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Emotional & Intellectual Basis of Stress


Apakah asas biologi bagi emosi? Apakah peranan emosi dalam tekanan? Adakah perasaan negatif sama dengan tekanan? Apakah peranan kata hati dalam tekanan? Bagaimanakah budaya melihat peranan emosi dalam tekanan?

Apakah peranan emosi dalam tekanan?


Emosi negatif adalah bukan tekanan walaupun sering dikaitkan dengan tekanan Emosi yang negatif boleh mencetus tekanan sekiranya dilihat sebagai ancaman yang tidak boleh ditangani Emosi boleh menjadi sebahagian dari tindak balas terhadap tekanan Emosi boleh memarakkan dan mengekalkan tindak balas tekanan melalui rumination

Tekanan, emosi & kata hati (inner dialogue)


Lazarus: penilaian kognitif terhadap mengakibatkan tekanan akan membawa kepada tekanan emosi marah permusuhan iri hati cemburu Emosi ini dikatakan berkait dengan kata hati yang negatif

Tekanan, emosi & kata hati (inner dialogue)


Kata hati ini memberi tahu bagaimana harus atau mesti bertindak Selalunya reaksi yang berlaku adalah negatif dan tidak sihat Menjadi halangan untuk menangani situasi dengan lebih Implikasi: tukar kata hati supaya lebih positif

Bagaimana orang Jepun melihat peranan emosi dalam tekanan


Budaya mempunyai kesan yang dramatik terhadap emosi dan bagaimana harus bertindak terhadapnya
MORITA THERAPY: the 5 principles of feelings D. K. Reynolds 1. Feelings are not controllable by the will 2. Feelings must be recognized and accepted as is 3. Every feeling, however unpleasant, has its uses 4. Feelings fade in time unless they are re-stimulated 5. Feelings can be indirectly influenced by behavior

TYPE A
Stress prone aggressive, competitive, hostile, easily angered, hard driving (2 things at once), time conscious, unable to relax, cynical, not generally anxious In response to stress: tightened facial muscles, gestures, grimacing, explosive speech, interrupt the interviewer, hurrying the pace increased risk for CHD & all other causes of premature death even when other risk factors are controlled Anger (state) & Hostility (trait) may be esp. important

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*stress resistant: *opposite type A, relaxed, easy-going, experience
fewer hassles than type A

*Typically not as successful as type A, but many are


successful nevertheless

*decreased risk of CHD, but if suffer heart attack, less


likely to live why?

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*stress prone: *Feel helpless, hopeless, give up, little or no emotional *response to stress, please others at their expense,
often

*depressed, behavioral inertia *poor health: more likely to get cancer *Seligman:
*helpless is learned so is optimism!

*Interventions to increase optimism and decrease *Helplessness, facilitates treatment and cure

*Hardy Personality
*stress resistant *Kobasa: studied business managers, supervisors, executives * compared high stress/high illness vs. high stress/low
illness *Hardy people thrive on pressure, characterized by the 3 Cs *Commitment: actively involved in life, sense of purpose & meaning *Control: internal locus of control *Challenge: perceive change as challenge and welcome it, adapt *Hardy Social Support: a truly supportive social network

Irrational, Illogical Personality


stress prone Characterized as: evaluators, needy Do not perceive situations accurately because of should/must/ought, unrealistic expectations, and irrational beliefs ELLIS (REBT): most stress stems from negative thoughts & irrational beliefs ABC Model: A = activating agent B = illogical beliefs C = consequences bio psychosocial A+B=C

Role of Negative Self-talk


Promotes more stress and inhibits coping Negative self-talk often targets the self

Primary stressor: the initial trigger Secondary Stressor: negative self-talk

can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy and lower self esteem

Millons Model: 8 stress prone personality styles


1. Aggressive: mistrust others, defensive, fear losing control, use anger, intimidation and dominance to retain control 2. Narcissistic: self absorbed, think they are unique and special, lack empathy 3. Histrionic: crave affection, constant stimulation interpersonal approval, flair for the dramatic 4. Dependent: require high levels of support from others, passive, submissive, fear loss of support & rejection

5. Passive-Aggressive: ambivalent, negative, pessimistic, want independence but lack the skills to achieve it 6. Compulsive: rigid, inflexible, maintain self-control will only behave in socially approved ways 7. Avoidant: want social contact but remain a recluse because of extreme fear of rejection
8. Schizoid: no desire for interpersonal contact, hypersensitive to social stimuli, fear interpersonal contact, lack social support

The Intellectual Basis of Stress


Albert Ellis: emphasized the role of irrational, illogical thinking on stress Lazarus: described 5 intellectual resources linked to personality & cognition 1. Intelligence: involved in stimulus appraisal, clears up ambiguity 2. Life Experience: past successful experiences with a stressor helps guide us through subsequent stressors

3. Verbal & Written Communication: important to express feelings, wants, needs, and desires 4. Creativity: thinking outside the box helps us to perceive things differently and try new and innovative solutions 5. Problem Solving Ability: ability to find ways of coping with our stress

The Convergence of Intellectual & Emotional Factors


Lazarus & Folkman Stress Appraisal Model Briefly, Primary appraisal + secondary appraisal = reappraisal Leads to final appraisal Primary appraisal: affected by situation factors & person factors Secondary appraisal: affected by coping dispositions & coping resources equally important, occur simultaneously, & are context Cited by 16,818 dependent

Emotion-focused vs. problem focused coping


Emotion-focused managing or reducing emotional distress looking on the bright side, seeking emotional support, having a drink, using drugs Problem-focused solving or managing the problem that is causing distress information gathering, making decisions, planning, and resolving conflicts acquiring resources to help deal with the underlying problem

*When is one better than the


other?

Stress, sex differences, and coping strategies among college students Brougham, R. et al. (2009) college women reported a higher overall level of stress and greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies than college men.

however the use of emotion-focused coping strategies dominated over problem-solving strategies for both men and women

*situations in which something


constructive can be done will favor problem-focused coping

*those situations that simply

must be accepted favor emotionfocused coping

*http://www.suu.edu/faculty/white_l/stress%2
0&%20pain/powerpoints/chapter_2.ppt