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TOPIC 2:

ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

OBJECTIVES
At the end, students should:

Understand cosmological perception in Islam. Memahami pandangan semesta Islam. Explain the main concepts in Islamic civilization. Menghuraikan Konsep Tamadun

Islam.

Understand the Jihad concept and its role in Islam. Memahami konsep Jihad dan
peranannya dalam kebangkitan Tamadun Islam.

Analyze the development of Islam in Malaysia. Menganalisis kebangkitan semula Islam


dan penerapannya di Malaysia.
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2.0. INTRODUCTION

To understand about Islamic civilization. Untuk


memahami tamadun Islam

Understand about the meaning of civilization in Islam.


Melihat/Mengkaji tamadun dalam konteks Islam

Islam is the way of life. Melihat/Mengkaji


Islam sebagai satu cara hidup

2.1 ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW (cosmological perception )


Islam is also the teaching brought by all prophets since Adam a.s.

Islam is derived from the Arabic root

WHAT IS ISLAM ?

) "Salema": peace, purity,

submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law.
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To place the will of Allah at the utmost level.

peace

pure

Surrender

Salama = salima ISLAM

MEANING OF ISLAM

2.1.2. FOUNDATION OF ISLAMIC SYSTEM

Basic principles in Islm.


Prinsip-Prinsip Asas Islam

1. Aqidah (Belief)
2. Sharia (Laws) 3. Akhlak (Ethics)
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2.1.3.

Main Characteristics of Islam based on al-Quran and as-Sunnah. Ciri-ciri Keistimewaan Islam

1. Rabbaniyyah (Godliness) 2. Alamiyyah (Universal in diversity) 3. Syumuliyyah (Complete/Comprehensive) 4. Thabat wa Murunah (Fixed yet Flexible)

5. Waqiiyyah (Realistic)
6. Inqilabiyyah (To Replace/Revolutionist) 7. Tawazun (Balanced between material & spiritual)

8. Wasatiyyah (Moderate)

1. Rabbaniyyah
Definition: Islam comes from Allah. Man simply executes what Allh orders or commands as the best he can since he believe that getting Allhs pleasures is his ultimate goal.
Ianya membawa erti bahawa Islam ini datangnya daripada Allah. Manusia hanya sebagai pelaksana segala ketentuan yang ditetapkan

Category of Rabbaniyyah :
1. Rabbani in terms of goals and intentions Ones intentions has to be specifically for Allh i.e. his/ her ultimate goal in life is to get Allahs pleasure. 2. Rabbani in terms approach and resources Ones approach and resources should be based on the divine revelations to Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)

2. Alamiyyah (Universal)
Definition: The teaching of Islam is not for a certain race or community but it is for all ummah from all layers of society. this is why Islm is called as universal religion.
Risalah Islam ditujukan untuk semua umat dan bangsa serta untuk semua lapisan masyarakat. Ia bukan risalah untuk bangsa tertentu.

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Alamiyyah also means:


- Universal/ Suitable in the sense that the teachings of Islam transcend across time, space and geographical boundaries. In fact it never force anyone to embrace Islm. - Applicable anywhere and anytime from past to the present and the future.

Sesuai di semua tempat sama ada di Kutub Selatan, Khatulistiwa dan sebagainya.Ia juga sesuai untuk semua zaman sama ada zaman Rasulullah SAW atau zaman teknologi moden yang canggih ini. Sesuai sampai ke hari qiamat.

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3. Syumuliyyah
Definition: The teaching of Islam is complete and comprehensive. The scope of Islam is all-encompassing with guidance for all aspects of human life not excluding the smallest to the biggest of human conduct.
Ajaran Islam lengkap dan menyeluruh. Ruang lingkup ajaran Islam adalah mencakupi seluruh aspek kehidupan manusia tanpa kecuali dari sekecil-kecil urusan sampailah ke sebesar-besar perkara.

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4. Thabat & Murunah


Definition:
Fixed and firm in principles and flexible in practice. Tetap dari segi prinsip dan hukum tetapi anjal atau fleksibel dari segi perlaksanaannya.
E.g. Solat/ prayer is an obligation to all Muslims (thabaat) but its

practice could be done in flexible ways such as by jama and qasar for travellers. Another situation: A Muslim who faces illness, he/ she can pray by sitting, sleeping, etc.

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5. Waqiiyyah
Definition: Islam is realistic.
Islam adalah mengikut realiti. e.g: Islm recommend marriage and its also allows polygamy for man ... Contohnya: Manusia dari segi fitrahnya ingin hidup berpasangan, maka Islam mensyariatkan perkahwinan bagi lelaki dan perempuan dan berpoligami hanya bagi lelaki

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6. Inqilabiyyah
Definition:
Islam is revolutionist in positive sense. Islam should be strictly practiced in all situations. It is clearly distinguished and should not be intermingled with any jahiliyyah practice or system.
Menegakkan Islam atas keruntuhan jahiliyyah. Islam tidak boleh bercampur dengan jahiliyyah. Islam juga tidak boleh ditempeltempelkan pada sistem jahiliyyah. Islam menggantikan zaman

jahillyah

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7. Al-Tawazun
Definition:
Balanced and integrated state between spiritual and physical (material) of the human life.
e.g. Struggle for properties for life, and at the same time pay the zakat and give sedekah.
Kewujudan keseimbangan dan kesepaduan antara kehidupan rohani dan jasmani.

