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It is the field of engineering that encompasses the spectrum of materials types and how to use them in manufacturing. Materials engineering is different from Materials science. Materials science involves investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials, whereas, Materials engineering, on the basis of these structureproperty correlations, design or engineer the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties. From a functional perspective, the role of a materials scientist is to develop or synthesize new materials, whereas a materials engineer is called upon to create new products or systems using existing materials, and/or to develop techniques for processing materials. What is a Material? Everything we see and use is made of materials Engineers make things. They make them out of materials. Why Study Materials Engineering? In order to be a good designer, an engineer must learn what materials will be appropriate to use in different applications. Any engineer can look up materials properties in a book or search databases for a material that meets design specifications, but the ability to innovate and to incorporate materials safely in a design is rooted in an understanding of how to manipulate materials properties and functionality through the control of the materials structure and processing techniques.

Engineering Materials Metals & Alloys Ceramics & Glasses Advanced Materials



Metals and Alloys Atoms in metals and their alloys are arranged in a very orderly manner, and in comparison to the ceramics and polymers, are relatively dense . Metals have High electrical conductivity, good formability, Castable, machinable. An alloy is a metal that contains additions of one or more metals or non-metals. Metals and alloys have relatively high strength, high stiffness, ductility or formability, and shock resistance. Ceramics Thermally insulating, Refractories. Ceramics can be defined as inorganic crystalline materials. Beach sand and rocks are examples of naturally occurring ceramics. Traditional ceramics are used to make bricks, tableware, toilets, bathroom sinks, refractories (heatresistant material), and abrasives. In general, due to the presence of porosity (small holes), ceramics do not conduct heat well; they must be heated to very high temperatures before melting. Ceramics are strong and hard, but also very brittle. Advanced ceramics are materials made by refining naturally occurring ceramics and other special processes. Glasses Optically transparent. Glass is an amorphous material, often, but not always, derived from a molten liquid. The term amorphous refers to materials that do not have a regular, periodic arrangement of atoms.

Polymers (Greek; Polys + mers = many + parts) Polyethylene Food packaging Easily formed into thin, flexible, airtight film. Electrically insulating and moisture-resistant. Polymers are typically organic materials. They are produced using a process known as polymerization. Polymeric materials include rubber (elastomers), PE, nylon, PVC, PC, PS, and silicone rubber. and many types of adhesives. Polymers typically are good electrical and thermal insulators although there are exceptions such as the semiconducting polymers Composites The main idea in developing composites is to blend the properties of different materials. The design goal of a composite is to achieve a combination of properties that is not displayed by any single material, and also to incorporate the best characteristics of each of the component materials. Advanced Materials Semiconductors Used in Silicon Transistors and integrated circuits. Unique electrical behaviour, converts electrical signals to light, lasers, laser diodes, etc. Biomaterials Biomaterials are employed in components implanted into the human body to replace diseased or damaged body parts. These materials must not produce toxic substances and must be compatible with body tissues (i.e., must not cause adverse biological reactions). Smart Materials These materials are able to sense changes in their environment and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners. Smart material include some type of sensors, and actuators. Piezoelectric actuators expand and contract in response to an applied electric field . Nanomaterials Nanomaterials may be any one of the four basic types; metals, ceramics, polymers, & composites. the term is limited to dealing with particles whose dimensions range in size from a few nanometres up to around 100 nm.

One common item that presents some interesting material property requirements is the container for carbonated beverages. The material used for this application must satisfy the following constraints: (1) provide a barrier to the passage of carbon dioxide, which is under pressure in the container; (2) be nontoxic, non-reactive with the beverage, and, preferably, recyclable; (3) be relatively strong and capable of surviving a drop from a height of several feet when containing the beverage; (4) be inexpensive, including the cost to fabricate the final shape; (5) if optically transparent, retain its optical clarity; and (6) be capable of being produced in different colours and/or adorned with decorative labels. All three of the basic material typesmetal (aluminium), ceramic (glass), and polymer (PE plastic)are used for carbonated beverage containers. All of these materials are non- toxic and un-reactive with beverages. In addition, each material has its pros and cons.

For example, the aluminium alloy is relatively strong (but easily dented), is a very good barrier to the diffusion of carbon dioxide, is easily recycled, cools beverages rapidly, and allows labels to be painted onto its surface. On the other hand, the cans are optically opaque and relatively expensive to produce. Glass is impervious to the passage of carbon dioxide, is a relatively inexpensive material, and may be recycled, but it cracks and fractures easily, and glass bottles are relatively heavy. Whereas plastic is relatively strong, may be made optically transparent, is inexpensive and lightweight, and is recyclable, it is not as impervious to the passage of carbon dioxide as the aluminium and glass. For example, you may have noticed that beverages in aluminium and glass containers retain their carbonization (i.e., fizz) for several years, whereas those in twolitre plastic bottles go flat within a few months.

