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61

60

INTEGRATED
NUTRIENT
MANAGEMENT IN
CORIANDER, CUMIN
AND FENNEL

59

INTRODUCTION
Definition of spices
Spices are natural plant or vegetable products or mixtures
thereof, used in whole or ground form, mainly for imparting
flavour, aroma and pungency to food.

58

Classification of spices
Major spices
Seed spices
Tree spices
Herbal spices
Other spices
India is land of spices.
109 spices - ISO.
India- 63 spices.
India -17 seed spices ,12 - commercial scale.

57

Why seed spices are


Important ?
The seeds contain volatile oil, which makes them
important and valuable. They are mainly used for
flavoring, garnishing, making tempting and tasty foods.
(Singh et al., 2006)

56

Seed spices
Group of annuals , where dried fruit seeds are used as spices.
Classification of seed spices
Major seed spices- coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek etc
Minor seed spices- ajwan, anise, celery, dill, opium poppy etc.

55

Fig.1:Research centers of seed spices


Hisar
Jobner
Ajmer

Kumar
ganj
Dholi
NRC
AICRP SAU

Jagudan

Gun
tur

Coimbato
re

54
Table 1:CROP-WISE AREA, PRODUCTION AND
PRODUCTIVITY OF MAJOR
SPICE CROPS IN INDIA DURING 2007-08 AND 2008-09
Spice crops
Chillies
Garlic
Turmeric
Ginger
Coriander
Tamarind
Cumin
Fenugreek
Fennel
Pepper
Ajwan
Cardamom
Nutmeg
Other seed spices
Tejpat
Cinnamon
Clove
Others(2)
Total

AREA
808.17
206.12
174.51
104.36
384.21
55.04
429.38
55.20
54.29
197.33
19.29
81.93
15.26
17.71
2.45
0.87
2.25
9.01
2617

2007-08
PRODUCTION
1294.15
1068.50
794.19
390.08
229.95
182.08
172.47
55.48
67.78
47.01
11.12
13.65
11.37
10.71
5.29
1.67
1.01
0.23
4356.71

PDY.
1601
5184
4551
3738
598
3308
402
1005
1248
238
576
167
745
605
2160
1918
446
26

2008-09
AREA PRODUCTION
779.05 1269.85
166.21 831.10
181.09 821.16
108.64 380.10
396.85 242.13
54.63
177.68
429.38 172.47
68.29
76.58
47.16
64.29
238.71 47.40
19.59
16.41
91.99
15.45
15.27
11.37
17.71
10.71
2.44
4.98
0.88
1.67
2.57
1.33
9.01
0.23
2629.44 4144.91

PDY.
1630
5000
4535
3499
610
3252
402
1121
1363
199
838
168
745
605
2044
1901
516
26

NHB, 2009

53

FIG. 2:PRODUCTION SHARE UNDER MAJOR SPICES IN INDIA(2008-09)

NHB, 2009

FIG.3:AREA SHARE UNDER MAJOR SPICES IN INDIA(2008-09)

NHB, 2009

52

Table 2:CROP-WISE AREA, PRODUCTION AND


PRODUCTIVITY OF SEED
SPICE CROPS IN INDIA DURING 2007-08 AND
2008-09
SEED SPICES

2007-08

51

2008-09

AREA

PRODUCTION

PDY.

AREA

PRODUCTION PDY.

Coriander

384.21

229.95

598

396.85

242.13

610

Cumin

429.38

172.47

402

429.38

172.47

402

Fenugreek

55.20

55.48

1005

68.29

76.58

1121

Fennel

54.29

67.78

1248

47.16

64.29

1363

Ajwan
Other seed spices

19.29
17.71

11.12
10.71

576
605

19.59
17.71

16.41
10.71

838
605

Total

960.08

547.51

4434

978.98

582.59

4939

NHB, 2009

50

Table 3:Area, Production and Productivity of


spices in India (2006-09)
Year

Area

Production

Productivity

(000 HA)

(000 MT)

(MT/HA)

2006-07

2448

3953

1.6

2007-08

2617

4357

1.7

2008-09

2629

4145

1.6

NHB, 2009

49

Table 4 : Spice crops scenario in Karnataka (2008-09)


Sl. No.

