Anda di halaman 1dari 29

Erica Nadine Uygen Portia Erika Ferrandiz

Advantages of Using a Selfadministered Questionnaire

1. A self-administered questionnaire is less expensive per respondent than an interview. 2. A questionnaire requires less time and less skills of data-gathering and processing. 3. External influence is avoided. 4. Respondents have to think before answering because they are not under pressure to give an answer immediately.

Disadvantages of a Self-administered Questionnaire


2. 3. 4. 5.

The per respondent cost of self-administered questionnaire may below, but rate is also generally low, usually less than 50 percent. Many respondents do not return accomplished questionnaire. Respondents included in the sample may not be representative of the population being studied. No one will answer or clarify questions that may arise. Questionnaires cannot be used on illiterate respondents.

Techniques of a Structured Interview

The interviewer reads each question to the

respondent and record verbatim in the instrument the answers provided by the respondent. Respondents are asked the exact questions as formulated and as sequenced. Instructions for the interviewer on how questions should be asked and how answers are to be recorded are incorporated in the instrument.

Advantages of Face to Face Interview

The interviewer/ investigator can observe the body language of the respondent. 2. The interviewer can probe for clarification of a biguous responses. 3. Interview is effective for semi-literate or illiterate respondents. 4. The expected response rate in an interview is high.

Disadvantages of Face-to-Face Interview

1. The cost in terms of money, time , and personnel per respondent is high, especially because of travel cost. 2. Skilled interviewers are required. Training is needed for those who lack experience and/ or those who are not yet skilled In conducting interviews. Even skilled interviewers require briefing on feature / aspects of data collection peculiar to a particular project.

Techniques in Collecting Qualitative Data

Qualitative approaches in data are preferred when obtaining data on processes, on how and why a program or a project works,. On how individuals think about or perceive a certain issue, situation, practice, people, etc,. Or what their attitudes are towards something. The most commonly used methods in collecting qualitative information are : in-depth interview , focus group discussion , direct observation and content analysis.

In-depth Interview
An in-depth interview is a direct, face-to-face means of gathering information from individuals, using probing techniques. The interviewer asks questions using a topic guide or a set of general questions, often called an interview guide. Questions asked are openended. Follow-up questions are asked based on the responses and flow of interview. These questions are called probes and the process is called probing.

When to use in-depth Interviews

To answer how and why questions.
To generate detailed information about a process,

someones feelings, perceptions , or opinions about an issue or subject. To identify relevant variables , which may not have emerged in previous studies. To clarify concepts or to generate hypotheses prior to developing questionnaires for quantitative surveys. To generate supplementary or explanatory data to augment survey findings.

How to use In-depth Interviews

Identification and training of interviewers. Interviewers

must be experienced and highly skilled in probing, especially when topics are sensitive or highly controversial. Training therefore is needed. Preparing of an interview guide. An outline of topics or a set of general questions that serves as interview guide must be prepared. Identification and selection of key information.

The key information are chosen based on their knowledge bout the research topic and their willingness to participate in the study and provide information. Permission for an interview is sought and the schedule is set.

How to use In-depth Interviews

Conducting the interview. The interviewer makes

the key informant feel at ease, then explains the purpose of the interview and how the informant was selected. The interview and how the informant was selected. The interviewer starts with simple openended questions and follows these up with probing questions.

Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

An FGD is an informal in-depth discussion in which a small number of participants (6-12) , under the guidance of a moderator or facilitator talk about topics of special importance to a particular research issue Participants are purposively selected from a defined target population whose opinions and ideas are relevant to the research. FGD data can provide relatively quick answers to specific questions and are often used In the formulation of hypotheses before surveys are designed or to clarify ambiguous survey findings (Scrimshaw, et al. 1991) FGD data cannot be used to generalize to a larger population, so the methodology is not appropraite for testing a hypothesis in the tradition of an exerimental design, (AIDSCAP , FHI, 1994)

Some Feature of FGDs

FGD participations are purposively selected from a defined

target population whose opinions and ideas are relevant to the research. Usually more than one FGD is necessary to adaquately cover the range of participants characteristics and issues. Important ideas/ facts brought up during the discussion are recorded and later analyzed and used as bases for recommendations. The FGD facilitator stimulates participants to talk to each other about a certain issue/ topics rather than to talk to the moderator.

When and How to use FGDs

FGDs are increasingly used by researchers, practitioners and educators in the context of needs assesment and formative evaluation (Basch 187 ; Dawson, et al. , 1993 ; Scrimshaw , et al. , 1991 , cited in AIDSCAP, FHI, 1994)

Some Uses of Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

1. To obtain group reactions to an issue which can be compared later with interview respondents from respondents in the same population. 2. To determine group reactions to a certain program or intervention; 3. As basis for developing hypotheses for larger studies 4. As basis in developing survey instruments, such as interview schedules and questionnaires , Ideas/facts that come out during the FGDs can be used as response categories for interview schedules and questionnaires and in deciding the language consistent with what is familiar / understandable to the respondents. 5. To explain and interpret more fully results of surveys and other quantitative studies. 6. As basis in developing testing , and refining educational messages

The FGD Process

1. Determine the purpose of the FGD.

- Clearly define the research question or problem. Determine the type of information to be elicited and identify the appropriate target FGD participants. 2. Develop a topic guide. A topic guide begins with a summary statement of the issues and objectives of the discussions. It includes the cues to be used by the moderator or facilitator. a) First, prepare a list of topics or question areas to be covered by the FGD. The topics should be based on the study objectives and arranged from general to specific.

b) Then, generate a list of possible probing questions which

will be used if the information given is not clear, complete, adequate, consistent or spontaneous. c) Assign a rough time estimate for each topic to make sure that adequate time is alloted to the topics to be discussed, based on priority and complexity. d) Review and pre-test the guide before conducting an actual FGD.