Materials Structure
The properties of some materials are directly related to their structures. The structure of a material usually relates to the arrangement of its internal Components. There are four levels of materials structure: Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei. Atomic structure involves arrangement of atoms in materials and defines interaction among atoms (interatomic bonding). Microscopic structure involves arrangement of small grains of material that can be identified by microscopy. Macroscopic structure relates to structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye.

Macroscopic structure Atomic level Subatomic level Microscopic structure

Atomic Structure (Arrangement of Atoms)

All matter is made up of atoms containing a nucleus of protons and neutrons and surrounding clouds, or orbits, of electrons. Atoms can transfer or share electrons; in doing so, multiple atoms combine to form molecules. Molecules are held together by attractive forces called bonds

Ionic bonds: When one or more electrons from an outer orbit are transferred from one material to another, a strong attractive force develops between the two ions. Covalent bonds: ln a covalent bond, the electrons in outer orbits are shared by atoms to form molecules. The number of electrons shared is reflected by terms such as single bond, double bond, etc. Polymers consist of large molecules that are covalently bonded together. Solids formed by covalent bonding typically have low electrical conductivity and can have high hardness.

Metallic bonds: Metals have relatively few electrons in their outer orbits; thus, they cannot complete the outer shell of other self-mated atoms. Instead, metals and alloys form metallic bonds, whereby the available electrons are shared by all atoms in contact. The resultant electron cloud provides attractive forces to hold the atoms together and results in generally high thermal and electrical conductivity.

Crystalline Structure Of Metals

The properties of some materials are directly related to their crystal structures. The crystalline structure of a material usually relates to the arrangement of its internal Components. In metals, the knowledge of atomic structure guides us in controlling and predicting the behaviour and performance of metals in various manufacturing processes. Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei.

Atomic structure involves arrangement of atoms in materials and defines interaction among atoms (interatomic bonding).
Microscopic structure involves arrangement of small grains of material that can be identified by microscopy. Macroscopic structure relates to structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye.

Macroscopic structure Atomic level Subatomic level Microscopic structure

Crystalline Structure Of Metals

why we study the crystal structure of metals? By studying the crystal structure of metals, information about various properties can be inferred. By relating structure to properties, one can predict processing behaviour or select appropriate applications for a metal. Metals with face-centered cubic structure, for example, tend to be ductile whereas hexagonal close-packed metals tend to be brittle.

Difference between Unit Cell and Single Crystal

A unit cell is the smallest group of atoms showing the characteristic lattice structure of a particular metal. It is the building block of a crystal, A single crystal consists of a number of unit cells. All unit cells interlock in the same way and have the same orientation For a crystalline solid, when the periodic and repeated arrangement of atoms is perfect or extends throughout the entirety of the specimen without interruption, the result is a single crystal. Single crystals exist in nature, but they may also be produced artificially. Examples include; turbine blades and electronic microcircuits, which employ single crystals of silicon and other semiconductors.
Polycrystalline Materials Most crystalline solids are composed of a collection of many small crystals or grains; such materials are termed polycrystalline..

The Figure shows three thin disk specimens placed over some printed matter. It is obvious that the optical properties of each of the three materials are different; the one on the left is transparent, whereas the disks in the center and on the right are, respectively, translucent and opaque. All of these specimens are of the same material, aluminum oxide, but the: Leftmost one is what we call a single crystalthat is, it is highly perfectwhich gives rise to its transparency.
The center one is composed of numerous and very small single crystals that are all connected; the boundaries between these small crystals scatter a portion of the light reflected from the printed page, which makes this material optically translucent. The specimen on the right is composed not only of many small, interconnected crystals, but also of a large number of very small pores or void spaces. These pores also effectively scatter the reflected light and render this material opaque. Thus, the structures of these three specimens are different in terms of crystal boundaries and pores, which affect the optical transmittance properties. Furthermore, each material was produced using a different processing technique.

Body-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure

Face-Centered Cubic Crystal Structure

Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystal Structure


APF 0.68 APF 0.74 APF ?

Volume of atoms in unit cell APF Volume unit cell Total number of atom s in unit cell Volume of unit atoms Volume unit cell

Show that the atomic packing factor for the BCC crystal structure is 0.68. Show that the atomic packing factor for the FCC crystal structure is 0.74. What is the atomic packing factor for the HCP crystal structure?. Show that for HCP the c/a ratio is 1.633
3 3 a2 Area of a Hexagon 2

Numerical Problems

1. Calculate the volume of an BCC unit cell in terms of the atomic radius R. 2. Calculate the volume of an FCC unit cell in terms of the atomic radius R. 3. Calculate the volume of an HCP unit cell in terms of the atomic radius R.