Name of the crop

Area (ha)

Production
(T)

Pdy. (T/ha)

Value (Lakhs)

Pepper

18857

6236

0.33

10097

Cardamom

20631

1747

0.08

4072

Tamarind

15880

81814

5.15

17785

Ginger

29092

273253

9.39

38076

Turmeric

15320

93817

6.12

16314

Garlic

6758

34407

5.09

9394

Dry chillies

123378

141927

1.15

51017

Coriander

8124

6129

0.75

1874

Fenugreek

626

28.39

4.54

1854

10

Cumin seed

11

Clove

122

174

1.43

427

12

Nutmeg

147

213

1.45

115

13

Cinnamom

37

0.19

1012

14

Vanilla

2518

994

0.39

4245

15

Fennel

12

2.00

16

Dill

329

1793

4.61

181

17

Paprika

10

10

1.00

164

18

Other spice crops

1047

4620

4.41

1962

242942

649780

2.67

158591

Total

(HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT, 2009)

48

Table 5 : Seed Spices scenario in Karnataka (2008-09)


Seed spices

Area (ha)

Production
(T)

Productivity
(T/ha)

Value (Lakhs)

Coriander

8124

6129

0.75

1874

Fenugreek

626

28.39

4.54

1854

Fennel

12

2.00

Dill

329

1793

4.61

181

Total

9085

7962.39

11.9

3911

(HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT, 2009)

Commodity

Table 6:Export of Seed


Spices from India

April July 2008

April July 2009

% Achievement

% Change

47

Target for 2009-10

Quantity Value
Rate Quantity Value Rate Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
(tonnes) (Rs. (Rs./kg) (tonnes) (Rs. (Rs./k (tonnes) (Rs. (tonnes) (Rs. (tonnes) (Rs.
Lakhs)
Lakhs) g)
Lakhs)
Lakhs)
Lakhs)

Total Spices 1,89,870 188,087

1,64,215 169,080

38

38

- 14

-10

435,000 450,000

Coriander

12,745

8,306

65.17

16,750

8,480

50.63

62

52

31

27,000

16,200

Cumin

18,860

18,704

99.17

15,950

17,421 102.22

55

83

-15

-7

29,000

20,880

Fenugreek

7,160

2,422

33.83

7,250

2,326

32.09

69

63

-4

10,500

3,675

Fennel

2,675

1,415

52.93

2,900

2,145

73.99

58

86

52

5,000

2,500

Celery

955

580

60.83

1,650

911

55.23

47

47

73

57

3,500

1,925

Other

9,270

3,299

35.59

9,500

3,375

35.53

119

121

8,000

2,800

(Anon., 2009)

46

Integrated nutrient management

Integrated nutrient management is one in which nutrients are supplied


to plants in combined form of organics, inorganics, and bio-inoculants
to obtain higher yield level in seed spices and also to get quality
products and to maintain the soil health
As per National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), A
holistic approach involving integrated nutrient management, enhances
input use efficiency and adoption of region specific promising cropping
systems would be the best organic farming strategy for India.

45

Need of INM
To upgrade the efficiency of plant nutrient
supply.
To improve the physico-chemical properties
of the soil.
To regulate escalating cost of chemical
fertilizers.
To maintain good soil health and
sustainable productivity.
To avoid the disadvantages of individual
application of fertilizers.
To promote the bio-diversity and cultural
bio-system on the farm.
Subramanian, 2001

44

Advantages of INM
Reduces the use of chemical fertilizers.
Saving of non-renewable natural resources.
Creates positive nutrient balance in soil.
Reduced leaching of nitrates to ground water.
Maintains soil fertility and soil health.
Increased crop productivity.
Maximizes the nutrient use efficiency.
Subramanian, 2001

43

COMPONENTS OF INM

Dose of nutrients

Sources of nutrients

Organic
Components of
INM

Time of application

Inorganic

Bio-fertilizer

Method of application

42

Disadvantages of Inorganic source


Frequent and long term use of these sources
renders soil unfertile.
Advantages of organic manure
Improves soil physical, chemical and
biological properties.
Improves moisture holding capacity
Provides food for micro-organism.
Better infiltration and aeration.
Maintains soil fertility.

41

Bio- fertilizers

Rhizobium
Azotobactor
Azospirrillum
Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria-Bacillus polymyxa,
Aspergillus niger
Vesicular Arbauscular Mycorrhizae (VAM)

Thomas, 2003

40

Classification of Bio-fertilizer

Bio- fertilizers

N fixing organism

symbiotic

Rhizobium

Asymbiotic

Azotobactor

P solubilizing
organism

Solubilizer

Absorber

Aspergillus niger,
Bacillus sp.

Mycorrhizae

Thomas, 2003

39

CASE STUDIES

Coriand
Coriandrum sativum L.
er
(Dhania), Apiaceae
Origin: Southern Europe and North
Africa to Southwestern Asia
Chromosome no. 2n = 22.
Used as spice: fresh green-Flavourant in
chutneys and soups , seeds- condiments,
bakery products, candy, preserves, liquors
(NIIR, 2008)
Medicinal uses : flatulence, diuretic,
stimulant, carminative.

38

Crop Requirement :
A tropical crop
Cool and comparatively dry frost-free climate, particularly at the
time of flowering and seed formation stages
Frost following the flowering stage reduces production
drastically
High temperature and high wind velocity during anthesis and
seed formation enhances sterility and reduces yield
Cloudy weather at the time of flowering increases the number of
aphids and disease
Loamy to moderately heavy soils & also grown in black cotton or
heavy soil.

37

Table 7: State wise area, production and productivity of Coriander in India


2005-06

State
Area

(000 ha)

Prod.

