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Chapter 1

ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL PLAN OF THE BODY


OVERVIEW AND TERMINOLOGY

Summary
Definitions Organization

of the human body Metabolism and Homeostasis


Negative feedback Positive feedback
Anatomical

terms Body cavities Planes and sections

position and descriptive

Definitions
Physiology Anatomy

Pathophysiology-

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
The

human body is organized into structural and functional levels of increasing complexity. Each higher level incorporates the structures and functions of the previous level.

Organization of the Human Body


Chemicals

combine to form Cells, similar cells combine to form Tissues, two or more tissues combine to form an Organ, two or more work together as an Organ system, all organ systems work together to support the Organism

Figure 1.1

Chemicals
Simplest

chemical is an element, 20 are found in the human body. Each element is composed of unique atoms. Atoms combine to form molecules and compounds:

Inorganic usually simple Organic complex

Chemicals
Molecules

& compounds combine to form macromolecules. Organic macromolecules in living organisms:

Cells
Smallest

units. Composed of organic macromolecules.

living structural and functional

Tissues
Groups

of cells with similar structure and function. 4 basic groups:

Epithelial tissue Connective tissue


Muscle tissue Nerve tissue

Organs
2

or more tissues that combine to form a structure that performs a particular function. Examples

Heart Lungs

Organ System
Group

of organs that all contribute to a certain body function.


Cardiovascular system

11

organ systems: study Table 1-1, p.7 and Figure 1-2, pp. 8-9.

Organ Systems
Integumentary

system:

skin, subcutaneous tissue protects us from chemicals, sun, and pathogens.

Skeletal

system:

bones and ligaments; protects internal organs, provides framework for muscles, supports the body.

Muscular

system:

muscles and tendons; moves the skeleton, produces heat, moves blood and food.

Nervous

system:

brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sensory organs; collects and interprets sensory information, regulates body functions.

Endocrine

system:

glands, produce hormones that regulate body functions.

Circulatory

system:

heart, blood vessels and blood; transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues.

Lymphatic

system:

lymph glands and vessels; destroys pathogens and returns tissue fluid to circulatory system.

Organ Systems
Respiratory

system: lungs, trachea, etc.; exchanges O2 and CO2 between the body and the atmosphere.

Digestive

system:

stomach, intestines, liver, etc.; breaks down food into nutrients and absorbs them into the blood stream.

Urinary

System:

kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra; removes waste products from the blood.

Reproductive

system:

ovaries, testes, uterus, prostate gland; produces eggs or sperm, female provides site for developing offspring.

Metabolism
Sum of all chemical reactions and processes in the body. Collective noun It is all of the chemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body. Includes growing, repairing reacting and reproducing

Metabolic

rate

The speed at which the body produces energy and heat

Homeostasis
A

state of relative stability within the body despite changes in the external and internal environment. Mechanisms:

Maintenance

Negative feedback blood sugar and temperature regulation. Positive feedback fever, blood clotting and labor.

Negative Feedback
Sequence:
Stimulus is sensed by a receptor Receptor relays information to a control center Control center evaluates and creates a plan of action Plan sent to effector Effector eliminates the stimulus (corrects problems)

Figure 1.4

Negative Feedback Temperature Control

Figure 1.5

Positive Feedback
Sequence

Same as for negative feedback except effector does NOT eliminate the stimulus, it increases it. Requires an external brake.

Anatomical Position and Descriptive Terms


Anatomical

position: standing upright, facing forward, arms at the sides palms facing forward, feet slightly apart. Table 1-2 Descriptive Terms and Table 1-3 Terms of Location and Position ***Know these terms and how to use them for the quiz and test 1.

Table 1.1.1

Table 1.1.2

Body Cavities and Membranes


2

major body cavities


Dorsal (posterior) cavity 2 sections
Cranial

Vertebral or spinal
The

two sections are continuous and lined by membranes called meninges.

Body Cavities and Membranes


2

body cavities contd


Ventral (anterior) Cavity two major compartments separated by the diaphragm.
Thoracic

cavity cavity

Abdominal Pelvic

cavity

Body Cavities and Membranes


2

body cavities contd


Ventral (anterior) Cavity Membranes
Thoracic

cavity:

Parietal pleura lines the chest wall, visceral pleura covers the lungs Visceral pericardium covers the heart and the parietal pericardium lines the sac around the heart.

Body Cavities and Membranes


2

body cavities contd


Ventral (anterior) Cavity Membranes
Abdominal

cavity:

The peritoneum is a membrane the lines the abdominal wall and continues into the ... The mesentery covers the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.

Planes and Sections


Use:

to describe internal anatomy, orientation points, increase visibility.

Plane:

an imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body, fig 1-6.

Planes and Sections


Sections:

cuts in a body or organ or plane that make the structures more easily visible.

Frontal or coronal section separates the body into front and back sections. Sagittal section separates the body into right and left portions. Transverse section separates the body into upper and lower sections.

Planes and Sections


o

Other terms that usually refer to organs:


o

Cross section Longitudinal section

Areas of the Abdomen


Division

into 4 quadrants, fig 17


RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ

Areas of the Abdomen


9

regions, fig 1-7


Upper areas: left hypochondriac, epigastric, right hypochondriac. Middle areas: left lumbar, umbilical, right lumbar. Lower areas: left iliac, hypogastric, right iliac.