Allotropy Allotropy is the ability of an element to exist in different structural forms while in the same state of matter. The allotropes depend on both the allotropy temperature and the external pressure. For example, the allotropes of carbon include diamond (where the carbon atoms are bonded together in a tetrahedral lattice arrangement), graphite (where the carbon atoms are bonded together in sheets of a hexagonal lattice). Graphite is the stable polymorph at ambient conditions, whereas diamond is formed at extremely high pressures. Also, pure iron has a BCC crystal structure at room temperature, which changes to FCC iron at 912 C

Crystallographic Directions, and Planes Deformation under loading (slip) occurs on certain crystalline planes and in certain crystallographic directions. Before we can predict how materials fail, we need to know what modes of failure are more likely to occur. It is often necessary to be able to specify certain directions and planes in crystals. Many material properties and processes vary with direction in the crystal. Directions and planes are described using three integers; Miller Indices
Method of describing Miller indices for Directions Draw vector, and find the coordinates of the head, h1,k1,l1 and the tail h2,k2,l2. Subtract coordinates of tail from coordinates of head Remove fractions by multiplying by smallest possible factor Enclose in square brackets

Draw the following direction vectors in cubic unit cells: (a) [100] and [110] (b) [112] (c) [110] (d) [321] (a) The position coordinates for the direction indices [100] and [110] direction are (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 0), respectively (Fig. a). (b) The position coordinates for the [112] direction are obtained by dividing the direction indices by 2 so that they will lie within the unit cube. Thus the position coordinates are (1/2,1/2,1) (Fig. b). (c) The position coordinates for the [10] direction are (-1, 1, 0) (Fig. c). Note that the origin for the direction vector must be moved to the lower-left front corner of the cube. (d) The position coordinates for the[321] direction are obtained by first dividing all the indices by 3, the largest index. This gives -1,-2/3,-1/3 which are shown in Fig. d.

Method of describing Miller indices for Planes The procedure for determining the Miller indices for a cubic crystal plane is as follows: 1. Choose a plane that does not pass through the origin at (0, 0, 0). 2. Determine the intercepts of the plane in terms of the crystallographic x, y, and z axes for a unit cube. These intercepts may be fractions. 3. Form the reciprocals of these intercepts. 4. Clear fractions and determine the smallest set of whole numbers that are in the same ratio as the intercepts. These whole numbers are the Miller indices of the crystallographic plane and are enclosed in parentheses without the use of commas. The notation (hkl) is used to indicate Miller indices in a general sense, where h, k, and l are the Miller indices of a cubic crystal plane for the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

Draw the following crystallographic planes in cubic unit cells: (a) (101) (b) (110) (c) (221)

Point defects: (a) vacancy, (b) interstitial atom, (c) small substitutional atom, (d) large substitutional atom, (e) Frenkel defect, and (f) Schottky defect.

Vacancies: A vacancy is produced when an atom or an ion is missing from its normal site in the crystal structure. When atoms or ions are missing (i.e., when vacancies are present), the overall randomness or entropy of the material increases, which increases the thermodynamic stability of a crystalline material. All crystalline materials have vacancy defects. Vacancies are introduced into metals and alloys during solidification, at high temperatures, or as a consequence of radiation damage. Interstitial Defects: An interstitial defect is formed when an extra atom or ion is inserted into the crystal structure at a normally unoccupied position. Interstitial atoms such as hydrogen are often present as impurities, whereas carbon atoms are intentionally added to iron to produce steel. A substitutional defect is introduced when one atom or ion is replaced by a different type of atom or ion. A Frenkel defect is a vacancy-interstitial pair formed when an ion jumps from a normal lattice point to an interstitial site. A Schottky defect, is unique to ionic materials and is commonly found in many ceramic materials. When vacancies occur in an ionically bonded material, a stoichiometric number of anions and cations must be missing from regular atomic positions if electrical neutrality is to be preserved. For example, one Mg+2 vacancy and one O-2 vacancy in MgO constitute a Schottky pair.

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH)n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Smelting To convert it to metallic iron it must be smelted or sent through a direct reduction process to remove the oxygen. Oxygen-iron bonds are strong, and to remove the iron from the oxygen, a stronger elemental bond must be presented to attach to the oxygen. Carbon is used because the strength of a carbon-oxygen bond is greater than that of the iron-oxygen bond, at high temperatures. Thus, the iron ore must be powdered and mixed with coke, to be burnt in the smelting process.

