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EGR 334 Thermodynamics

Chapter 4: Section 6-8


Lecture 16:
Control Volume Applications:
Day 1
Quiz Today?
Todays main concepts:
Be able to set up mass and energy balance models for
Turbines
Pumps
Compressors
Boilers
Heat Exchangers
Nozzles
Diffusers
Throttle
Reading Assignment:
Homework Assignment:
Read Chapter 4, Sections 10-12
Problems from Chap 4: 36, 43, 52, 66
3
e
m
CV
dm
dt
i
m
Mass Rate Balance:
Energy Rate Balance:
e e
m e
CV
dE
dt
i i
me
Q
W
Review: For a Control Volume:
2 2
cv
V V
2 2
i e
cv cv i i i e e e
dE
Q W m h gz m h gz
dt
| | | |
= + E + + E + +
| |
\ . \ .
cv
in exit
i i
dm
m m
dt
=

4
e
m
CV
dm
dt
i
m
Mass Rate Balance: 1 path, steady state
Energy Rate Balance: 1 path, steady state
e e
m e
CV
dE
dt
i i
me
Q
W
Modeling applications with Control Volumes:
2 2
1
0 ( ) (V V ) ( )
2
cv cv i e i e i e
Q W m h h g z z
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
0
i e
m m =
Many important applications involve one inlet, one exit control volumes at
steady state. Today a number of these useful models will be developed
using the one inlet, one outlet, steady state forms of the mass balance
and energy balance given below.
i e
m m m = =
Control Volume Applications:
5
Nozzles Diffuser Turbine
Pump Compressor
Boiler
Heat Exchanger
Throttling Valve
6
If:
a) Outer surface of CV is well insulated
Common Modeling assumptions:
0 Q =
Application models generally make use of simplifying assumptions to
reduce the complexity of the Energy Balance. By removing terms that do
not apply to a particular application or whose impact on the application is
generally only minor the models take on simplified, useful, and easy to
use forms.
Assumption:
b) Small change of elevation
0
i e
z z =
c) No mechanical mechanisms present
0
mechanical
W =
d) CV maintains same shape and volume
0
pdV
W =

e) No electrical effects act on CV


0
electric
W =
f) Inlet and Outlet have same physical size
2 2
V V 0
i e
=
g) Outer surface of CV is small
h) Small T between CV and environment
i) flow passes through CV in short time
0 Q =
0 Q =
0 Q =
j) inlet size much larger than outlet size
V >>V V 0
e i i
~
Nozzles and Diffusers
Nozzle: a flow passage of varying cross-
sectional area in which the velocity of a gas
or liquid increases in the direction of flow.
Diffuser: a flow passage of varying cross-
sectional area in which the velocity of a gas
or liquid decreases in the direction of flow.
8 Sec 4.6: Nozzles and Diffusers
Nozzles and Diffusers are used to change the speed of the mass
flow through the control volume.
For continuous flow, changing the size of the cross section alters the
speed of the flow.

if
incompressible
What common assumptions may be used to simplify the energy balance?
i e
m m =
V
i
V
e

V
i

V
e

V V
i i e e
i e
A A
v v
=
V V
i i e e
A A =

if
continuous
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
e
e
e e i
i
i i CV CV
gz
v
h m gz
v
h m W Q
dt
dE
2 2
2 2
CV


9 Sec 4.6: Nozzles and Diffusers
Typical Energy Balance simplifications,
2 2
CV
V V
2 2
i e
CV CV i i i e e e
dE
Q W m h gz m h gz
dt
| | | |
= + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
Horizontal Section
(or very short vertical)
No pump/turbines
Even though there is
no insulation, the V
is high so there may
be little heat
transfer.
Steady
State
Therefore,
2 2
V V
0
2 2
i e
i i e e
m h m h
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
1
0 ( ) (V V )
2
i e i e
h h = +
10
Example: (4.34) Air with a mass flow rate of 5 lb/s enters a horizontal
nozzle operating at steady state at 800R, 50 psi and a velocity of 10 ft/s.
At the exit, the temperature is 570R and the velocity is 1510 ft/s. Using
the ideal gas model for air determine (a) the area of the inlet, in ft
2
, and
(b) the heat transfer between the nozzle and its surroundings in BTU/lb of
air flowing.
50 psi
800R
10 ft/s
570R
1510 ft/s
A
in
= ?, Q = ?
Sec 4.6: Nozzles and Diffusers

