentation Tools


Data Modeling Entity-relationship diagram Data dictionary Screen/printer layout form System flowchart Program flowchart Data flow diagram Structured English Object relationship model Class specification
4-25

Process Modeling

Object Modeling

Data Flow Diagram of Four Data Processing Subsystems


Sales orders

Customers
Rejected sales order notices

1.1 Order Entry

Accepted orders

Payments by customers

Order log removals file Invoices

Filled items

1.2 Inventory

1.4 Accounts Receivable

Billed orders

1.3 Billing

Inventory ledger data

Purchasing data 2 Received items

Receivables ledger data

3
3

2
4-26

Data Flow Diagram of Order Entry System


Sales orders Customer 1.1.1 Edit order data Edit rejects Sales order edit rejects

Edited orders
Customer credit file 1.1.2 Compute credit check Credit data

Rejected sales order notices

Accepted orders 1.2

1.1.3 Log in orders

Edited and checked orders

Credit rejects

Sales order credit rejects

Order data
1.1.4 Mark filled orders

1.3

Completed orders

Date filled Order log


4-27

Hardware Choices Make Possible Multiple System Configurations


System Elements Input Order log Customer credit file Alternatives
CRT terminal Hardcopy terminal OCR Magnetic tape DASD Magnetic tape DASD Magnetic tape DASD Magnetic tape DASD Magnetic tape DASD Printer CRT terminal Hardcopy terminal Batch
Online

Rejected orders file


Accepted orders file Completed orders file

Rejected orders notice


Processing

4-28

Alternatives Selected for Detailed Study


Alternative Input Order Log Customer Credit File Accepted & Rejected Orders File Magnetic tape Completed Orders File Rejected Orders Notice Printer

1.

Scanner

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

2.

Keyboard terminal

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Printer

3.

Keyboard terminal

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape

Hardcopy terminal

4-29

Design Phase (cont.)


3. Evaluate configurations 4. Select best configuration 5. Prepare implementation proposal 6. Approve or disapprove the system implementation

4-30

Outline of an Implementation Proposal


1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. Problem definition 4. System objectives and constraints 5. Performance criteria 6. System design 6.1 Summary description 6.2 Equipment configuration 7. The recommended implementation project 7.1 Tasks to be performed 7.2 Human resource requirements 7.3 Schedule of work 7.4 Estimated cost 8. Expected impact of the system 8.1 Impact on the firms organization structure 8.2 Impact on the firms operations 8.3 Impact on the firms resources 9. General implementation plan 10. Summary

4-31

Implementation Phase
Acquire

and integrate the physical and conceptual resources to produce a working system

4-32

Steps for the Implementation Phase


1. Plan implementation 2. Announce 3. Obtain hardware resources RFP / Written Proposals 4. Obtain software resources "Make or buy" 5. Prepare database 6. Prepare physical facilities 7. Educate participants and users 8. Prepare cutover proposal 9. Approve or disapprove cutover to new systsem 10. Cutover to new system

4-33

The Implementation Phase


MIS Steering Committee Manager Plan the implementation Announce the implementation Information Specialists

1.

2.

Obtain the hardware resources Obtain the software resources Prepare the database Prepare the physical facilities Educate the participants and users

4 5

Control

Control

6
7

8.

Cutover the new system


4-34

Outline of a Request for Proposal


1. Letter of transmittal 2. System objective and applicable constraints 3. System design 3.1 Summary description 3.2 Performance criteria 3.3 Equipment configuration 3.4 Summary system documentation 3.5 Estimated transaction volume 3.6 Estimated file size 4. Installation schedule
4-35

Outline of Supplier Proposal


1. Letter of transmittal 2. Summary of recommendations 3. Advantages 4. Equipment configuration 5. Equipment specifications 5.1 Performance data 5.2 Prices 6. Satisfaction and performance criteria 7. Delivery schedule
4-36

Cutover Approaches
Pilot
Old System
Pilot System Immediate cutover Phased cutover Parallel cutover

