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Lesson 2: Phrases

1. 2. 3. 4. Outline: Participle phrases Absolute phrases Appositive phrases Prepositional phrases

Technical writing 2012

Extra notes or review for last lesson about compound sentences


1. Coordinate conjunctions: FANSBOY For, And, Nor, So, But, Or, Yet 2. Independent Clause ; Conjunctive Adverb, Independent Clause.

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Using CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS


Independent Clause ; conjunctive adverb, Independent Clause. The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs: Addition: moreover, furthermore, in addition, besides The price of the house is too high; moreover, it is too old. Result, Effect: as a result, hence, thus, consequently, therefore He did not study hard; thus, he failed in the exam.

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CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS: Transition


Independent Clause ; transition, Independent Clause. Transition: however, nevertheless, nonetheless The theoretical result seems reasonable ; however, it does not provide the experimental proof. Other transitions: In contrast; Instead;
On the contrary; On the other hand

I don't drink soft drink; instead, I drink water.


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CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS: Others


Meanwhile, at the same time Johnson usually jugs in the morning; meanwhile, he enjoys lessoning music. In fact, indeed Then, next Likewise, similarly To achieve your goal, you must do something; likewise, you need to make great effort to reach your goal.

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What is a phrase?
Definition: A phrase is a group of related words that lacks either a subject or a predicate or both. Example: Amazing triumphs of technology can be found in ancient civilizations. Analysis: amazing triumphs of technology : Subject Gerund phrase lacks a predicate. can be found : Verbal phrase lacks a subject. in ancient civilizations: modifier as adverb function Prepositional phrase lacks a subject and predicate.
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1. Participle Phrase
A participle phrase or called participle construction consists of a participle and any complement or modifiers it may have. It functions as an adjective or an adverb. Being a shy student, he dare not ask his professor questions. Note: Participle phrases have the same form as gerund phrases, but different functions.
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Participle Phrase vs. Gerund phrase


Stanley found studying in Taiwan funny and interesting. Studying in Taiwan, Stanley found out a lot of funny things. Question: What is the function of studying in Taiwan as shown above?

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1. Participle phrases
1. 2. 3. Present participle (V+ing): active Past participle (V+ed): passive Past tense Present tense Future tense

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Participle Phrase :past tense


Scientists who visited Taipei last year were disappointed. (Relative clause functions as adjective clause) Scientists visiting Taipei last year were disappointed. (Participle construction functions as adjective (phrase).) The papers which were presented in the last conference were great. (Relative clause) The papers presented in the last conference were great. (Participle construction functions as adjective (phrase).)

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Participle Phrase :

Present tense

Scientists who visit Taipei today see a lot of activities. Scientists visiting Taipei today see a lot of activities The paper which is presented in this conference is great. The paper presented in this conference is great.
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Particle phrase: Future tense


Scientists who will visit Taipei next year will enjoy it. Scientists visiting Taipei next year will enjoy it. The papers which will be presented in next issue will be great. The papers presented in next issue will be great.
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Participle phrases: past tense


Active When (=As) I finished my homework, I felt great. (When) Finishing my homework, I felt great. Passive When he was invited, he felt great. (When) Invited, he felt great.
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Participle Phrase : perfect tense


Active After he had washed his car, he left. After washing his car, he left. Having washed his car, he left. Passive After she had been insulted, she felt hurt. After being insulted, she felt hurt. Having been insulted, she felt hurt.
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Participle Phrase: Negative participle construction


As he didn't know what to do, he asked a friend. Not knowing what to do, he asked a friend. When she wasn't treated politely, she left the shop. Not treated politely, she left the shop.
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Participle phrases may contain coordinating conjunction for definite meaning.

When heated, an object will expand except ice. When moving an object forward, you are doing work. Before examining all of the available options, he decided to initiate the plan.

