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The DC Drive

In the beginning

6 Basic Adjustments

Speed Reference Minimum Speed Maximum Speed Acceleration Deceleration Current Limit

Typical DC Drive Adjustments

Adjustments - Speed Reference

Speed Reference
Typically it is a potentiometer that an operator turns to adjust the speed of the machine.

Adjustments Min. Speed

Minimum Speed
How fast the machine will operate with the Speed Reference turned all the way DOWN.

Adjustments Max. Speed

Maximum Speed
How fast the machine will operate with the Speed Reference turned all the way UP.

Adjustments - Acceleration

Acceleration Rate
How much time it will take to go from stop to full speed.

Adjustments - Deceleration

Deceleration Rate
How much time it will take to go from full speed to stop.

Adjustments - Current Limit

Current Limit
This limits the amount of current coming out of the drive. Its based on the motors Full Load Amps.

Basic DC Drive Operations



Speed Reference - How fast you want the machine to go. Can be analog 0 - 10vdc or 4 - 20mA signal from a controller. Can also be a adjustment via parameter, network data or keypad input Signal is modified by Min. and Max. Speed Adjustments Goes to the Ramp Circuits

Basic DC Drives Operations



Ramp (Rate) circuits get the speed reference and ramps the signal up over a period of time. The time periods are adjustable via a pot, parameter or network data. Output goes to a summing junction.

Basic DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drive Operations

Summing Junction
Takes the signal from the Ramp circuits and adds them together with some sort of feedback. Feedbacks can be speed,voltage or current. The result out of the summing junction is an error signal indicating the difference between the speed reference and the feedback. Another way to look at it is difference between how fast I want it to go verses how fast it is actually going Output goes to the Major Loop (Speed or Voltage Loop)

Basic DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drive Operations

Major Loop Operational Amplifier (Loop 2)


The speed error signal from the summing junction is the input. This amplifies the error signal. There is a feedback loop around the amplifier. This loop has a resister and capacitor (digital drives would be integrator and proportional response) Tuning these values of the feedback loop will affect the overall response (stability) of the drive.

Basics DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drive Operations Stability

Basic DC Drive Operations

Second Summing Junction


The input to this junction is the amplified error signal out of the Major Loop (Loop 2) operational amplifier. The signal is now called Current Reference. Current Reference is Summed together with the current feedback signal. The output signal goes to the Current Minor Loop (Loop 1) Operational Amplifier.

Basic DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drive Operations



Current Minor Loop (Loop 1) The current error signal from the summing junction is the input. This amplifies the error signal. There is a feedback loop around the amplifier which is a resistor and capacitor. (Digital drives is Integrator & Proportional response) Tuning these values will affect overall response (stability) of the drive.

Basic DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drives Operations

Gate Pulse Driver Circuits


These circuits provide the pulse to the gate inputs on all the SCRs. Input from CML. Everything in the drive up to this point is there to tell these circuits when to fire.

Gate Pulse Timing

Basic DC Drive Operations

Basic DC Drive Operations

Power Module
This is where the SCRs live. The Power Module has AC power connected to it which is what gets switched (through the SCRs) to the motor armature circuit as DC.

Basic DC Drive Operations

SCR Construction

Typical DC Drive - SCRs

Power Module (SCRs) Non-Regen

Power Module (SCRs) Regen

Basic DC Drive Operations

Motor
The interaction of 2 magnetic fields causes rotation (armature & field). Typically the Field coils have a constant voltage applied and we vary the voltage in the armature to get variable speed (up to Base speed) To go above base speed we have constant maximum voltage in the armature and then we weaken the field voltage.

Speed Regulator

Voltage Regulator

Current Regulator

Position Regulator

Force Transducer Tension Regulator Basic

Contactor Reversing

3 Basic Types of Braking



Coast to Rest Dynamic Braking Regenerative Braking

Braking Methods

Coast to Rest
The application coasts to a stop. Time to rest is determined by Friction, Windage and Inertia of the load.

Dynamic Braking
Inertia contained in a load causes the load to continue rotating generating a voltage and current in the armature circuit opposite in direction of motoring and being dropped across a high wattage resistor.

Braking Methods

Regeneration
Inertia contained in a load causes the load to continue rotating generating a voltage and current in the armature circuit opposite in direction of motoring current. Using a second set of SCRs connected opposite than the first set, these are fired so that current flow is allowed to flow in the opposite direction back to the AC line supply.

