Anda di halaman 1dari 17

The role of HR

Comparative HRM: Theory & Practice

Universalism vs Contextual
Universalism-Contextual debate Is there a best practice approach? Convergence as a 3rd alternative

Environment International Context Includes: International Agreements


Corporate Strategy

National Context Includes: culture political/legislative economic social patterns of ownership etc.

HRM Strategy Includes: integration devolvement to line employment policies involvement policies reward policies work systems etc. HRM Practice Includes: selection performance appraisal rewards development industrial relations communication etc.

National HRM Context Includes: education/training labor markets trade unions industrial relations etc.

Contextual Model of HRM


Employee Champion
Operational Focus Administrat ive Expert

Change Agent
Strategic Partner Strategic Focus

Process HR Role Framework Source: Conner J. Ulrich D. (1996). Human Resource Roles: Creating Value Not Rhetoric Human Resource Planning September




Appraisal Rewards

The Michigan Matching Model of HRM

Stakeholder interests Shareholders Management Employee groups Government Community Unions

Situational factors Work force characteristics Business strategy and conditions Management philosophy Labor market Unions Task technology Laws and societal values

HRM Policy Choices Employee influence Human Resource flow Reward systems Work systems

HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness

Long-term consequences Individual well being Organizational effectiveness Societal wellbeing

The Harvard Model of Human Resource Management

Role of HRM departments

Differing roles in different countries. Some more administrative some more strategic As some of the administrative work is outsourced or computerised, there can be more emphasis on strategic role.

Role of HRM department

Is it represented on the board of directors Is it involved in strategic management Where was the HR manager recruited

Moving from a centralised to decentralised HR model

Trend towards management through costcentre profit-centre based approach Line managers are more in contact with employees. They have the main responsibility for performance. Issue of responsiveness to customers. A move towards reducing overhead and realtime staffing.

Pressures slowing the devolvement to line managers

Line managers not enthusiastic to take on HR activities Line managers may regard HR activities as a lower priority Not enough training and support to line managers in HR duties

Integration and devolvement

Degree of integration of HRM into business strategy Degree of devolvement: the degree to which HRM practive involves and gives responsibility to line managers rather than personnel specialits

Mechanics (low integration and low devolvement)

Specialist, but limited skills and interests of HRM practitioners.
Professional personnel manager with higher imperatives than the organization. Belief that specialist knowledge is beyond the scope of untrained people. Focus on the mechanical requirements of the function. Increasing isolation from strategic interests of the organization.

wild west (low integration and high devolvement)

Individual manager free to develop his/her own employee relationship. lncreased power to hire and fire, reward and develop employees. Potential for incoherence, inconsistency and strong employee reactions.

Guarded strategists (high integration but low devolvement)

Specialists powerful figures in the organization. Close liaison with senior managers to develop strategy. Large and influential departments with centralized control of policies. Better line managers frustrated with lack of control, poor managers welcome lack of responsibility.

Pivotal (high integration and high devolvement)

Senior personnel managers act as catalysts, facilitators and co-ordinators. Small, but powerful departments. Monitoring of and internal consulting on HRM developments. Responsibility and authority devolved to the line. Problems with resourcing high-calibre businessorientated HRM managers.