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Digital communication system

Analog Digital
Low
Pass
Filter
Sampler Quantizer
Channel
Encoder
Line
Encoder
Pulse
Shaping
Filters
Source
Encoder
Modulator
Multiplexer
Input
Signal
Analog/
Digital
To Channel
Detector
Receiver
Filter
De-
Modulator
From Channel
Channel
Decoder
Digital-to-Analog
Converter
De-
Multiplexer

Signal
at the
user end
Carrier
Carrier
Recovery
Symbol timing
Recovery
Digital Analog
Twisted Pair
Co-axial Cable
Optical Fiber
Wireless
Space
Frame
Recovery
2
Factors that Influence Choice of Digital
Modulation Techniques
A desired modulation scheme

Should provide low bit-error rates at low SNR
Power efficiency
Should occupy minimum RF channel bandwidth
Bandwidth efficiency
Should perform well in multi-path and fading conditions
Should be easy and cost-effective to implement

Depending on the demands of a particular system
or application, tradeoffs are made when selecting a digital
modulation scheme.
3
Power Efficiency of Modulation
Power efficiency is the ability of the modulation technique to
preserve fidelity of the message at low power levels.
Usually in order to obtain good fidelity, the signal power needs to be
increased.
Tradeoff between fidelity and signal power
Power efficiency describes how efficiently this tradeoff is made

(

= PER
N
E
b
p
: Efficiency Power certain f or input receiver the at required
0
q
E
b
: signal energy per bit
N
0
: noise power spectral density
PER: probability of error
4
Bandwidth Efficiency of Modulation
Ability of a modulation scheme to accommodate data
within a limited bandwidth.
Bandwidth efficiency reflect how efficiently the allocated
bandwidth is utilized
bps/Hz : Efficiency Bandwidth
W
R
B
= q
R: the data rate (bps)
W: bandwidth occupied by the modulated RF signal
5
Tradeoff between BW Efficiency and
Power Efficiency

Adding error control codes
Improves the power efficiency
Reduces the required received power for a particular
bit error rate
Decreases the bandwidth efficiency
Increases the bandwidth occupancy

M-ary keying modulation
Increases the bandwidth efficiency
Decreases the power efficiency
More power is required at the receiver
6
Noiseless Channels and Nyquist
Theorem
For a noiseless channel, Nyquist theorem gives the relationship
between the channel bandwidth and maximum data rate that can
be transmitted over this channel.
m W C
2
log 2 =
Nyquist Theorem
C: channel capacity (bps)
W: RF bandwidth
m: number of finite states in a symbol of transmitted signal
Example: A noiseless channel with 3kHz bandwidth can only transmit
a maximum of 6Kbps if the symbols are binary symbols.
7
Shannons Bound for noisy channels
There is a fundamental upper bound on achievable bandwidth efficiency.

Shannons theorem gives the relationship between the channel
bandwidth and the maximum data rate that can be transmitted over
a noisy channel .
) 1 ( log
2 max
N
S
W
C
B
+ = = q
Shannons Theorem
C: channel capacity (maximum data-rate) (bps)
B or W : RF bandwidth
S/N: signal-to-noise ratio (no unit)
8
Shannon limit
Shannon theorem puts a limit on transmission
data rate, not on error probability:

Theoretically possible to transmit information at any
rate R
b
, where R
b
s C with an arbitrary small error
probability by using a sufficiently complicated coding
scheme.

For an information rate R
b
> C , it is not possible to find
a code that can achieve an arbitrary small error
probability.
9
Bandwidth efficiency plane
R<C
Practical region
R>C
Unattainable region
R
/
W

[
b
i
t
s
/
s
/
H
z
]

Bandwidth limited
Power limited
R=C
Shannon limit
5
10

=
B
P
MPSK
MQAM
MFSK
M=2
M=4
M=8
M=16
M=64
M=256
M=2 M=4
M=8
M=16
[dB] /
0
N E
b
10
Shannon limit
There exists a limiting value of below which there can be no error-
free communication at any information rate.

By increasing the bandwidth alone, the capacity cannot be increased to
any desired value.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W
C
N
E
W
C
b
0
2
1 log

=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
W N N
C E S
N
S
W C
b
0
2
1 log
[dB] 6 . 1 693 . 0
log
1
: get we , 0 or As
2 0
~ =

e N
E
W
C
W
b
0
/ N E
b
Shannon limit
11
Goals in designing a DCS
Goals:
Maximizing the transmission bit rate
Minimizing probability of bit error
Minimizing the required power
Minimizing required system bandwidth
Maximizing system utilization
Minimize system complexity


Goal of Advanced Modulation and Coding
Techniques
Modulation is difficult task in hostile channels like
the mobile radio channels

Small-scale fading and multi-path conditions.

The goal of a modulation scheme is:

To transport the message signal through the radio channel with
best possible quality.
To occupy least amount of radio (RF) spectrum.