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Somatic factors:
Neuro-anatomy Neuro-physiology Neuro-chemistry Level of development & maturity Pre & perinatal factors


Psychologic factors
Child-mother interaction The role of father Sibling rivalry Intelligence Interaction within the family, correlation to occupation, type of play & society Loss anxiety, depression, self accusation & guilt Early concept: self identity Skill, talents & creativity Adaptation pattern & defense mechanism Level of emotional development


Socio-cultural Factors
Stability within the family Nurturing Pattern Level of economy Housing: Urban >< suburb/village Minority issue Race & Religion influence Cultural issue



Systems of classification for psychiatric diagnoses have several purposes: 1. to distinguish one psychiatric diagnosis from another, so that clinicians can offer the most effective treatment 2. to provide a common language among health care professionals 3. to explore the still unknown causes of many mental disorders

Two most important psychiatric classifications: 1. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) developed by the American Psychiatric Association in collaboration with other groups of mental health professionals 2. International Classification of Diseases (ICD), developed by the World Health Organization


ICD-10 uses alpha-numeric code, 1 alphabet and 2 numbers 3 characters(A00-Z99). For Mental Disorders (F.00-F99) Term Disorder is used for all classification, and not the term disease and illness Disorder is used to describe a cluster of sings & symptoms or behaviors that could be found clinically with distress for most of the cases and could also cause impairment of functioning

impairment: a loss or an abnormality of a structure or function psychological manifestation of mental function (memory) Disability: limitation or decrease of ability to perform normal daily life activities (bathing, eating, drinking) handycap: disadvantage that limit the role of somebody to function normally

Dichotomy neurotic psychotic is not used anymore, instead disorders are grouping according to clinical features

Psychotic is a descriptive term, not involving psychodynamic formulation, point out only hallucinations, delusions, and certain behaviors including ecstasy, overactivities, severe motor retardation and catatonia All organic origin disorders are grouped into one section (F00-F09), and substance related disorders in one section(F10-F19) More than one diagnosis can be concluded, main diagnosis followed by concomitant diagnosis


F00 F09 Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders F10 F11 Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactivc substance use F20 F 29 Schizophrenia and schizotypal and delusional disorders F30 F 39 Mood (affective) disorders F40 F48 Neurotic stress-related and somatoform disorders F50 F59 Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors F60 F69 Disorders of adult personality and behavior F70 F79 Mental retardation F80 F89 Disorders of psychological development F90 F 99 Behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence