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TRANSMITTER

Oleh: Roni Heru Triyanto

Input Proses
D e v ic e S ta tu s

PROCESS

v a lv e s t a t u s ( o p e n / c l o s e ) s w itc h p o s itio n ( o n /o ff) p u m p ( s ta r t/s to p )

FIELD- INTERFACE

V a r ia b le s
p re s s u re s f lo w r a t e s te m p e r a tu re s t a n k le v e ls

A la r m s
L o w T a n k L e v e l A la r m H i g h T a n k L e v e l A la r m F i r e A la r m

Aspek Penting Peralatan Lapangan Range pengukuran Metode Kalibrasi


Kondisi Operasi Accuracy Precision Linearity Hysteresis Karakteristik Phisik Efek temperatur Efek overpressure Efek vibration Efek humidity Efek power supply Efek Pembebanan dll

Dimensions/ Ukuran Umur Availability Product support (maintenance) Spare parts

Range and Accuracy


Range
Nilai Minimum dan maximum dari besaran phisik yang dapat diukur pada kondisi operasi Accuracy Nilai yang didefinisikan yang merupakan batas sehingga error tidak boleh lebih ketika peralatan digunakan pada kondisi operasi. contoh : 1 oF 1% of actual output reading

Linearity

Hysteresis
Hysteresis Perbedaan maximum untuk input yang sama antara nilai keluaran upscale and downscale selama full range

hysteresis deadband

Repeatability & Reproducibility

Repeatability The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of the input under the same operating conditions approaching from the same direction Reproducibility The closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the output for : the same value of input mode under the same operating conditions over a period of time approaching from both directions

Transmitter

Kombinasi dari sensor and signal conditioning digunakan untuk mengukur besaran proses dengan jarak jauh (remote). Transmitter Process Variable (PV) bisa didapatkan untuk disambungkan dengan peralatan akhir (display, recording or analysis lanjutan).

Transmitter

Konfigurasi umum dari measurement transducer terdiri dari sensing element yang digabungkan dengan driving element (transmitter).

Transducers mengkonversikan besaran dari sebuah process variable (seperti: flow rate, pressure, temperature, level, or concentration) kedalam sinyal yang dapat dikirim langsung ke controller/recorder/ indicator. The sensing element dibutuhkan untuk mengkonversikan besaran pengukuran, yaitu process variable, kedalam besaran lain sehingga dapat dihubungkan untuk mechanical or electrical processing didalam the transducer.

Standard Instrumentation Signal-Levels Sebelum 1960-1970, instrumentasi di proses Industri menggunakan sinyal pneumatic (udara bertekanan) untuk transmit/ mengirimkan informasi pengukuran dan pengendalian. Peralatan ini menggunakan mechanical forcebalance elements to generate signals in the range of 3 to 15 psig (0.2 to 1.0 kg/cm2). Sekitar 1960-1970, Instrumentasi electronik telah banyak digunakan. Sinyal Output: Tegangan 1 5 V dc, Arus 4 20 mA dc

Konversi Sinyal Instrument ini (transducer) mempunyai lower limit or zero: 50 C dan span: 100 C. Temperature transmitter diatas mempunyai hubungan output & input:
Input 50 C 150 C Output 4 mA 20 mA

20 mA 4 mA o Tm ( mA ) = T 50 C + 4 mA 150 oC 50 oC mA o = 0.16 o T C 4 mA C

( )

Pneumatic transmitter
Mengkonversikan

pengukuran physical variable ke sebuah standard pressure signal seperti dalam range 0.2 kg/cm2 to 1.0 kg/cm2 (3-15 psig). Signal tekanan dikirimkan melalui pipa / tubes ke gauge,chart recorder dan digunakan juga sebagai sinyal feedback didalam aplikasi control

Pneumatic transmission: Problems?


Kebocoran internal and external, pressure drops, Dibutuhkan udara yang bersih, kering, tekanan yang tetap/ konstan, Sulit dikirim untuk jarak yang jauh, noise, mechanical vibrations, dll.

Pneumatic transmission: Problems?

Dalam aplikasi control:

Dibutuhkan sejumlah moving parts and komponen, hysteresis, non-linearity, low response times, Sulit mendapatkan repeatability didalam control,

Pneumatic Transmitter

Pneumatic Transmitter

Electronic Transmitters
Accuracy lebih baik, linearity and repeatability, measurement & control lebih sederhana Menurunkan biaya operasi & maintenance Memperbaiki transmittability untuk jarak yang lebih jauh.