2006-07
Yield

Area

Prod.

(000 tonnes) (Kg/ha) (000 ha) (000 tonnes)

Yield

(Kg/ha)

Andhra Pradesh

28.00

13. 00

464

25.00

10.00

400

Bihar

2.30

1.70

739

2.30

1.70

739

Chhatisgarh

3.90

1.10

282

3.70

1.00

270

Haryana

1.70

2.90

1706

2.20

2.60

1182

Karantaka

9.20

1.40

152

6.00

1.00

167

Madhya Pradesh

112.80

42.00

372

108.40

43.60

402

Meghalaya

0.05

0.30

5940

0.10

0.27

2740

Orissa

19.10

9.00

471

19.10

9.00

471

Rajasthan

136.70

142.40

1042

131.10

155.10

1183

Tamil Nadu

21.10

6.40

303

17.40

5.70

328

Uttar Pradesh

5.50

3.20

582

5.50

3.20

582

Total

340.35

223.40

656

320.80

233.17

727

36

Source: Directorate of Arecanut and Spices

35

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Manures on Growth, Flowering and Seed Yield
of Coriander

Bodamwad et al ,2009

Table 8: Effect of organic and inorganic manures on growth and flowering of


coriander Cv. Pant Haritma
S.N.

Treatments

100% RDF
(60:30:20kg/ha)
100% vermicompost

46.45

5.12

13.58

42.78

40.11

46.73

4.70

13.40

42.86

41.18

100% FYM
50%RDF+50%vermico
mpost
50%RDF+50%FYM

45.29
49.88

4.30
6.44

12.86
15.37

43.72
39.01

41.32
37.73

48.16

5.96

14.27

39.98

38.65

50%RDF+25%vermico
mpost+25%FYM

47.55

5.50

14.06

41.04

39.39

Control(without any
fertilizer)
S.E.(m)
C.D.at 5%

45.00

3.90

10.36

44.70

42.66

0.89
2.75

0,24
0.76

0.56
1.72

0.87
2.69

0.61
1.89

2
3
4
5

34

Vegetative parameters
Plant height
Primary
Secondary
(cm)
branches
branches
-1
plant
plant-1

RDF FYM and Vermicompost 20 , 5t/ha

Flowering parameters
Days to 50 %
No. of days
flowering
required for
seed set to
harvesting

Bodamwad et al ,2009

Table 9: Effect of organic and inorganic manures on seed yield and germination % of coriander
Cv. Pant Haritma
S.N

Treatments

100% RDF
(60:30:20kg/ha)

20.17

12.13

17.51

4.47

3.78

386

5.86

10.76

54.03

100% vermicompost

19.58

10.28

16.89

4.31

3.65

373

5.65

10.40

53.46

100% FYM

19.16

9.96

16.50

4.21

3.56

364

5.51

10.60

52.16

50%RDF+50%vermico 22.52
mpost

15.63

19.99

5.10

4.31

439

6.65

11.79

57.22

21.09

13.00

18.96

4.84

4.09

418

6.34

11.46

55.21

50%RDF+25%vermico 20.54
mpost+25%FYM

12.67

19.25

4.91

4.16

425

6.23

11.10

54.16

4
5
6
7

33

50%RDF+50%FYM

Yield parameters
Fresh
Dry Umbels Umbella Number of Number of
Seed
weight weight /plant
te
seed
seed/plant yield/plant
Of plant Of plant
/plant /umbellate
(g)
(g)
(g)

Quality parameter
Test
Germination
weight(g)
%

Control(without any
fertilizer)

18.48

8.96

13.87

3.54

3.00

307

4.64

9.74

51.24

S.E.(m)
C.D.at 5%

0.66
2.06

1.07
3.31

0.98
3.04

0.25
0.77

0.21
0.65

21.64
66.61

0.29
0.92

0.29
0.91

0.56
1.75

Bodamwad et al ,2009

32

Influence of Azospirillium and graded doses of nitrogen on growth and yield of


coriander.

Selvarajan and
Chezhiyan, 2003

31

TREATMENT DETAILS

T0 RDF (FYM @ 20 t/ha N, P and K @ 50, 25 and 40 Kg/ha

T1 Inorganic N (100%) + Azosperillum(1.5kg/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha)

T2 - Inorganic N (75%) + Azosperillum (1.5kg/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha)

T3 - Inorganic N (50%) + Azosperillum (1.5kg/ha) + FYM (5 t/ha)

T4 FYM (5 t/ha) + Azosperillum (1.5kg/ha)

T5 FYM alone (5 t/ha)

T6 - FYM (10 t/ha) + Azosperillum(1.5kg/ha)

T7 FYM alone (10 t/ha)

Table 10 : Influence of Azospirillium and graded doses of nitrogen on growth and yield of
coriander.
Treatment

T0

Plant
No. of
No. of
No. of
No. of
Yield/plot Estimated
height(cm primary secondary umbels umbellets
(g/m2)
yield
)
branches branches per plant
per
(kg/ha)
umbels
53.90
8.00
15.40
33.10
6.20
325.00
650.00