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Participle Construction: concession means Though


Past tenseActive Though he felt the danger, he turned. Though feeling the danger, he turned. Past tense Passive Though he was dissatisfied, he smiled. Though dissatisfied, he smiled.
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Participle phrase may be put at the


beginning, middle, or end of a sentence

hen assigned to a professor, a graduate student should start his research. (Periodic type) A graduate student, when assigned to a professor, should start his research. A graduate student should start his research when assigned to a professor. (Loose Type)
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Variety in Sentence Structure: Loose Sentence vs. Periodic Sentence


Before expanding a sentence or combining sentences, we need to know two styles of sentences as follows: The Loose Sentence: Main clause or idea +modifiers or dependent clause The Periodic Sentence: Modifiers or dependent clause + main clause or idea Note: The loose sentence is more suitable for technical writing. Despite rare using periodic sentences, an occasional periodic sentence is dramatic and persuasive. Periodic structures usually expand the subject or verb. Loose structures expand the verb or object.
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Dont misplaces or dangle your participles !


A dangling participle (or modifier) does not sensibly modify anything in its sentence.
Examples: (Try to correct the following sentences: 1.Walking down the crowded street, the traffic light turned red. 2. Before submitting an application for graduate schools, all universities
should be reviewed.

Correct: Walking down the crowded street, I noticed the traffic light turning red. Correct:
Before submitting an application for graduate schools, one should review all universities. Technical writing 2012

Exception for dangling participle phrases


When the logical subject in PP refers to People, We, One, DPP is valid, such as Generally speaking, Frankly speaking Some PP (V-ing) can be regarded as preposition or conjunction, such as Considering"," Concerning, Regarding, Providing, Excepting
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In a no-person independent participial phrase, the subject often refers to we, you, one,and is often omitted.
1.Frankly speaking, S+V () 2.Generally speaking, S+V () 3.Considering +N, S+V () 4.Concerning +N, S+V (/) 5.Speaking of +N, S+V (/) 6.Judging from +N, S+V () 7.Seeing that + S+V, S+V () 8. Provided that +S+V, S+V () 9.Strictly speaking, S+V () 10. Roughly speaking, S+V ()
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Participle phrases commonly used in technical writing


As+past participle+.., omitsS+Be in an adjective clause modifying the subject of main clause : , as shown in Fig. 1. The form drag of a moving object increases as the square of velocity, as shown in Fig. 1. As already explained,= As already stated, As already explained, the experimental error is still as small as two percent.

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Common Participle
(3) as mentioned above,=as pointed out above,=as already referred to,=As we noted above/earlier/ before, The result at which parameter X reaches a critical value shows an optimum value, as mentioned above. (4) As previously stated,=As illustrated before As previously stated, radiation is the process by which energy is transmitted through space in the absence of matter.
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Common participle phrases


as indicated in ~,=as demonstrated in ~, The data of parameter Y show a significant increase in decreasing X, as indicated in Table 2. As widely recognized, As widely recognized, gas expands more rapidly than solid does when heated.
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Common Participle phrases


Common terms mean conditiontime placeconcessionway subordinate conjunction (ifthoughwhilewhen wheneverwhereverwhetherhowever) +S+ Be+Adj (or N)omitting S+ Be especially for the same subject as the main clause :

(1) If free from external forces, an object will move with constant velocity. (omitting an object is ) (2) The manuscript entitled on ~ is considered for publication in the Journal of ~ if possible. (omitting it is)
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Common Participle phrases


(3) This medicine is good for your health though bitter. (omitting it is) (4) This chicken soup tastes great while hot. (omitting it is) (5) The copper is comparatively cheap and has a very good conductivity. Hence, the copper is widely used in electronics cooling wherever possible. (omitting it is) (6) John tried to work out his project, however difficult. (omitting the project is)
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Common Participle phrases


(7) All matter, whether large or small, is made up of molecules. (omitting it is) (8) While in a pure state (=When pure), water is colorless. (omitting it is) (9) Atoms may send out vast amounts of radiant energy once cracked. (omitting they are) (10) If necessary, please feel free to contact me. (omitting it is)
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2. Absolute Phrase (Absolute Participle Construction)


An absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually a noun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with any object or modifier of the participle. Since the absolute phrase modifies the whole sentence, it acts as an adverb.