.
m = 5 lb
m
/s
ideal gas
11
Example: (4.34) Using the ideal gas model for air determine (a) the area
of the inlet, in ft
2
, and (b) the heat transfer between the nozzle and its
surroundings in BTU/lb of air flowing.
50 psi
800R
10 ft/s
570R
1510 ft/s
A
in
= ?, Q = ?
Sec 4.6: Nozzles and Diffusers
V
in exit
A
m m m
v
= = =
mass balance
V
V V
i i i
i
i i i
mv m RT A
m A
v p
= = =
2
96 . 2 ft A
i
=
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
(1545 / ) 800
(5 / )
(10 / ) 28.97 / 144
50 /
f mol
m
i
m mol
f
ft lb lb R R
lb s ft
A
ft s lb lb in
lb in

=
continuity
12
Example: (4.34) Using the ideal gas model for air determine (a) the area
of the inlet, in ft
2
, and (b) the heat transfer between the nozzle and its
surroundings in BTU/lb of air flowing.
50 psi
800R
10ft/s
570R
1510ft/s
Sec 4.6: Nozzles and Diffusers
Energy balance at SS
2 2
0
2 2
i e
CV CV i i i e e e
v v
Q W m h gz m h gz
| | | |
= + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
0 0 0 0
2 2
i e
CV i i e e
v v
Q m h m h
| | | |
= + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1510 10
1
1 1
136.26 191.81
2 1 / 32.2 778
f
CV
m f
lb
Q BTU ft slug Btu
m lb s slug ft s lb ft lb

= +

m
CV
lb
BTU
m
Q
01 . 10 =

CV
Q
5 /
m
m lb s =
( )
( )
2 2
2
e i
CV
e i
v v
Q
h h
m

= +
reduced using assumptions:
from Table A-22E
Turbines
Turbine: a device in which power is
developed as a result of a gas or liquid
passing through a set of blades attached to
a shaft free to rotate.
14 Sec 4.7: Turbines
Use Mass and Energy Balances still hold:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
e
e
e e i
i
i i CV CV
gz
v
h m gz
v
h m W Q
dt
dE
2 2
2 2
CV


A turbine is a device that develops power from a gas or liquid passing
through a set of blades which are attached to a shaft free to rotate.
in exit
m m m = = 0
in exit
m m =
15
Typical Energy Balance simplifications,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
e
e
e e i
i
i i CV CV
gz
v
h m gz
v
h m W Q
dt
dE
2 2
2 2
CV


Horizontal Section
(or very short vertical)
Even though there is
no insulation, the V
is high so there is no
heat transfer.
Steady
State
Therefore,
e e i i CV
h m h m W

