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Welding Inspection Defects/Repairs

Welding Inspection Consumables Welding Inspection Duties & Responsibilities

Welding Inspection Welding Symbols Welding Inspection Terms & Definitions


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Welding Inspection

Terms & Definitions

Terminology and Definitions


A Weld: A union between materials caused by heat, and or pressure A Joint: A configuration of members

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Terminology Joint Welds

Compound

Fillet

Butt

Edge
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Spot

Plug

Terminology Joint Types

Edge

Open & Closed Corner

Lap

Tee
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Butt Cruciform

Types of Joint Preparation


Included angle Included angle

Angle of bevel

Root Radius

Root Face Root Gap Single -V Butt


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Root Face

Root Gap
Single - U Butt

Types of Joint Preparation

Angle of bevel

Angle of bevel

Root Radius

Root Face Root Gap Single Bevel Butt


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Root Face

Root Gap
Land Single J Butt

Single Butt Weld Preparations


Single sided preparations are normally made on thinner materials, or when access form both sides is restricted

Single

Bevel

Single

Vee

Single
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Single

Double Butt Weld Preparations


Double sided preparations are normally made on thicker materials, or when access form both sides is unrestricted

Double

Bevel

Double

Vee

Double
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Double

Welded Butt Joints

Butt A_________Welded butt joint

Fillet A_________Welded butt joint

Compound A____________Welded butt joint


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Welded Tee Joints

Fillet A_________Welded T joint

Butt A_________Welded T joint

Compound A____________Welded T joint


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Welded Lap Joints

Fillet A_________Welded lap joint

Spot A_________Welded lap joint

Compound A____________Welded lap joint


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Welded Closed Corner Joints

Fillet A_________Welded closed corner joint

Butt A_________Welded closed corner joint

Compound A____________Welded closed corner joint


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Welded Open Corner Joints

Inside fillet A_______________Welded open corner joint

Outside fillet A_______________Welded open corner joint

Double fillet A_______________Welded open corner joint


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Weld Zone Terminology

Weld Toe

Weld zone

Weld metal

Heat affected zone

Fusion zone

Root

Weld Junction

Weld Toe

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Butt Weld Features

Weld cap width

Excess cap height or weld reinforcement

Excess root penetration

Root bead width

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Butt Weld Features


Actual throat Design throat Cap or Face Cap width

Weld Junction

3
1,2,3,4 = Weld toes
HAZ

4
Root

Fusion zone
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A & B = Excess weld metal

Fillet Weld Features

Vertical leg length

Nominal design throat thickness

Horizontal leg length


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Fillet Weld Dimensions

a = Nominal design throat

thickness

s = Effective design throat

thickness

b = Horizontal leg length c c = Vertical leg length e.g Leg length = 6mm Design Throat = 6mm x 0.7 Design Throat = 4.2mm

a b

The leg length should be approximately equal to the material thickness The design throat thickness is 0.7 of the leg length
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Fillet Weld Profiles

Mitre fillet

Convex fillet

A concave profile is preferred for joints subjected to fatigue loading

Concave fillet
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Toe Blend Angle

6 mm
Most codes quote the weld toes shall blend smoothly This statement is not quantitative and therefore open to individual interpretation The higher the toe blend angle the greater the amount of stress concentration The toe blend angle should be between 20o-30o

80

Poor Weld Toe Blend Angle

3 mm

20

Improved Weld Toe Blend Angle


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Welding Positions

Flat position

UK (USA) 1G rotated ISO/EN PA

UK (USA): 1G ISO/EN: PA

Horizontal position

UK (USA) 2G Fixed ISO/EN PC


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UK (USA): 2G ISO/EN: PC

Welding Positions

Vertical up

Vertical down

UK (USA) 3G ISO/EN PF

UK (USA) 3G ISO/EN PG

Overhead Position UK (USA) 4G ISO/EN PE


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Vertical Position Pipe fixed Horizontal


UK (USA) 5G ISO/EN PF, PG

Welding Positions

45o
Inclined position fixed UK (USA) 6G EN/ISO H-LO45
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45o
Inclined position Rotated UK (USA) 1FR EN/ISO L 45/PA

Range of approval according to welding position

BS EN 287
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Questions
QU 1. Sketch a single-U butt joint and indicate the following a. Root face b.Root gap c.Included angle d. Root radius

QU 2.

Sketch a tee joint, fillet welded and indicate the following a. Leg length b.Throat thickness c. Root d. Weld toes

QU 3.

Sketch five joint types in addition to a butt joint

QU 4.

Identify the the following features from the sketch

F E D
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B A