Subordinate conjunction+ S1+VS2 + V S1+ V-ing (active)S2 + V S1+ p.p. (passive)S2 + V


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Examples of Absolute Phrase


Time permitting, we will pay you a visit next week. The class being over, the students rushed out of the classroom.

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Examples of Absolute Phrases


Aluminum being very soft, we can press it easily into any desired shape. =Because aluminum is very soft, we can press it easily into any desired shape. After completing the assignment, the final examination was taken. (True or False?) False, and corrected as: After the student completed the assignment, the final examination was taken. Or:The student took the final examination after completing the assignment.
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3. Appositive phrases
An appositive is usually a noun that renames another noun; it also adds new information about the noun it follows. An appositive phrase also includes modifiers. Appositives and appositive phrases sometimes begin with that is, such as, for example, or in other words.
Example: Dr. Young, my technical English teacher, is a professor in engineering. appositive phrase
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4. Prepositional phrases
Consist of a preposition and an object Function as adjectives or adverbs Used to show relationship Can be added or deleted without affecting the meaning or structure of the sentence Life on a raft was an opportunity for adventure. adj. adj. Huck Finn rode the raft down the river by choice. adv. adv. With his companion, Jim, Huck met many types of people. adv. adj.

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Sentence combining activity


Transform two sentences into one simple sentence with participle, preposition, or absolute phrases 1. It rained yesterday. Our picnic was cancelled yesterday. 2. Einstein published his general theory of relativity in 1916. He profoundly affects the study of physics for years.
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Sentence combining activity


3. The university has been facing pressure to cut its budget. It has eliminated funding for important programs. (Hint: Under., ) Ans: Under pressure to cut its budget, the university has eliminated funding for important programs.

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Sentence combining activity


4. Sandy snuck a cookie from the dessert table. This was against his mother's wishes. (Hint: Against.,..) Ans:Against her mother's wishes, Sandy snuck a cookie from the desert table. 5. I got wet. I was on water ride. The water splashed on me. (Hint: use owing to or due to) Ans: I got wet on the water ride owing to water splashing on me.
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Home Assignment #3. Part A:


Please correct the following sentences from problem set 1 to 4. 1.When not going to college, my hobbies range from athletics to automobiles. 2.Before submitting a graduate school application, the university should be selected. 3.While analyzing the samples, the error was detected by the technician. 4. After bleeding the mice, radio-immune assays were conducted to test binding capabilities. Please transform two sentences into one simple sentence (with a preposition phrase) 5. The economy was shaky last year. My company still managed a 10% growth in exports. 6. The instructor helped me a lot. I was able to write a fluent technical writing. 7. We discussed online sales and promotion. The general manager wanted our marketing department to find an effective way to promote total output. (Hint: Concerning,)

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Home Assignment #3. Part B: Choice


_____1. My homework _______, I went out to play. (A) has been finished (B) finished (C) been finished (D) was finished _____2.The sun _______, we start to go home. (A) has set (B) having set (C) has been set (D) having been set _____3.The vacation _______over, the students came back to school. (A) is (B) are (C) being (D) having
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Choice (exercise in class)


___ 4. Weather _____, we will have a picnic tomorrow. (A) permit (B) permits (C) permitted (D) permitting ___5. _____ fine today, we are going for an excursion. (A) It being (B) It is (C) Because of it is (D) Owing to (E) To being ___ 6. ____ by hunger, he stole a cake. (A) Having driven (B) Driving (C) Being driving (D) Driven ___ 7. Some people _____ with the virus look and feel healthy, but still can pass the virus to others . (A) who infected (B) infecting (C) are infected (D) infected
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The

End!

Thank you for your attention!

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