T1

42.70

8.33

12.67

33.47

5.23

158.00

316.00

T2

40.70

6.73

11.80

27.27

5.97

165.50

333.33

T3

44.47

8.73

13.87

35.73

4.90

283.00

566.67

T4

49.50

9.00

14.00

36.20

5.10

241.50

483.30

T5

49.33

8.20

13.80

30.87

5.20

250.00

500.00

T6

52.03

7.87

13.73

32.47

5.13

250.00

500.00

T7

55.50

8.20

13.87

32.73

5.07

241.50

483.23

SEd

NS

NS

NS

NS

0.3843

NS

NS

CD
(P=O.O5%
)

0.8240

T0 RDF (FYM @ 20 t/ha N, P and K @ 50, 25 and 40 Kg/ha


T4 FYM (5 t/ha) + Azosperillum (1.5kg/ha)
Selvarajan and
30

29

Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of coriander


(Coriander sativum L)

Prabu et al , 2002

28

TREATMENT DETAIL:
T0 Unfertilized control
T1 Recommended dose of fertilizers(RDF)
@90:80:50 NPK kg/ha
T2 25% RDF + FYM(10t/ha)
T3 25% RDF +Azospirillum+PSB
T4 25% RDF +Azospirillum+ VAM
T5 25% RDF + Azotobacter + PSB
T6 25% RDF +Azotobacter +VAM
T7 - 25% RDF +FYM+ Azospirillum+PSB
T8 - 25% RDF +FYM+ Azospirillum+VAM
T9 - 25% RDF +FYM+ Azotobacter + PSB
T10- 25% RDF +FYM+ Azotobacter + VAM

27

Table 11: Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of coriander
Treatment
details

Plant
height at
Harvest
(cm)

No. of leaves
at harvest

No. of
Root length Shoot:root
Branches
at
Length ratio
At harvest Harvest (cm)
(cm)

Leaf
weight(g)

Shoot
weight(g)

Dry
weight(g)

Yield/plot(g)
1.51.5 m2

T0

13.85

8.27

1.78

6.87

1.78

7.47

9.87

1.63

225.00

T1

16.10

10.60

2.70

9.25

1.75

10.35

13.30

2.60

280.40

T2

17.53

11.53

3.13

8.50

2.06

12.73

17.83

3.50

410.00

T3

15.50

9.67

2.40

7.20

2.18

8.63

11.20

2.10

236.67

T4

17.15

10.50

2.70

8.80

1.94

14.90

19.20

3.33

240.83

T5

14.90

8.90

2.30

7.90

2.16

9.10

11.75

2.53

238.20

T6

16.36

9.30

2.10

7.85

2.08

9.00

11.50

2.00

260.00

T7

20.50

11.33

2.67

8.53

2.42

16.60

21.63

3.63

633.33

T8

19.50

10.80

2.90

8.28

2.37

12.75

17.10

2.63

419.73

T9

20.54

12.50

3.00

8.01

2.55

11.95

16.95

2.97

427.67

T10

20.97

10.47

2.53

7.72

2.71

10.13

15.00

2.80

431.67

S.Em
CD (P=0.05)

1.14
3.36

0.790
2.32

0.264
NS

0.429
1.26

0.149
0.439

1.61
4.76

2.09
6.17

0.355
1.04

57.69
169.93

T1 Recommended dose of fertilizers(RDF) @90:80:50 NPK kg/ha


T2 25% RDF + FYM(10t/ha),
T7 - 25% RDF +FYM(10t/ha)+ Azospirillum+PSB,
T8 - 25% RDF +FYM(10t/ha)+ Azospirillum+VAM,
T9 - 25% RDF +FYM(10t/ha)+ Azotobacter + PSB,
T10- 25% RDF +FYM(10t/ha)+ Azotobacter + VAM,

Prabu et al , 2002

26

Effect of Azospirillum sp. Nitrogen and farmyard manure on growth and yield
components of coriander

Malhotra et al,
2006

Table 12 : Effect of Azospirillum sp. Nitrogen and farmyard manure on growth and
yield components of coriander (mean pooled data of two years)
Treatment

Plant
No. of
Days to Days to No. of
No. of
No. of 1000 yield Stemgall
height primary
50%
seed umbels umbellets / seeds / seed q/ha
disease
(cm) branches flowering maturity /plant umbels umbel weight
intensity (%)
/plant

Absolute control
FYM 5 t ha-1
FYM 10 t ha-1
100 % N (N1)

58.6
72.5
73.0
78.0

5.0
5.2
5.2
5.3

81
79
79
80

148
145
146
143

22.2
28.4
30.6
32.8

4.8
5.0
5.0
5.0

18.3
26.3
28.4
32.6

11.5
12.2
12.3
12.0

6.4
7.2
7.8
8.4

18.0
16.0
17.0
18.0

75% N (N2)