4 Quadrant Operations

DC Dynamic Braking

Braking Force

Stopping Methods Compared

The AC drive
Then there was AC

AC Drive Power Section


AC Line

Motor Input rectifier

Filter

Inverter

Drive Basics - PWM AC Operation


+ DC Bus 1 - DC Bus 3 Phase Current 10 Amps / Div. VLL @ Drive 500 Volts / Div.

M2.00s Ch1

1.18V

PWM waveform is a series of repetitive Voltage pulses

NEMA Enclosures For Drives


NEMA TYPE 1 - General Purpose Indoor, Nonvent &
Ventilated
Designed for use indoors Intended for areas where no unusual service conditions exist (relatively clean/dry) Prevent accidental contact with the enclosed equipment Panels are louvered and not sealed/gasketed Provide good protection against falling dirt

NEMA Enclosures For Drives


NEMA TYPE 1 - General Purpose Indoor, Nonvent &
Ventilated

5 HP SP500 w/Mains Filter

FlexPak 3000 w/NEMA 1 Enclosure

NEMA Enclosures For Drives


NEMA TYPE 4 - Water-tight/Dust-tight, Indoor/Outdoor
Nonventilated
Intended for use indoors to protect against:

Splashing water Falling or hose-directed water Seepage of water Severe external condensation
Must have conduit hubs for water-tight connection at conduit entrance Mounting method must be external to equipment cavity No louvers, no ventilated openings

NEMA Enclosures For Drives


NEMA TYPE 4 - Water-tight/Dust-tight, Indoor/Outdoor
Nonventilated Gaskets on doors NEMA Type 4X are also corrosion-resistant

NEMA 4/12 1 HP MinPak Plus SP500

NEMA Enclosures For Drives

NEMA TYPE 12 - Dust-tight/Drip-tight, Indoor


Nonventilated
Suitable for indoor industrial applications Designed to protect against: Fibers wFlyings wLint Dust wDirt wLight splashings Seepage wDrippings External condensation of noncorrosive liquids All holes/conduit openings must have oil-tight gaskets and use oil-tight or dusttight mounting mechanisms

NEMA Enclosures For Drives

NEMA TYPE 12 - Dust-tight/Drip-tight, Indoor


Nonventilated
Doors must have oil-resistant gaskets Mounting method must be external to equipment cavity Enclosures must have captive closing hardware and provision for locking Reliance often times combines Type 4 with Type 12 to make a versatile NEMA 4/12 (water/dust) enclosure

NEMA Enclosures For Drives

NEMA TYPE 12 - Dust-tight/Drip-tight, Indoor


Nonventilated

Type 4X/12 Type 4/4X/12 Type 12

Open Loop AC

Closed Loop AC Vector

Open Loop SensorLess

3 Components of Vector Control

Torque Current

Motor Current

Magnetizing Current

Optimizing Torque output

Torque Current
90 Degrees

Motor Current

Magnetizing Current
Torque is optimized by maintaining Magnetizing & Torque Current @ 90 degrees

Magnetizing Current
Identified during Auto-tuning

Typically ranges from 30%- 50% of Motor FLA


Fixed from 0% to 95% of Motor Base RPM Proportionally decreased in Field Weakening Range
Fixed @ 30% - 50% FLA Motor Base RPM

95% Motor Base RPM

Magnetizing Current is decreased in the Field Weakened area

Torque Current
Represents the actual load at the motor shaft
Current demand above Magnetizing is Torque

Torque Current varies from Magnetizing to Max FLA

95% Motor Base RPM

Motor Base RPM

Magnetizing Current is fixed

Mag. Current is decreased

Motor Current
The vector sum of Magnetizing and Torque Current Regulated by internal current feedback

Torque Current varies from Magnetizing to Max FLA

95% Motor Base RPM

Motor Base RPM

Motor Current is the sum of Magnetizing and Torque

Magnetizing Current is fixed

Mag. Current decreases

General Purpose Mode V/Hz

Vector Mode Torque Curve

Constant Torque Load

Variable Torque Loads

AC Snubber Braking

AC Regeneration

Transportation Application Matrix

Metals Application Matrix

Paper Application Matrix

Consumer Application Matrix

Gas/Oil/Mining Application Matrix

THE END

Notes

Notes

Notes

Notes

Notes