ELECTRONIC TRANSMITTERS
Analog

transmitter (4-20 mA dc atau 1 5 V dc) Analog - Digital/hybrid (SMART) transmitters Smart


Digital

Transmitter Fieldbus

Analog Transmitters
Analog
mengkonversikan process variable kedalam sinyal electrical (voltage or current) yang ekuivalen yang informasinya akan dibawa dengan kabel dari tempat pengukuran ke control room yaitu untuk display atau process controller.

transmitters

Analog Transmitters

voltage transmitters

wire-resistance/impedance merupakan masalah yang penting, terutama untuk jarak yang jauh signal attenuated sepanjang jalur kabel Sangat cocok untuk jarak yang pendek Typical signal ranges (PV: 0% to 100%) 0 to 10V 0 to 5V 1 to 5 V -10V to +10V -5V to +5V, etc.

Analog Transmitters

current transmitters

transmitter sebagai sumber arus/ current source (current generator). wire-resistance tidak mempunyai efek pada aliran arus didalam current loop; signal ranges 0-20mA, 4-20mA, 0-50 mA and 10-50 mA Arus sinyal 4-20mA digunakan untuk industry standard. Arus 4 to 20mA merepresentasikan seluruh span dengan minimum (0%) untuk 4mA and maximum (100%) untuk 20mA.

Analog Conventional Transmitter


Transmitter selalu digunakan untuk mengkonversikan output sensor ke sinyal yang tepat untuk input controller, such as 4 to 20 mA. Transmitters biasanya dirancang untuk direct acting. Biasanya mempunyai zero dan span adjustment.

Four Wire Transmitter

Two Wire Transmitter

Smart Transmitters

Smart Transmitters
Apa smart didalam transmitters Features Benefits / Advantages SMART Protocols

SMART TRANSMITTER
SMART atau INTELLIGENT Telah menggunakan microprocessor. Microprocessor ditambahkan didalam field-device sehingga terdapat features baru atau extra didalam peralatan

Contoh: Transmitter & HART communicator

Smart Transmitter

Smart Transmitter

Smart Transmitter

Smart Transmitter

Smart Transmitter

Communication
Komunikasi digital menggunakan dua kabel yang sama dengan yang digunakan untuk transmisi sinyal analog Komunikasi digital digunakan untuk konfigurasi/ setting transmitter

Memory (EPROM) permits Storage


Untuk menyimpan : tag Identifikasi dari transmitter date modified Waktu terakhir kalibrasi atau instalasi message nama peralatan, dll information untuk: flange type, flange material O-ring, seal type, sensor range dll

Fieldbus
What is a fieldbus ?

I/O - system 4 20 mA Digital, 2 way communication

Fieldbus

Fieldbus pada Process Industry

Fieldbus mempunyai banyak keuntungan dibandingkan dengan Instrumentasi tradisional :


Mengurangi jumlah pengkabelan Mendapatkan informasi lebih banyak dari peralatan seperti: diagnostic information, device parameters dll. Commissioning dari devices terpusat. Asset management capabilities. Lebih fleksibel untuk system layout & design. Mudah dalam expansion & modification.

What are the fieldbus benefits? reduced cabling


less hardware simpler configuration simpler maintenance reliability flexibility more information from process to business level

Field Bus

PC Compatibility with Existing Systems


PC-based MMI
Host

PC-based lab process PC-based PLC monitoring

Controller

I/O PC-based Par. DAQ PLC

4-20 mA

Analyze r
Traditional Analog & Discrete Instruments Hybrid Instruments Intelligent Instruments

DCS CS 3000, Yokogawa

PROFIBUS Protocol
Master devices

PLC

Token

PC

PROFIBUS

Slave devices

Data Exchange token


PLC token class 1 master PLC token class 1 master Engineering tool class 2 master

Cyclic exchange Acyclic exchange

Fieldbus signal

Manchester code signal

Instalasi Fieldbus

LAS: Link Active Scheduler

A link master (LM) is any device containing a link active scheduler. There must be at least one LM on a segment. When the LAS on a segment has failed, another LM on the same segment starts working as the LAS.