+ = 0
Then,
( )
e i CV
h h m W =

AV ~ 0
Sec 4.7: Turbines
W
CV
.
m
in
.
m
exit
16
Example: (4.50) Steam enters the first stage of a turbine at 40 bar and
500 C with a volumetric flow rate of 90 m
3
/min. Steam exits the turbine
at 20 bar and 400C. The steam is then reheated at constant pressure to
500 C before entering the second stage turbine. Steam leaves the second
stage as saturated vapor at 0.6 bar. For operation at steady state, and
ignoring stray heat transfer and KE and PE effects, determine the
40 bar
500C
90 m
3
/min
Sec 4.7: Turbines
(a) Mass flow rate of steam, in kg/hr
(b) Total power produced by both turbines, in kW
(c) The rate of heat transfer to the steam flowing through the reheater, in kW.
W
CV,1
Reheater
W
CV,2
20 bar
400C
20 bar
500C
Sat. vapor
0.6 bar
Assumptions
AKE= A PE=0
Q
Turbine
= 0
17
Example: (4.50)
40 bar
500C
90 m
3
/min
Sec 4.7: Turbines
(a) Mass flow rate of steam, in kg/hr
(b) Total power produced by both turbines, in kW
(c) The rate of heat transfer to the steam
flowing through the reheater, in kW.
W
CV,1
Reheater
W
CV,2
20 bar
400C
20 bar
500C
Satd vapor
0.6 bar
Assumptions
AKE= A PE=0
Q
Turbine
= 0
2) Find intensive
properties from
Table A-4
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
sat. vapor
P (bar) 40 20 20 0.6
T (C) 500 400 500 36.16
v (m
3
/kg) 0.08643 0.1512 0.1757 23.739
h (kJ/kg) 3445.3 3247.6 3467.6 2567.4
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
sat. vapor
P (bar) 40 20 20 0.6
T (C) 500 400 500
v (m
3
/kg)
h (kJ/kg)
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
phase
P (bar)
T (C)
v (m
3
/kg)
h (kJ/kg)
1) Identify state
properties given in
problem statement.
18
Example: (4.50)
Sec 4.7: Turbines
(a) Mass flow rate of
steam, in kg/hr
(b) Total power produced
by both turbines, in kW
(c) The rate of heat
transfer to the steam
flowing through the
reheater, in kW.
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
Satd vap
P (bar) 40 20 20 0.6
T (C) 500 400 500 36.16
v (m
3
/kg) 0.08643 0.1512 0.1757 23.739
h (kJ/kg) 3445.3 3247.6 3467.6 2567.4
1 1 1
1
1 1
V
inT
A V
m m
v v
= = =
To find mass flow rate from volumetric flow rate:
3
4
3
90 /min 60 min
6.248 10 /
0.08643 / 1
m
kg hr
m kg hr
= =
3
1
90 / min V m =
19
Example: (4.50)
Sec 4.7: Turbines
(a) Mass flow rate of steam,
in kg/hr
(b) Total power produced
by both turbines, in kW
(c) The rate of heat
transfer to the steam
flowing through the
reheater, in kW.
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
Satd vap
P (bar) 40 20 20 0.6
T (C) 500 400 500 36.16
v (m
3
/kg) 0.08643 0.1512 0.1757 23.739
h (kJ/kg) 3445.3 3247.6 3467.6 2567.4
( ) ( ) | |
2 2 1 1 eT iT eT inT CV
h h h h m W + =

( ) ( )
4
1
(6.248 10 / ) 3445.3 3247.6 3467.6 2567.4 /
3600
kW hr
kg hr kJ kg
kJ s s
= +

17, 565
CV
W kW =
To find the power produced in both Turbines:
20
Example: (4.50)
Sec 4.7: Turbines
state In T1 Ex T1 Ex RH Ex T2
Satd vap
P (bar) 40 20 20 0.6
T (C) 500 400 500 36.16
v (m
3
/kg) 0.08643 0.1512 0.1757 23.739
h (kJ/kg) 3445.3 3247.6 3467.6 2567.4
2 2
CV
V V
2 2
i e
CV CV i i i e e e
dE
Q W m h gz m h gz
dt
| | | |
= + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
( )
0
CV i i e
Q m h h = +
| |
4
1
(6.248 10 / ) 3467.6 3247.6 / 3, 819
3600
CV
kW hr
Q kg hr kJ kg kW
kJ s s
= =
Heat transferred in the reheaterstarting with energy balance
( )
CV i e i
Q m h h =
Simplified with assumptions:
(a) Mass flow rate of
steam, in kg/hr
(b) Total power produced
by both turbines, in kW
(c) The rate of heat
transfer to the steam
flowing through the
reheater, in kW.