Immediate
Old System New System

Phased
Old System

Old System

New System

Parallel
Time

New system
4-37

Use Phase
1. Use 2. Audit (post implementation review)
By information specialist(s) By internal auditor (a different one from the project team member)

3. Maintain the system


Correct errors Keep current Improve

4. Prepare reengineering proposal 5. Approve or disapprove reengineering


4-38

The Use Phase


MIS Steering Committee Manager Information Specialists

1
Control
Use the system

Audit the system Maintain the system Prepare reengineering proposal

Approve or disapprove the reengineering proposal


4-39

Prototyping

Type I -- Becomes operational system Type II -- Serves as a blueprint

4-40

Development of a Type I Prototype


1. Identify user needs

2.

Develop a prototype N

3. Y 4.

Prototype acceptable?

Use the prototype


4-41

Identify user needs

Development of a Type II Prototype


Y

Develop a prototype
Prototype acceptable?

Code the operational system


Test the operational system
System acceptable?

Use the operational system

4-42

The Attraction of Prototyping

Communications between the systems analyst and user are improved. The analyst can do a better job of determining the users needs. The user plays a more active role in system development. The information specialists and the user spend less time and effort in developing the system. Implementation is much easier because the user knows what to expect.
4-43

Potential Pitfalls of Prototyping

The haste to deliver the prototype may produce shortcuts in problem definition, alternative evaluation, and documentation. The users may get so exited about the prototype that they have unrealistic expectations of the operational system. Type I prototypes might not be as efficient as systems coded in a programming language. The computer-human interface provided by certain prototyping tools may not reflect good design techniques.
4-44

Applications That Are Good Prospects for Prototyping


High risk Considerable user interaction Large number of users A need for quick delivery An expected short use phase of the system An innovative system Unpredictable user behavior

4-45

Rapid Application Development (RAD)


Information engineering (IE) Key ingredients Management should be experimenters or early adapters Specialized teams Methodologies (RAD life cycle) Tools (I-CASE, 4GLs) RAD and the SLC are applications of the systems approach Tools are mainly 4th generation languages and CASE tools
4-46

Strategic overview of the information needed to run an enterprise as efficiently as possible Data model

Information strategy planning (ISP)

Strategic overview of the functions and goals of an enterprise The process needed to operate the enterprise and how they interrelate

Design of records used by specific procedures


.

Business area analysis (BAA) Rapid application development (RAD)

Design of procedures for specific applications

Rapid Application Development is an Integral Part of Information Engineering

4-47

Business Process Redesign (BPR)


Often used to react to systems that can no longer function adequately in the current business environment of the firm (legacy systems fall into this category) Three techniques for business process redesign are

1) reverse engineering 2) restructuring 3) reengineering


4-48

Reverse Engineering
Reverse Engineering Produces Documentation on Successively Higher Levels but Leaves the System Unchanged

Reverse
Engineering

Reverse
Engineering

Reverse
Engineering

Reverse
Engineering

Planning Phase

Analysis Phase

Design Phase

Implementation Phase
4-49

Restructuring

Restructuring

Restructuring

Restructuring

Restructuring

Planning Phase

Analysis Phase

Design Phase

Implementation Phase

4-50

Reengineering
Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering

Forward Engineering

Forward Engineering

Forward Engineering

Forward Engineering

Planning Phase

Analysis Phase

Design Phase

Implementation Phase
4-51

Selection of BPR Components


Based upon functional quality


What the system does

Based upon technical quality


How the system does its job

The relationship between these two characteristics suggest which BPR technique would be appropriate
4-52

Selection of BPR Components

Good

Functional Quality (What?)


Poor

Reverse Engineer Restructure

Do Nothing

Forward Engineer

Reengineer

Poor

Good Technical Quality (How?)

4-53

SLC, Prototyping, RAD, and BPR in Perspective

SLC, prototyping, and RAD are all methodologies


Recommended ways of implementing a computer-based system

BPR revamps systems that were implemented with computer technology that has become obsolete
4-54