78.0

5.2

80

144

34.6

5.0

33.2

12.2

8.3

16.0

50% N (N3)

76.0

5.5

79

144

32.4

5.1

30.2

11.8

8.2

16.0

Azospirillum sp.
Azospirillum sp +
FYM 5 t ha-1
Azospirillum sp +
FYM 10 t ha-1
Azospirillum sp+ N1
+ FYM 5 t ha-1
Azospirillum sp+
N2+ FYM 5 t ha-1

64.0
77.5

5.2
5.5

78
78

143
142

30.2
32.2

5.2
5.2

32.4
34.4

11.4
12.0

7.2
8.8

8.0
8.0

79.6

5.4

77

141

36.2

5.0

36.2

12.1

9.2

8.0

82.8

7.1

76

140

39.4

5.0

43.2

12.8

10.8

7.0

80.2

6.2

78

140

38.2

5.0

40.2

12.5

10.2

8.0

Azospirillum sp+ N3+ 79.2


FYM 5 t ha-1

6.2

80

142

36.2

5.1

36.4

12.4

9.7

8.0

0.9

NS

NS

6.4

NS

11.4

0.4

1.8

3.5

CD(P=0.05)

25

12.4

RDF N-

Malhotra et al,

24

Influence of bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of coriander (Coriandrum


sativum L.)

Chikkapeddanna, 2001

TREATMENT
DETAILS
T1- Rec. NPK
(60:37.5:37.5)kg/ha
T2-80% N + 80%P + 100%K
T3- 60%N + 60%P + 100%K
T4-Azotobactor+80%N +100%PK
T5-Azospirillum+ 80%N +100% PK
T6- PSB +80% P+100%NK
T7-VAM+80%P+100%NK
T8- Azotobactor+VAM+80%NP+100%K
T9- Azospirillum+VAM+80%NP+100%K
T10- Azotobactor+PSB+80%NP+100%K
T11- Azospirillum+PSB+80%NP+100%K
T12- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+80%N +100%PK
T13-VAM+PSB+80%P+100%NK
T14- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+PSB+VAM+80%NP
+100%K
T15- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+PSB+VAM +100%K
T16- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+60%N +100%PK
T17- PSB +VAM+60% P+100%NK
T18- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+PSB+VAM+60%NP
+100%K

23

22

Table 13: Influence of bio- fertilizers on growth and yield of coriander


Treatment
details
T1

Plant height
(cm)
44.13

Branches
/plant
21.20

Umbels
/plant
25.87

Flowers
/umbel
64.27

Seed yield
/plant(g)
8.7

Seed yield
/ha(q)
14.49

T2

40.17

17.87

20.93

60.27

6.59

11.19

T3

36.00

15.47

17.80

56.47

5.13

8.54

T4

42.13

21.77

27.93

58.00

9.25

15.40

T5

41.13

23.00

29.47

59.27

10.17

17.61

T6

43.33

23.20

26.67

64.00

9.97

16.83

T7

44.13

23.67

29.67

61.80

10.80

17.92

T8

48.47

24.87

30.87

60.40

11.41

19.00

T9

50.27

25.00

35.00

60.13

12.06

20.08

T10

46.80

23.87

29.80

58.93

10.51

17.51

T11

46.87

24.20

32.00

61.93

11.66

19.42

T12

44.87

24.03

33.53

61.80

12.05

20.08

T13

47.47

24.27

31.53

66.33

12.41

20.68

T14

55.23

29.07

41.80

74.27

14.31

23.55

T15

36.27

16.57

19.67

56.20

6.13

10.21

T16

42.00

21.06

31.53

62.67

10.59

17.64

T17

43.73

22.87

30.07

62.00

10.90

18.16

T18

49.00

25.97

36.73

69.37

12.04

20.52

S.Em
0.48
0.27
1.05
0.48
T14- Azotobactor+Azospirollum+PSB+VAM+80%NP
+100%K
CD @5%

1.38

0.79

3.03

1.39

0.42
0.65
1.19
1.87
Chikkapeddanna,
2001

21

Cumin
Cuminum cyminum L.
(Jeerige, Jeera, Saphed jira)
Apiaceae
Chromosome no.: 2n = 14
Used as spice: soups, cakes, pastries,
pickles, liquors (NIIR, 2008)
Med uses :carminative, diuretic and
stomachic.

20

Crop Requirement:
Hot summer of 34 months
Daytime temperatures around 30c (86f)
Mediterranean climates. (Drought-tolerant)
Well-drained soil
Table 14: State wise area, production and productivity of Cumin in India
State

2005-06

2006-07

Area

Prod.

Yield

Area

Prod.

