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An EMS exists to fulfill the basic principles of First Aid, Preserve Life, Prevent Further Injury Promote Recovery. Each of the 6 star 'arms' represents a different stage: 1.Early Detection (A member of the public finds the incident) 2.Early Reporting (The emergency services are summoned) 3.Early Response (The emergency services get to scene quickly) 4.Good On Scene Care (appropriate treatment is given) 5.Care in Transit (the patient is looked after on the way to hospital) 6.Transfer to Definitive Care (the patient is handed to the care of a physician)

Basic First Aid

Emergency treatment administered to an injured or sick person before professional medical care is available.

Soft Tissue Injuries Soft tissue injuries include several different types of tissue damage. If the injury includes bruises, swelling, cuts & punctures.

A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body, either internal or external.

Wounds are classified as open or closed.

An open wound is a break in the skin or in a mucous membrane. A closed wound involves underlying tissues without a break in the skin.


ABRASION are superficial injuries involving scraping of the epidermis. The wounds can involve nerve endings and because of this can be painful. AVULSION Injuries are caused by accidents. The Tissue is forcibly torn off or separated. Bleeding can be profuse with an avulsion injury. INCISIONS are neat, clean cuts they can be a result of a surgical instrument or an accidental injury from a sharp object such as a knife. LACERATION is usually caused by a dull or blunt instrument. The wound is usually jagged or irregular. With a laceration there is usually tearing or breaking if tissues. PUNCTURE the skin is pierced with a sharp, pointed object. puncture wounds can be deep while appearing insignificant.

Open Wound First Aid Minor 1) Wash the wound with soap and water. 2) Apply Antiseptic. 3) Dress or bandage the wound. Severe 1) Call for Emergency Help 2)Control the Bleeding ( Apply Direct pressure & Tourniquet if needed) 3)Dress or bandage the wound. 4)Wait for the Ambulance or transport to the nearest hospital. Closed Wound First Aid 1) Apply Ice wrapped in a cloth on the wound. 2) Apply Splints if necessary.

A burn is a type of injury to flesh caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation or friction. Most burns affect only the skin (epidermal tissue and dermis). Rarely, deeper tissues, such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels can also be injured.

3 types of Burns
1. Thermal Burns. Not all thermal burns are caused by
flames. Contact with hot objects, flammable vapor that ignites and causes a flash or an explosion, and steams or hot liquid are other common causes of burns.

Minor :
1) Immerse burned area in water ( 15-20 minutes until the pain is gone.) 2) Cover Burn with sterile or clean dressing.

Severe :
1) 2) 3) 4) Call for Emergency Help or rush conscious victim to the hospital. If Unconscious Check Breathing (ABC) . Start CPR if needed. Cover Burn with clean material. Treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs and keeping the victim warm with a clean sheet or blanket.

2. Chemical Burns. Chemicals will continue to cause tissue destruction until the chemical agent is removed.

First Aid for Chemical Burns

1)Immediately remove the chemical by flushing with water. 2)Remove the victim's contaminated clothing while flushing with water. 3)Flush for 20 minutes or longer. Let the victim wash with a mild soap before a final rinse. 4)Cover the burned area with a dry dressing or, for large areas, a clean pillow case. 5)If the chemical is in the eye, flood it for at least 20 minutes using low pressure. 6)Seek medical attention immediately for all chemical burns.

3. Electrical Burns.
The injury severity from exposure to electrical current depends on the type of current (direct or alternating), the voltage, the area of the body exposed, and the duration of contact.

First Aid for Electrical Burns

1)Unplug, disconnect, or turn off the power. If that is possible, call the power company or ask for help. 2)Check the ABCs (Airway, Breathing, Circulation). Provide Rescue Breathing (RB) or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) if necessary. 3)If the victim fell, check for spine injury. 4)Seek medical attention immediately. Electrical injuries are treated in burn center.



Muscle Cramps
1. Muscle Cramp is the sudden, painful tightening of a muscle.

First Aid
1)Have the victim stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp. 2)Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently. 3)Apply heat. Moist heat is more effective than dry heat. 4)Get medical help if cramps persist.


Muscle Strain
2. Muscle strain is the sudden, painful tearing of muscle fiber during exertion. Signs and Symptoms Pain Swelling Bruising Loss of efficient movement. First Aid 1)Apply cold compress at once. 2)Elevate the limb to reduce swelling and bleeding within the muscle. 3) Rest the pulled muscle for 24 hours. 4)Get medical help.