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8. Al-Wasatiyyah
Definition:

1) Islam promote moderation. Keep it


everything in which lawful according to Syarak such wearing clothes, eating, worship, pray etc in the justly balanced situation/ stand, not too extremes and not too simple. 2) Manage your life in properly and good condition such as time for study habit, eating habit, social life, sport etc.
Seimbang dalam melakukan setiap perkara yang diharuskan oleh syarak seperti berpakaian, makan, melakukan ibadah sunat dan seumpamanya.

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2.2. CONCEPT

OF ISLAMIC

CIVILIZATION. KONSEP TAMADUN ISLAM


Islamic civilization means

When

A Society Which Has Achieved Its Distinguished Moral Values and Culture -al Attas-

established

based on Islamic teachings Syed Qutb, Malik Bennabi, Prof. Richard E. Sullivan

the element of humanity laid by Allah becomes the utmost value in the society, then the society can be considered as Islamic & civilized society -Syed Qutb Fi Zilalil Quran18

2.2.2. GENERAL

OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

To uphold Islm is the way of life.

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2.2.2.

Sharia in Islm divided into:


hubungan antara manusia dengan Allah s.w.t

Islm stresses 3 main aspects in human life, they are:

Develop relationship with the God. Membina

Develop relationship with human beings. Membina


hubungan sesama manusia

Develop relationship with the world/ nature. Membina


hubungan antara manusia dengan alam/ 20

2.2.3. Maqasid Shariah as manisfestation for Islamic civilization.


Definition of Maqasid Shariah :

It refers to process in protecting 5 main things shared by human beings: Religion, soul, mind, descendents/ dignity and property. Its is the main objective for Islamic laws revealed. Ia merupakan
tujuan utama shariah (perundangan) dalam Islam yang melibatkan proses menjaga, memelihara, menjamin dan melindungi 5 perkara utama iaitu Agama, Nyawa, Akal, Maruah/Keturunan dan Harta.

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-In protecting religion

a)Doing all the obligatory deeds such as performing solat/ prayer, and strengthening faith

(iman).

Buat suruhan wajib spt tunaikan solat, kuatkan iman dll. Ia juga wajib tinggalkan apa yang dilarang oleh agama spt tidak murtad.

b)Protecting religion from been

deviated. Jaga/lindungi agama daripada dihina, difitnah,


dikeji oleh org Islam atau org bukan Islam.
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2.2.3. MAQASID SHARIAH

1) Protecting religion

2) Protecting human live/ soul

3) Protecting mind

4 Protecting descendents/ dignity.

5) Protecting property
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2.2.4. SOURCES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION


Al-Quran. Al-Sunnah. Ijtihad Qias Ijma (Ulama consensus)

all cultures and civilizations provided they are not contradict to Islamic teachings. Etc

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2.3. EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION


Beginning of Islamic Civilization Islamic Civilization at prophethood time (Prophet Muhammad SAW) & Khulafa al Rasyidin. During Umayyah /Abbasiyyah periods. The spread and development of Islam to Africa, Europe, India and Asian continental

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2.4.1 Factors that leaded to excellence of Islamic civilization

Upholding the teachings of al-Quran dan al-Sunnah (Insan Rabbanigodliness individual generation).

Political stability.

Cooperation between the Muslims especially among their Muslim


scholars/ intellectuals and rulers. Kerjasama
Para Ulama/ Cendikiawan dengan Para Pemerintah yang membawa kepada galakan budaya nasihat, ilmu pengetahuan, dsbnya.
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Right ideology held by the

Muslims based on al-Qurn and as-Sunnah. Kefahaman Islam


yang tidak menyeleweng di kalangan masyarakat Islam berpandukan al-Quran dan as-Sunnah.

Knowledge culture among the

Muslims.

Budaya ilmu dan membaca di kalangan masyarakat Islam, bukan budaya hiburan.

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2.4.3 Intellectual activities occurred in:


Economy. Medicine. Astronomy. Math. Architecture Etc

2.4.2. Development of Islamic knowledge to Europeans


Hubungan Diplomatik.

Diplomatic relation.

Translation activities.
Universities such as at Sicily.
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2.5. ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION DURING COLONIAL ERA


Teaching and Learning. Sistem Pengajaran dan

Pendidikan Maas media especially newspaper: materialistic generation - social problems. Alien ideologies such sekularisme, capitalism, darwnism, etc.

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2.6. JIHAD IN ISLAM

Jihad in upholding the

Islamic teachings. intention


(Nafsu).

Mempertahankan Kesucian Islam.

Jihad against lust/ bad

Jihad in education. Ilmu

dan pendidikan. Etc

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2.7 Islamic development in Malaysia.

Cultivating Islamic values in the

administration. Penerapan Nilai-Nilai Islam


dalam Pentadbiran Islam Had.ari
Its application in economy

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2.8. CONCLUSION
Islam is a universal religion for all man kind. Its emergence brought good changes to human beings and the world whereby its teachings address a lot on good values and behaviours. Islamic civilization brought one distinguished civilization to the world the history ever seen whereby its main concept as the way of life gives a new dimension to religion perception. It later on paved a way to European renaissence and development.

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THANKS

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