Yield

(000 ha)

(000 tonnes)

(Kg/ha)

(000 ha)

(000 tones)

(Kg/ha)

Rajasthan

135.11

52.24

387

135.11

52.24

387

Uttar Pradesh

0.00

0.01

3500

0.00

0.01

3500

Total

349.02

158.35

454

349.02

158.35

454

(Source: Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development,

19

Dry, whole cumin fruit (or seed)


Whole cumin seeds and ground cumin
Commercially packaged
whole and ground cumin
seeds

18

Response of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) to integrated nutrient management

Patel et al, 2004

Table 15: Growth yield and quality attributes, seed yield of cumin as influenced by
organic and inorganic fertilizers(pooled data of 4 years)
Treatments

Plant
Branches/plan Umbels/plan Umbellates/plan Seeds/umbella Test weight (g)
height(cm)
t
t
t
te

Volatile
oil(%)

Average seed
yield (kg/ha)

T1 RD of N in form of
castor-cake
T2 RD of N in form of
mustard-cake

30.6

4.7

13.5

4.9

5.9

4.57

3.04

653

31.9

5.0

14.7

5.4

6.3

4.84

3.33

774

T3 RD of N in form of
FYM
T4 RD of N in form of
C.C.+inorganic
fertilizers at the ratio
of 1:1

30.9

4.7

13.9

5.1

6.0

4.65

3.14

670

31.5

4.8

14

5.1

6.1

4.79

3.13

723

T5 RD of N in the
form of
MC+inorganic
fertilizers in ratio 1:1

33.2

5.3

15.5

6.0

6.8

5.05

3.30

869

T6 RD of N in form of
FYM +inorganic
fertilizers in ratio of
1:1

31.9

4.7

13.8

5.0

6.3

4.76

3.07

769

T7 RD as inorganic
fertilizer(N and P)

32.1

5.0

14.3

5.4

6.5

4.64

3.11

759

T8 RD as inorganic
fertilizers(N only)

30.7

4.6

13.3

4.8

6.0

4.43

2.98

746

CD (P=0.05)
CV (%)

0.9
14.1

0.3
7.9

0.9
10.0

0.2
6.5

0.5
11.9

0.20
6.13

0.19
7.84

78
15

17

RDF-30:15kg N and
P/ha

Patel et al, 2004

16

Response of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) to inorganic nitrogen, farmyard manure


and biofertilizer
Choudhary et al, 2006

15

Treatment details
T1 - Inorganic N (100%) +Azospirillum + 5 tonnes
FYM/ha
T2 - Inorganic N (75%) +Azospirillum + 5 tonnes
FYM/ha
T3 - Inorganic N (50%) +Azospirillum + 5 tonnes
FYM/ha
T4 - Azospirillum + 5 tonnes FYM/ha alone
T5 - 5 tonnes of FYM/ha alone
T6 - Azospirillum+ 10 tonnes FYM/ha
T7 - 10 tonnes of FYM/ha
T8 - Inorganic N (100%)
T9 - Azospirillum
T10 - control
RDF N- 30kg/ha,
Azospirillum-1.5kg/ha

Table 16: Effect of inorganic N, FYM and biofertilizer on growth, yield attributes
as well as net returns of cumin(pooled data over 4 years)
Treatments

Plant
height
(cm)

Branches
/plant

Umbels/
plant

Umbellate
/umbel

Seeds/
umbel

Test weight Seed yield


Straw
Gross
Net returns
(g)
(q/ha)
yield(q/ha) returns(Rs/ (Rs/ha)
pooled(2000
ha)
-04)

T1

35.9

5.92

21.28

5.28

32.8

4.50

3.23

8.44

22,610

6357

T2

35.4

5.78

19.30

5.12

30.0

4.37

2.92

7.98

20,440

4262

T3

34.7

5.38

18.81

4.98

30.4

4.29

2.56

8.05

17,920

1817

T4

35.2

5.23

18.48

4.94

28.0

4.26

2.43

7.33

17,010

1057

T5

33.7

5.14

17.47

4.74

27.1

4.22

2.19

7.15

15,330

-598

T6

35.6

5.38

18.07

4.91

27.1

4.29

2.35

6.98

16,450

-753

T7

34.6

5.07

17.96

4.71

27.0

4.29

2.27

6.55

15,890

-1288

T8

37.1

5.84

20.93

5.08

31.8

4.43

2.74

8.29

19,180

4202

T9

32.3

4.77

17.83

4.54

27.3

4.15

2.31

6.11

16,170

1467

T10

32.2

4.54

15.53

4.58

23.7

4.10

1.79

5.91

12,530

-2148

CD (p=0.05)

1.6

0.26

1.78

0.22

2.0

0.18

0.41

0.48

T1 - Inorganic N (30kg) +Azospirillum + 5 tonnes FYM/ha,


T10 - control

14

Choudhary et al, 2006

13

Effect of cultivars and nutrient management on yield & economic returns of


Cumin

Singh et al, 2006

12

Table 17: Effect of cultivars and nutrient management on yield & economic returns of Cumin
(mean of 2 years data)
Treatment

Local
RZ-19
CD(p=0.05)

Seeds/ Plant

Seed yield
(kg ha-1)