3. Recruit the FGD participants. The type of participants

in an FGD is determined by the nature of the project or problem being studied. FGD participants should have more or less similar characteristics. In recruiting FGD participants, an authority who personally knows the target population should be consulted and asked to help identify eligible participants.

4. Select and train the moderators and assistants.

-FGD moderators/facilitators should be outgoing, sensitive, warm, energetic, diplomatic, but firm and good listeners. They must therefore, undergo training to develop or enhance their facilitating skills.

Characteristics of a Good Moderator (AIDSCAP, FHI, 1991)

A Good Moderator
Has experience in group dynamics; Stimulates discussion among group members; Remains non-critical and avoids giving experts opinion; Keeps discussion moving and focused; Covers all elements of the topic guide; Probes to clarify important points; Comfortable with periods of silence.

Puts the participants at ease;

Shows genuine interest in the discussion; Involves everyone in the discussion, but knows how to control overtalkative participants. Encourages divergent points of view.

5. Plan the logistics. Logistics involves schedule of

FGDs venue, preparation of materials, and other preparations. In planning logistics, the researcher must: a) select the date and time for the FGD, b) select an FGD site that is accessible, convenient, non-threathening, and c) prepare the materials needed, such as tape recorder, notebooks or papers, and extra batteries. 6. Conduct the FGDs a) Participants should be seated in a circular arrangement so that they can see and hear each other.

The moderator opens with a brief introduction to put the participants at ease, establishes the ground rules, and allows rapport to develop between the moderator and the group. Then, he/she explains the objectives of the FGD, what it expects to achieve, and how the FGD will be conducted. b) The moderator then asks the participants to introduce themselves to the group. When he/she senses that the group members are already feeling ate ease, he/she can start asking questions that all members of the group can easily answer. c) Throughout the discussion, the moderator should encourage participation by asking for reactions or what they think about the subject being discussed. The moderator watches out for potential problems and immediately corrects them. Such problems are:

1) participants who merely agree with the opinions

voiced by others, 2) participants who are overly enthusiastic, aloof, confused, excessively positive or negative, and 3) participants who are very critical or hostile to any participant or the moderator.

Preparing the FGD Guide

An FGD guide contains: a) a summary statement of the

issues and objectives of the discussion, b) cues for the moderator or facilitator, and c) a list of topics or question areas to be covered in the FGD. The topic areas usually move from the general to specific. The FGD guide is not a questionnaire, so the moderator should not read the questions to the FGD participants. The topics included in the guide depends on the objective of the research. The topic guide must be prepared early enough to give time for review and pretest. It should be pretested to eliminate unnecessary topics. The pretest participants should best represent the target FGD participants.

Steps in Preparing an FGD Guide (Adapted from AIDSCAP, FHI, 1993) 1. Determine first what background information is needed from the respondents to evaluate their comments during the session, 2. Prepare a list of topics from the general to specific topics of interest, 3. Generate a list of probing questions for each major topic area. These questions will be used, just in case the information given by the participants need clarification or does not emerge spontaneously. 4. Prepare introductory stimulus materials and transition approaches for new topics, 5. Assign, based on priority and complexity, a rough time estimate for each topic.

Observation is a method used to study social processes

as they happen. This is more commonly used in anthropology than in any other field. Usually, the role assumed by the researcher is that of a participant observer. By observing people and interacting with them, the researcher is able to avoid the artificially of an experimental design and unnatural setting of a structured interview.

Participant Observation
In participant observation, the researcher gets

involved in the situation or in the activities of the group he/she is studying. Participation can be overt or covert. It is covert when the researcher is identified and the subjects are aware that they are being observed. On the other hand, it is covert if the identity of the researcher is not known to the subjects and the researcher takes part in all the activities of the group and acts like the group members.

Non-participant Observation
In non-participant observation, the researcher is not

directly involved in the situation or the activities being observed. Instead, the researcher tries to see things as they happen without disrupting the participants. The researcher usually sits in the sidelines and watch. Many studies in child psychology involves nonparticipant observation. Many of conclusions on child development are based on results of children in their natural settings.

Content Analysis
Content Analysis is a study of documents or records,

such as textbooks, newspapers, historical documents, and other written materials which are relevant in the understanding of a research problem. This method is popularly used in historical studies and as a preliminary activity in the preparation of reading materials, like textbooks, brochures, promotion pamphlets, training modules, and instruction, education and communication (IEC) materials. Content Analysis is also called Document Analysis.