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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

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CONTENT
INTRODUCTION:
MEANING OF COMMUNICATION IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION NATURE OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 7 CS OF COMMUNICATION IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT

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WHAT IS COMMUINCATION?
Communication is the process of exchange of ideas, feelings, thoughts, messages, suggestions, recommendations from one person to another. Or Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/ or organizations so that an understanding of response results.
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DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions between two or more persons. W.H.Newman

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Business communication is specialized branch of general communication. Business communication is specially concerned with business activities, which are well-defined. Business activities are of two types i.e. internal or external. Internal activities involves maintaining and improving the morale of employees, giving orders to workers, etc. External activities involves selling and obtaining goods and services, reporting to the govt. and shareholders on financial condition, etc
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IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is like a lifeblood of a business. No business can develop in the absence of effective internal and external communication.
Internal communication External communication
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IMP OF COMMUNICATION
Business has grown in size.
Business activity has becomes complex.

Effective communication promotes a spirit


of understanding and co-operation.

Government agencies and departments


Distributors retailers individual customers Communication skill as a job requirement Important factor for promotion
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Promotes motivation . Source of information. Altering individuals attitudes. Helps in socializing.

Controlling process.
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NATURE OF COMMUNICATION

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Exchange of information Exchange of emotions To communication and receive back feedback of responsibilities and duties. To work smoothly To improve the quality of planning in many ways. To coordinate activities at different various levels of orgn. To understand the employees the objectives, plans and policies of the enterprises. To develop understanding b/w the superiors and the subordinates. To modify the behaviour & attitude of the employess toward orgnal culture
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PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

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The main components of communication process are as follows: Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.
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Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.
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Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
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CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
Channels of communication may be classified into two categories:

Formal Channel of Communication

Informal Channel of Communication

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Formal Channel of Communication


Formal channel of communication can be defined as a means of communication that is normally controlled by managers of people occupying similar positions in an organization. Any information, decision, memo, reminder etc.

Communication may travel from below and pass through stages of points, again reinforcing the formal structure or character of the organization.
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Influence of formal channel of communication The formal channels influence the effectiveness of communication primarily in two ways: 1. The formal channels cover an ever-widening distance as organization grow. For example: Effective commn is generally far more difficult in a large retail organization with branches spread far and wide than in small or big deptt. store located at one place.
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2. The formal channels of commn can actually be inhibit or stand in the way of free flow of infm b/w organizational levels For example: In a big factory, an assembly line workers will communicate a problem to m supervisor rather than the project manager. Higher level managers may sometimes not even come to know something of vital importance as and when needed
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Informal channel of communication


It is those which is not formal in nature, not officially sanctioned, and quite often it is even discouraged or looked down upon. But after all these, it is there in the organization and has been given the name grapevine precisely because it runs in all directionshorizontal , vertical, diagonal.
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VERTICAL COMMUNICATION Downward Upward Downward Communication Downward Communication moves from top to the bottom, i.e., from a superior to a subordinate .The Managing Director communicating with the departmental Heads, a Manager giving a directive to an Assistant Manager or a Superior, a Foreman instructing a worker etc are engaged in the process of downward communication. Orders, Individual Instructions, Policy Statements, Job-Sheets, Circulars, etc fall under downward communication.
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Upward Communication Any communication that moves from Employees to Supervisors, Supervisors to Managers, Managers to Executives, Regional Manager to General Manager and so on is known as the upward communication. It moves from bottom to top levels in the hierarchy. Employee suggestions, market reports, performance reports, feedback on new products and requests for facilities or instructions are all examples of upward communication. Channels of upward communications are; Superiors keep an open door complaints-and suggestions boxes, social gatherings, direct correspondence, reports and counseling.
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HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION Communication between departments or people on the same level in the managerial hierarchy of an organization may be termed as Horizontal or Lateral Communication. It is both upward now downward but proceeds in a horizontal manner and takes place among equals and at peer level. It is carried on through face-to-face discussion, telephonic talk, periodical meetings and memos.
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Grapevine communication
Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Man as we know is a social animal. Despite existence of formal channels in an organization, the informal channels tend to develop when he interacts with other people in organization. It exists more at lower levels of organization. Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons. One of them is that when an organization is facing recession, the employees sense uncertainty.
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Examples of Grapevine Network of Communication Suppose the profit amount of a company is known. Rumours is spread that this much profit is there and on that basis bonus is declared.

CEO may be in relation to the Production Manager. They may have friendly relations with each other.
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Factors responsible for the grapevine communication Lack of sense of direction

Lack of self-confidence

Favored group by the manager, giving other


employees a feeling of insecurity.
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Types of Grapevine Chain


SINGLE STRAND CHAIN GOSSIP CHAIN

PROBABIL ITY CHAIN


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CLUSTER CHAIN

1) Single Strand Chain: It flows like a chain, i.e., A tells something to B who tells it to C and so on. (2) Gossip Chain: One person tells everybody else. This chain passes a message regarding a not-on-job nature. (3) Probability Chain: here information may move from anybody to anybody. This chain is found when the information is somewhat interesting but not really significant. (4) Cluster Chain: This move through selected groups. A tells something to a few selected individuals and then some of these individuals inform a few other selected individuals. Cluster chain is the dominant grapevine pattern in an organization. Most informal communication flows through this chain.
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Importance/Advantages Of Grapevine
It gives emotional relief. It transmits information very speedily. The managers or top bosses of an organization get feedback regarding their policies, decisions, memos etc. the feedback reaches them much faster through the informal channel than through the formal channel. The grapevine functions as a supplementary or parallel channel of communication. Whatever is deemed to be unsuitable for the formal channels can be successfully transmitted through the grapevine.
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Limitations of Grapevine
The grapevine may carry some degree of error in it. The baseless, imaginary and non-factual messages may prove harmful to the organization. Often the employees feed the grapevine with selfserving information. They add to the facts rather than simply report. The grapevine often carries incomplete information, which leads to misunderstanding of the receiver. The communicator does not take the responsibility of the message. Sometimes the grapevine spreads the message so swiftly that it causes damage to the organization.
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WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Written communication has great significance in todays business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech.

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Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
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ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION


I. Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization. II. It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required. III.It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.
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IV. Written communication is more precise and explicit. V. Effective written communication develops and enhances an organizations image. VI. It provides ready records and references. VII. Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.
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VIII. It can educate others and allow you to share your knowledge.

IX. Written communication can prevent misunderstandings. X. It can help you remember important details.

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DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION


I. Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters. II.Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous. III.Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
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IV. Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organizations reputation. V. Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved
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ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication.
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Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.

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ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION


There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal. There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken. The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay. Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.
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Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over. Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy. Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees. Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.
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DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION


Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized. Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication. Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times. Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady..
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There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials. It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience. Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work.
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Seven Cs of Effective Communication


There are 7 Cs of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows: Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receivers mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features: Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization. Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is PGDM Ist Trim complete.

A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver. Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/ receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information. It persuades the audience.
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Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other Cs of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features: It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving. It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words. Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience. Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience. Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
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Consideration - Consideration implies stepping into the shoes of others. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audiences view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audiences needs while making your message complete.
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Features of considerate communication are as follows: Emphasize on you approach. Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience. Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on what is possible rather than what is impossible. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.
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Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features: It makes understanding easier. Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message. Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
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Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features: It is supported with specific facts and figures. It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation. Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
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Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the senders expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features: Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message. Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience. It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message. It is not at all biased.
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Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features: The message is exact, correct and well-timed. If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level. Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers. It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message. It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.
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Awareness of these 7 Cs of communication makes you an effective communicator


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