2002-03

2003-04

2002-03

172.50
201.93
26.20

Cultivar
260.68
352
274.92
440
9.57
37

Gross returns
(Rs.ha-1)

Net returns B:C ratio


(Rs.ha-1)

2003-04

28140
34200

17240
22100

2.58
2.82

Nutrient management practices


147.20
245.50
321
515

25080

13480

2.16

F2-40:40kg N,P2O5 ha-1(100%RDF)

181.50

268.00

406

634

31200

18400

2.44

F3-10 t FYM + AC +PSB

166.20

254.20

376

650

30840

16740

2.19

F4-2 t castor cake +AC+PSB

192.00

267.10

390

657

31410

13270

1.73

F5-50%RDF+5 t FYM +AC+PSB

215.50

287.80

435

690

33750

20300

2.51

F6-50% RDF+1 t castor cake +AC+PSB

221.60

283.60

453

720

35190

19590

2.28

CD(P=0.05)

17.65

8.14

27

32

F1-control

586
701
76

RDF=recommended dose of fertilizers; FYM= farm yard manures;


Ac=Azospirillum chrooccum; PSB=Phosphate solubilizing bacteria

Singh et al, 2006

Fennel
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
(saunf, sompu)
Apiaceae
Chromosome number 2n = 22
Used as spice: soups, sauces, pastries,
confectionaries, bread rolls, liquors, meat
dishes, seeds chewed alone or in beetle
leaf(NIIR, 2008)
Medicinal use: Carminative, diuretic , and
stimulants.

11

Florence fennel or finocchio is a


selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem
base that is used as a vegetable
10

Crop requirement:
Mediterranean Climate
Deep and well-drained soil
pH range 4.8 to 8.2
Full sunlight
Optimal soil temperature 15 - 18C
Table 18: State wise area, production and
productivity Fennel of in India
State

2004-05
Area

Prod.

2005-06
Yield

Area

(000 ha) (000 tonnes) (Kg/ha) (000 ha)

Prod.

Yield

(000 tonnes)

(Kg/ha)

Rajasthan

4.885

4.224

865

3.895

3.657

939

Uttar Pradesh

0.806

0.442

548

0.763

0.414

543

Gujarat

16.900

23.000

1361

38.700

57.400

1483

Haryana

0.108

0.181

1676

0.108

0.181

1676

Total

22.699

27.847

1227

43.466

61.652

1418

Source: Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Developmen

Influence of Sheep Manure, Vermi-Compost and Bio-Fertilizer on Growth and


Yield of Fennel (Mill)

Meena et al., 2007

Table 19: Influence of sheep manure, vermi-compost and


7
Biofertilizer on Growth and Yield of Fennel (pooled data of two
years)
Treatment
Plant height No. of branches
Umbels
Umbellets
No. of seeds/ Seed yield Stover yield Biological yield
(cm)

/plant

/plant

/umbel

umbellet

q/ha

q/ha

q/ha

T1-biofertilizer
(Azatobactor)

135.0

12.6

27.3

31.0

36.3

13.1

16.2

29.3

T2-sheep manure@5 t/ha

144.2
146.2
156.3
134.0

12.7
13.3
14.0
12.3

29.0
30.7
35.0
31.7

32.0
36.0
44.3
35.0

33.7
43.0
45.0
43.7

13.2
14.2
16.7
13.9

16.1
17.6
20.5
17.1

29.3
31.9
37.2
31.1

T6 -sheep manure@7.5 t/ha+


biofertilizer

162.7

15.0

36.7

38.0

46.7

16.9

20.9

37.8

T7 -sheep manure@10 t/ha+


biofertilizer

159.3

16.4

45.0

47.0

50.3

19.4

23.7

43.1

T8-vemicompost@2t/ha

144.0
145.3
146.7
137.3

13.0
13.0
13.4
13.6

27.4
28.0
36.6
30.0

33.7
37.9
37.0
37.7

36.7
44.0
44.3
38.0

12.6
14.5
15.9
13.5

15.3
17.4
19.7
16.6

27.8
32.0
35.5
30.0

T12-vemicompost@3t/ha+
biofertilizer

148.0

15.0

31.7

39.0

41.3

16.0

19.7

35.7

T13-vemicompost@4t/ha+
biofertilizer

164.7

15.3

38.0

44.6

45.7

18.1

22.4

40.0

T14-recommended fertilizer dose

139.7

13.7

29.0

32.0

38.7

14.5

17.8

32.3

T15-RFD+Bio-fertilizer

147.0
131.7
3.54
7.22

15.0
10.7
0.007
0.014

35.0
26.0
0.038
0.078

42.7
27.0
0.354
0.723

43.3
32.3
0.24
0.48

15.9
11.0
0.047
0.096

19.5
13.4
0.0043
0.0089

35.4
24.3
0.020
0.041

T3- sheep manure@7.5 t/ha


T4 -sheep manure@10 t/ha
T5 -sheep manure@10 t/ha+
biofertilizer

T9-vemicompost@3t/ha
T10-vemicompost@4t/ha
T11-vemicompost@2t/ha+
biofertilizer

T16-Absolute control
S.Em
CD @5%

RDF- 90:40:30 kg/ha

Meena et al.,2007

Response of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) to inorganic nitrogen, farmyard manure


and Azospirillum

Jain et al., 2007

Table 20: Effect of inorganic nitrogen,farmyard manure and Azospirillum on growth,


yield attributes and yield as well as net returns of fennel (pooled over 4 years)
Treatment

