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Introduction to Research

What is research?
A process through which new knowledge is discovered. Salkind, Neil J. (2000)

A systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem. Sekaran, Uma (1992)

Why research?
Attempts to seek answers to questions Draws conclusion from data Generalize conclusion Adds to the existing body of knowledge Improves understanding of the real world Improves understanding of our own practice

Deductive and inductive

Deductive s tarts with a theory and through observation and experiment test the theory
Inductive based on existing data/observation trying to generate a theory

Types of Research

Applied research
To solve a currently existing problem;

Basic/pure/fundamental research
To improve understanding; To generate knowledge; To build theories.

High Quality Researches


Based on the works of others. Can be replicated. Generalizable to other settings. Based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.

High Quality Researches

- contd

Doable. Generates new questions and cyclical in nature. Incremental. Apolitical taken for the betterment of society.

Scientists / Researchers
Accomplish works through adherence to guidelines. Share the same philosophy about how questions should be answered. Share a standard sequence of steps in formulating and answering a question.

Research Model Salkind, Neil J. (2000)

Asking new questions Reconsidering the theory
Asking the question Identifying important factors Formulating a hypothesis

Working with the hypothesis

Testing the hypothesis

Collecting relevant information

Asking the Question

(Identifying a Need)

1st and most important step.

broad Imagination & experience


Identifying Important Factors

Select factors that:
Have not been investigated before. Contribute to the understanding of the question. Available to investigate. Hold some interest, personally or professionally. Lead to another question.

Formulating a Hypothesis
A hypothesis is:
Objective extension of the original question. Statement that expresses relationships between variables as an Ifthen statements.

Poses a question in a testable form. Posits clear relationship between factors. Test Hypotheses, not to Prove them.

Working With the Hypothesis

confirm Factors considered were important and related.


Valuable information


Learn something not known previously.

Reconsidering the Theory

Explains things that orrurred in the past.


Predicts things that will occur in the future.


Results of research

Asking New Questions

Could be a variation of the original question, or A refinement of the original question (more depth).

Scientific Research

focused on the goal of problem solving and pursues a step-by-step logical, organized, and rigorous method to identify problems, gather data, analyze, and draw valid conclusions

What is research?
Organized there is a structure or method and it is focused and limited to a specific scope Systematic- there is a definite set of procedures and steps to follow so as to get accurate results Questions It is focused on relevant and useful and important questions. Without it research has no focus or purpose.

Characteristics of Scientific Research (Sekaran)

Purposiveness Rigor Testability Replicability Precision and Confidence Objectivity Generalizability Parsimony

End of Introduction to Research