Muscle Sprain 3. Sprain is caused by torn fibers in a ligament. Signs and Symptoms Swelling Bruising First Aid 1)Remove any clothing or jewelry from around the joint. 2)Apply cold compress at once. 3)Elevate the affected joint with pillow or clothing. 4)The victim's physician may recommend an over the counter anti-inflammatory medication (aspirin, ibuprofen) appropriates for the victim's general health.


Bone Fracture / Dislocation

Dislocation is the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint while fracture is a break or disruption in bone tissue.

Signs and Symptoms

Pain Misshapen appearance. Swelling Loss of function.

First Aid
Check ABC. Prevent infection by covering with a sterile dressing before immobilizing. Splint or sling the injury in the position, which you found it. Take steps to prevent shock.



Poison is any substance: solid, liquid or gas, that tends to impair health or cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface. A poisoning emergency can be life threatening. Causes: Common in suicide attempts. Occasional accidental poisoning. Ways in which poisoning may occur ingestion- by mouth

inhalation- by breathing
injection- by animal bites, stings, syringes absorption- by skin contact

INGESTED POISON is one that is introduced into the digestive tract by way of the mouth. One form of ingestion poisoning is food poisoning, a general form that covers a variety of conditions. Suspect food poisoning if: 1)the victim ate food that "didn't taste right" or that may have been old, improperly prepared, contaminated, left at room temperature for a long time, or proceesed with an excessive amount of chemicals. 2)several people who ate together become ill. Signs and Symptoms Altered mental status. History of ingesting poisons. Burns around the mouth. Odd breath odors. Nauseas, vomiting. Abdominal pain. Diarrhea.

Instances when vomiting should not be induced

1)If unresponsive. 2)Cannot maintain an airway open. 3)Has ingested an acid, a corrosive lye, or a petroleum product such as gasoline or furniture polish. 4)Has a medical condition that could be complicated by vomiting, such as heart attack, seizures and pregnancy.

First Aid
1)Try to identify the poison. 2)Place the victim on its left side. 3)Save any empty container, spoiled food analysis. 4)Save any vomitus and keep it with the victim if the person is taken to an emergency facility.


INHALED POISON is a poison breathed into the lungs.

Signs and Symptoms 1)History of inhaling poisons. 2)Breathing difficulty. 3)Chest pain. 4)Cough, hoarseness, burning sensation in the throat. 5)Cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes). 6)Dizziness, headache. 7)Seizures, unresponsiveness (advance stages).

First Aid
1)Remove the victim from the toxic environment and into fresh air immediately. 3)Seek medical attention.


ABSORBED POISON, also known as contact poison is a poison

that enters the body through the skin. Signs and Symptoms 1)History of exposures. 2)Liquid or powder on the skin 3)Burns. 4)Itching, irritation. 5)Redness, rashes, blisters. First Aid 1)Remove the clothing. 2)With a dry cloth, blot the posion from the skin. If the poison is a dry powder, brush it off. 3)Flood the area with copious amount of water. 4)Continually monitor the patient's vital signs.

INJECTED POISON is a poison that enters the body through a bite, sting, or syringe.

Bee sting
Signs and Symptoms Stingers may be present. Pain Swelling Possible allergic reaction First Aid

Remove stinger. Wash wound. Cover the wound. Apply a cold pack. Watch for signals of allergic reaction

Spider bite
Signs and Symptoms Bite mark Swelling Pain Nausea and vomiting Difficulty breathing or swallowing. First Aid 1)Wash wound. 2)Apply a cold pack. 3)Get medical care to receive antivenin. 4)Get local emergency number, if necessary.


Marine Organisms
Signs and Symptoms
Possible marks. Pain Swelling Possible allergic reaction. First Aid 1)If jellyfish- soak area in vinegar 2)If sting ray- soak in nonscalding hot water until pain goes away. 3)Clean and bandage the wound. 4)Call emergency number, if necessary.


Snake bite
Signs and Symptoms Bite mark Pain CHARACTERISTIC Movement Head Body

VENOMOUS Cortina, side locomotion winding Semi-angular Rectangular

NON-VENOMOUS Semi cortina curvature Oblongated Circular

Skin Pupil Ways/ manner of attack Bite marks

Rough Vertical Non constrictor With fang marks

Smooth Round Constrictor Horse shoe shape

First Aid 1.Wash wound. 2.Keep bitten part still, and lower than the heart. 3.Call local emergency number.