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Weld Types - Lap Weld

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Lap Weld
Many automotive structural panels are assembled using a lap joint. Technicians must
make test welds visually inspect destructively test before welding on the vehicle

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Lap Weld Example


One side of the rail is crimped to fit flush inside the other.

These are the crimping tools. Notice the offset jaws

Relief cuts are also made at the seams.


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Lap Weld Fit Up


This is the backside of the rail showing the overlap.

The crimp allows the panels to fit flush.


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Lap Weld
You should now have an understanding of what a lap weld is and where it is used. The next step is to tune the welder and perform a lap weld that will be evaluated visually and destructively.

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Lap Weld In Class Assignment


Joins two pieces of overlapped metal Used for sectioning rails and pillars Always follow manufacturers recommendation

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Getting Ready to Weld


Set one 3x5 coupon on top of the other. Overlap way. Mark 1 to 1.5 in the center of the coupon. The crimp is not necessary on these coupons.
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1 to 1.5

Overlap way

Gun Position
The proper gun to work piece angle for a lap joint is 70 degrees off the surface. Angle the wire into the top piece

70

90

90

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Tune the Welder


Make sure to Tune the Welder by making practice welds on the same material that will be used for the final weld. Make the necessary voltage and wire speed adjustments and check for proper penetration before beginning the final weld.

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Lab Assignment
Print off the Lap Weld Task Performance Sheet Set up and tune the welder. Set up and mark the coupons for the weld. Perform the Lap Weld. Visually inspect the weld. Destructively test the weld.
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Visual Inspection

Length = 1 to 1.5

Bead width = 3/16 to 3/8 Height = 0 to 1/8

Melt Through = 1/16 max. Check for penetration on back of coupons


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Using I-Cars WQT Gauge


I-Car has provided a gauge to help in visually inspecting welds for:
bead length width height penetration defects

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Using I-Cars WQT Gauge

Weld Bead Length

Weld Bead Width


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Lap Weld Visual

Weld Penetration
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Record the Results


After the visual inspection is complete record the results on the task performance sheet and have the instructor verify your results. Now the destructive test will need to be performed.

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Destructive Weld Test


Secure bottom coupon in vise. Bend top piece back and forth until the coupons separate. The metal should break along the length of the weld.

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Destructive Test

Metal from top piece

Notice the torn section This is a sign of a good weld The weld is good if the metal breaks off from the top piece.
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Weld
When the welds pass the visual and destructive test observe the final voltage and wire speed setting. Have the instructor check off your task performance sheet. Complete your final weld series in the flat vertical and overhead position. Turn these in for final grading.
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References
Miller Electric Mfg. Co. Education. http://www.millerwelds.com/education/library.html, 2006. Lincoln Electric Co. Lincoln Welders. http://www.lincolnelectric.com/, 2006. Inter Industry Conference on Automotive Collision Repair. I-CAR Online Training. http://www.i-car.com/, 2006.

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