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By-: NIKHIL LUTHRA 0902731061 EC-C

Radar and Optical

Radar Forecasting

Sonar Views of Shipwrecks

German Bomber

Alaska Coast

Optical and Radar Imagery

Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Changes

2004 Tsunami

RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) is a way to detect and study far off targets by transmitting a radio pulse in the direction of the target and observing the reflection of the wave. Its basically radio echo

Primary Block Diagram Of Radar-:

Target

Target range =

ct 2

where c = speed of light t = round trip time

It is defined as the distance from the radar. The Range is measured from time delay between transmitted pulse and returned signal received.

Remember, in general v=d/t and d=vt The range is just a distance Since radio waves travel at the speed of light (v = c = 300,000 km/sec )

range = ctime/2

Why divided by 2?

The 2 is because the measured time is for a round trip to and from the target. To determine the range, you only want the time to the object, so you take half!

Wavelength

1 km

1m

1 mm

1 mm

1 nm

Frequency

1 MHz

1 GHz

109 Hz

1012 Hz IR UV Visible

UHF
VHF 0 1

L-Band

S-Band

C-Band

X-Band

Ku K Ka W

5 6 7 8 Allocated Frequency (GHz) 6 5 Wavelength (cm) 4

10

11

12

30 20

10 9

8 7

Search radars scan a large area with pulses of short radio waves Targeting radars use the same principle but scan a smaller area more often

Navigational radars are like search radar, but use short waves that reflect off hard surfaces. They are used on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft

Mapping radar scans a large regions for remote sensing and geography applications Air traffic control uses radar to reflect echoes off of aircraft Weather radar uses radar to reflect echoes off of clouds

MILITARY REMOTE SENSING AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND HIGHWAY SECURITY AIRCRAFT SAFETY AND NAVIGATION SHIP SAFETY SPACE MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS

MILITARY

IMPORTANT PART OF AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM. TARGET DETECTION, TARGET TRACKING & WEAPON CONTROL ALSO USED IN AREA, GROUND & AIR SURVEILLANCE.

REMOTE SENSING

WEATHER OBSERVATION-T.V.REPORTING

PLANETARY OBSERVATION
MAPPING OF SEA ICE

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

USED TO SAFELY CONTROL AIR TRAFFIC IN THE VICINITY OF THE AIRPORTS AND ENROUTE GROUND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC & AIRCRAFT TAXING

MAPPING OF REGIONS OF RAIN IN THE VICINITY OF AIRPORTS & WEATHER

THANK YOU.