Transfer of LAS

Fieldbus : more than just communication

Unique Information is Maintained by Device

Fieldbus Installation

Fieldbus Wiring Example

Fieldbus Wiring

Fieldbus Wiring

Fieldbus Foundation

Number of devices per segment


Based on present device power consumption, Power conditioner current limitation and resistance of wires, experience demonstrates that up to 16 Devices per segment can be used.

Same location after fixing the installation

Typical Installation

Sensor Characterisation Data


Sensor linearization Coefficients or interpolation points for different T, P stored in the memory (EPROM) Sensor behaviour at various operating conditions is tested, and used for compensation Drastically reduces drifts

Processor: Enables Computations and Output Signal Options


linear (for pressure, differential pressure, level measurement. ..), square root (for flow measurement with differential pressure meters), square root of third and fifth powers (for flow measurement in open channels..) etc, use values stored in table in the memory to calculate the value of process variable

Re-ranging, Turn-down
Adjust or Change the zero / span Send Command from Handheld/remote computer to the Process Transmitter Re-ranging can be performed without applying reference (pressure / temperature); uses Characterization data. Reranging done with reference will actually be more accurate calibration.

Limits / Alarm values


High limit, low limit, high rate of change, low rate of change , etc. depending on Make/Model Set output signal to 3.5mA or 21mA

Multidrop communication
Network More than one smart transmitter using same two-wire loop. Each transmitter configured a unique Address (Non-zero) 1 to 15. Each can be individually read, configured, reranged or calibrated.
Each transmitter draws, outputs 4mA Only

In conventional analog mode, address set to 0

Self-diagnostics
diagnostic to determine conditions of sensor, communication line, power supply, configurations, etc. helps reduce trouble shooting efforts, improves servicing. Newer transmitters can sense impulse line plugging conditions.

Common Smart Transmitter Communication Protocols


Rosemount : HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) Honeywell : DE (Digitally Enhanced)

BENEFITS OF USING SMART TRANSMITTERS

Improved Safety
Reranging, calibration, etc., can be done remotely without going to the actual transmitter site which may be in an hazardous or unsafe location.

Time Savings
Remote communication implies facility to rerange, reconfigure, etc. for one or more smart transmitters using the hand-held communicator or configurator; means fewer trips to the field. Self - diagnostics, implies lesser time spent for troubleshooting, repairs etc.

High Accuracy
The process of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion of the 420 signal are eliminated by the use of digital communication. Functions like sensor output compensation for drifts due to changing operating conditions, output linearisation or other computations, etc. enable high accuracy of transmitted data.

Reduced Inventory
facility to rerange the transmitter without loss of accuracy, facility to configurate the transmitter when using a different process media, computational abilities like squareroot extraction, etc., imply that only one type of smart transmitter need to be purchased or maintained as spare for a wide range.

Typical Smart Transmitter Models:


Foxboro 820 Series, 860 Series, Honeywell ST-3000/100, ST-3000/600, ST-3000/900, Moore Products XTC, Rosemount 3051C, 1151 Smart Enhanced, 1151 Smart Retrofit, SMAR LD301, ABB Kent-Taylor KS Series, 600T Series, Bailey BCN, Yokogawa UniDelta Mark II/COM, FUJI FCX Series, .., etc.,.. And a lot many from others..

Advanced Capabilities
Embedded control (PID) Multi-variate transmitters FIELDBUS (Fully Digital, Multidrop Networking)

Embedded control Built in PID Functions

Multi-variate Smart Transmitters

HART Protocol

HART Communication between master and slave


The master sends messages with requests for actual/specified values, and/or any other data/parameters available from the slave device. The slave interprets these instructions as defined in the HART protocol. The slave responds with status information and data for the master.

HART Commands
Universal commands Common practice commands Device-specific commands

HART follows the Open Systems Interconnections (OSI) model of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The HART protocol uses a reduced OSI model, implementing only layers 1, 2 and 7
Layer 1, physical layer Layer 2, link layer Layer 7, application layer

Question How do we make the connection? What signals can I send? How do I address a message? When can I send a message? What messages can I send?

Topics Plugs, sockets, cable Voltage, current, frequency None (point-to-point), numerical address, tag Access rules: master-slave, tokenpassing, collision-detection Coding: bits, characters, parity

OSI layer Physic al Physic al DataLi nk DataLi nk DataLi nk

Data types: bits, integers, floating point, Applic text ation Standard functions Function blocks, Device Descriptions Applic ation "User" *

What does a message mean?

Specifying a Smart Transmitter