Plant
height
(cm)

No. of
branches
/plant

Umbels
/plant

Umbellets No. of seeds/


/umbel
umbellet

Test
weight
(g)

Seed
yield
kg/ha

Inorganic N(100%)
+Azospirillum+
5t FYM/ha

111.3

7.23

27.0

19.4

Inorganic N(75%)
+Azospirillum+
5t FYM/ha

106.3

6.79

26.6

Inorganic N(50%)
+Azospirillum+
5t FYM/ha

106.7

6.51

Azospirillum+
5t FYM/ha

105.2

5t FYM/ha
Azospirillum+
10t FYM/ha
10t FYM/ha
Inorganic N(100%)
Azospirillum @1.5 kg/ha
Control
CD(P=0.05)

244.9

5.99

1158

4797

22728

2.28

19.4

233.8

5.70

1090

4797

20573

2.17

23.2

18.8

229.0

5.45

1023

4441

18453

2.06

6.79

23.6

18.5

209.3

5.45

933

3999

15753

1.93

103.3
107.0

6.48
7.01

22.2
23.4

18.3
18.9

203.0
223.9

5.39
5.69

907
1006

3718
4182

14868
17058

1.88
1.94

106.4
107.5
103.8
103.6
4.07

6.65
7.28
6.30
5.90
0.42

22.2
26.5
19.8
17.9
2.0

18.8
20.0
18.0
16.6
1.3

219.3
238.0
205.0
195.5
16.6

5.54
5.85
5.39
5.21
0.26

955
1046
871
778
73

4099
4805
3863
3329
379

15298
20083
15193
11603

1.84
2.21
1.97
1.74

N-Nitrogen, FYM- Farmyard


manure
RDF
N-90kg/ha, Azospirillum 1.5kg/ha

Biological
Net
yield
returns
kg/ha
(Rs/ha)

Benefit:cost
ratio

Jain et al., 2007

Influence of organic manures alone or in combination with inorganic


fertilizer on productivity of winter drilled fennel(Foeniculum vulgare)

Patel et al., 2003

Table 21: Yield attributing characters, yield and oil content of winter fennel as
influenced by organic and inorganic fertilizer (pooled data of 3 years)

Treatment

Plant
height
(cm)

branches
/plant

Umbels
/plant

Umbellets
/umbel

Seeds/
umbellet

R.D. of N in form of castor cake

124.35

5.75

14.78

23.08

24.37

6.49

1,996

1.64

R.D. of N in form of mustard cake

120.30

5.95

14.98

23.92

23.68

6.42

1,915

1.62

R.D. of N in form of FYM


R.D. of N in form of CC+inorganic
fertilizer at the ratio of 1:1

117.38
120.55

5.83
6.23

15.58
17.85

23.07
25.52

23.73
25.05

6.54
6,58

2,057
2,264

1.58
1.61

R.D. of N in form of MC+inorganic


fertilizer at the ratio of 1:1

120.03

6.07

17.17

24.15

24.62

6.53

2,133

1.61

R.D. of N in form of
FYM+inorganic fertilizer at the
ratio of 1:1

121.98

5.98

17.73

26.09

25.53

6.56

2,236

1.56

R.D. of N as inorganic fertilizer (N


and P)

124.18

7.11

20.98

27.93

28.12

7.37

2,456

1.54

R.D. of N as inorganic fertilizer (N


only)

119.77

6.27

18.70

25.77

26.20

6.92

2,191

1.49

CD(P=0.05)
CV (%)

NS
5.17

0.57
11.58

1.51
10.31

1.71
8.91

1.81
9.22

0.32
5.56

304
8.58

0.07
11.85

RDF -N+P- 90+45 kg/ha

Test weight Seed yield Volatile


(g)
kg/ha
oil (%)

Patel et al., 2003

CONCLUSIO
N:

Use of mineral fertilizer is the quickest and surest way of increasing crop production.
The continuous use of high levels of chemical fertilizer is adversely affecting the
sustainability of agricultural production and causing environmental pollution. So
organic manures are better option but we cannot meet the total nutrient needs of
modern agriculture .
Integral use of nutrients from fertilizer and organic sources seems to be a need of the
time. The basic concept underlying the INM nevertheless is the maintainance and
possible improvement of soil fertility and also sustain the crop productvity for long
term basis, to reduce fertilizer input cost.
INM posses great diversity in terms of chemical, physical properties and nutrient
release patterns