Compressors and Pumps
Compressors and Pumps:
devices in which work is done
on the substance flowing
through them to change the
state of the substance,
typically to increase the
pressure and/or elevation.
Compressor : substance is gas
Pump: substance is liquid
22 Sec 4.8: Compressors and Pumps
Compressors and Pumps:
Device where work is used to increase pressure and/or elevation of the flow substance.
Pump Model:
used for liquids
Compressor Model:
used for gases
W
CV




m
in

.
m
exit

.
. W
CV
m
in
m
exit
.
.
.
23
Typical Energy Balance simplifications,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
e
e
e e i
i
i i CV CV
gz
v
h m gz
v
h m W Q
dt
dE
2 2
2 2
CV


Horizontal Section
(or very short vertical)
Even though there is
no insulation, the V
is high so there is no
heat transfer.
Steady
State
Therefore,
e e i i CV
h m h m W

+ = 0
Then,
( )
e i CV
h h m W =

Av~0
Sec 4.8: Compressors and Pumps
W
CV
m
in
m
exit
.
.
.
24
Example: (4.60) Air is compressed at steady state from 1 bar, 300 K, to 6
bar with a mass flow rate of 4 kg/s. Each unit of mass passing from the
inlet to the exit undergoes a process described by pV
1.27
= constant. Heat
transfer occurs at a rate of 46.95 kJ/kg of air flowing to the cooling water
circulating in a water jacket enclosing the compressor. If KE and PE of
the air are negligible, calculate the compressor power in kW.
1 bar
300 K
4 kg/s
6 bar
Q
CV
/m= 46.95 kJ/kg

Assumptions
Steady State
AKE= APE=0
pV
1.27
= constant
Ideal gas

state In Ex
P (bar) 1 6
T (K) 300
h (kJ/kg) 300.19
Sec 4.8: Compressors and Pumps
Table A-22 (Ideal Gas Properties of Air)
h is independent of p
W
CV
.
state In Ex
P (bar) 1 6
T (K) 300
h (kJ/kg)
state In Ex
P (bar)
T (K)
h (kJ/kg)
25
Example: (4.60)
1 bar
300 K
4 kg/s
6 bar
Q
CV
= -46.95 kJ/kg

state In Ex
P (bar) 1 6
T (K) 300
h (kJ/kg) 300.19
Sec 4.8: Compressors and Pumps
From ideal gas equation and polytropic eq.
W
CV
.
pV mRT =
1 1 2 2
1 2
pV p V
T T
=
onstant
n
pV c =
1 1 2 2
n n
pV p V =
Rearranging:
2 1 2
1 2 1
V p T
V p T
=
1/
2 1
1/
1 2
n
n
V p
V p
=
Combining
1/
1 2 1
1/
2 1 2
n
n
p T p
p T p
=
1
1/ 1 (1/ )
2 2 2 2 2
1/ 1 (1/ )
1 1 1 1 1
n
n n n
n n
T p p p p
T p p p p



| |
= = =
|
\ .

state In Ex
P (bar) 1 6
T (K) 300 439.1
h (kJ/kg) 300.19 440.7
26
Example: (4.60) 1 bar
300 K
4 kg/s
6 bar
Q
CV
= -46.95 kJ/kg

state In Ex
P (bar) 1 6
T (K) 300
h (kJ/kg) 300.19
Sec 4.8: Compressors and Pumps
( )
0
CV CV i i e
Q W m h h = +
1
2
2 1
1
n
n
P
T T
P

| |
=
|
\ .
( ) ( )
4 / 46.95 / 300.19 440.7 / 750
CV
kW
W kg s kJ kg kJ kg kW
kJ s
= + =

Therefore the exit temperature is
W
CV
.
The energy balance can then find the pump work
(Since T
2
and p
2
are now
known, h
2
may be found
on table A22)
1.27 1
1.27
2
6
300 439.1
1
T K K

| |
= =
|
\ .
( )
CV
CV i i e
i
Q
W m h h
m

= +


27
end of Lecture 16 Slides