Iron Pure iron rarely exists outside of the laboratory. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore to pig iron through the use of a blast furnace. From pig iron many other types of iron and steel are produced by the addition or deletion of carbon and alloys. The following paragraphs discuss the different types of iron and steel that can be made from iron ore. PIG IRON. Pig iron is composed of about 93% iron, from 3% to 5% carbon, and various amounts of other elements. Pig iron is comparatively weak and brittle; therefore, it has a limited use and approximately ninety percent produced is refined to produce steel. Cast-iron pipe and some fittings and valves are manufactured from pig iron. Carbon 3.04.5% Manganese 0.152.5% Phosphorus 0.12.0% Silicon 1.03.0% Sulphur 0.050.1% WROUGHT IRON. Wrought iron is made from pig iron with some slag mixed in during manufacture. Almost pure iron, the presence of slag enables wrought iron to resist corrosion and oxidation. The chemical analyses of wrought iron and mild steel are just about the same. The difference comes from the properties controlled during the manufacturing process. Wrought iron can be gas and arc welded, machined, plated, and easily formed; however, it has a low hardness and a low-fatigue strength. CAST IRON. Cast iron is any iron containing greater than 2% carbon alloy. Cast iron has a high compressive strength and good wear resistance; however, it lacks ductility, malleability, and impact strength.

Iron Ore Wrought Iron

Pig Iron

Conventional Blast Furnace

Modern Blast Furnace

1: Iron ore + Calcareous sinter 2: coke 3: conveyor belt 4: feeding opening, with a valve that prevents direct contact with the internal parts of the furnace 5: Layer of coke 6: Layers of sinter, iron oxide pellets, ore, 7: Hot air (around 1200C) 8: Slag 9: Liquid pig iron 10: Mixers 11: Tap for pig iron 12: Dust cyclon for removing dust from exhaust gasses before burning them in 13 13: Air heater 14: Smoke outlet (can be redirected to carbon capture & storage (CCS) tank) 15: feed air for Cowper air heaters 16: Powdered coal 17: cokes oven 18: cokes bin 19: pipes for blast furnace gas

PRODUCTION OF IRON Iron is the fourth most plentiful element in the earths crust, it is rarely found in the metallic state. Instead, it occurs in a variety of mineral compounds, known as ores, the most attractive of which are iron oxides coupled with companion impurities. To produce metallic iron, the ores are processed in a manner that breaks the ironoxygen bonds. Ore, limestone, coke (carbon), and air are continuously introduced into specifically designed furnaces and molten metal is periodically withdrawn.

The production of iron in a blast furnace is a continuous process. The furnace is heated constantly and is re-charged with raw materials from the top while it is being tapped from the bottom. Iron making in the furnace usually continues for about ten years before the furnace linings have to be renewed.
Blast furnace is a furnace for smelting of iron from iron oxide ores (hematite, Fe2O3 or magnetite, Fe3O4). Coke, limestone and iron ore are poured in the top, which would normally burn only on the surface. The hot air blast to the furnace burns the coke and maintains the very high temperatures that are needed to reduce the ore to iron. The reaction between air and the fuel generates carbon monoxide. This gas reduces the iron oxide in the ore to iron. Fe2O3(solid) + CO(gas) Fe(solid) + CO2(gas)


The significant reactions occurring within the Blast Furnace can be described as follows: 1. Iron is extracted from its ores by the chemical reduction of iron oxides with carbon in a furnace at a temperature of about 800C - 1900C. 2. Coke, the source of chemical energy in the blast furnace, is burnt both to release heat energy and to provide the main reducing agent: 3. Calcium oxide, formed by thermal decomposition of limestone, reacts with the silicon oxide present in sand, a major impurity in iron ores, to form slag (which is less dense than molten iron). Overall, the chemical processes can be summarized by these equations: All of the phosphorus and most At 500o C of the manganese will enter the 3Fe2O3 +CO -> 2Fe3O4 + CO2 molten iron. Oxides of silicon Fe2O3 +CO -> 2FeO + CO2 and sulphur compounds are o C At 850 partially reduced, and these Fe3O4 +CO -> 3FeO + CO2 elements also become part of the resulting metal. Other At 1000o C FeO +CO -> Fe + CO2 contaminant elements, such as calcium, magnesium, and At 1300 oC aluminium, are collected in the CO2 + C -> 2CO limestone-based slag and are At 1900o C largely removed from the C+ O2 -> CO2 FeO +C -> Fe + CO system.

PRODUCTION OF STEEL When iron is smelted from its ore by commercial processes, it contains more carbon than is desirable. In order to convert the pig iron into steel, it must be melted and reprocessed to reduce the carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be added. This liquid is then continuously cast into long slabs or cast into ingots. Approximately 96% of steel is continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as cast steel ingots. The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs, blooms, or billets. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire. Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams and rails. In modern foundries these processes often occur in one assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel coming out. Sometimes after steels final rolling it is heat treated for strength, however this is relatively rare. Iron as obtained from blast furnace contains from 3-4% of Carbon, and variable amount of silicon, manganese sulphur and phosphorus.

1. Dead mild steel up to 0.15% carbon 2. Low carbon or mild steel 0.15% to 0.45% carbon 3. Medium carbon steel 0.45% to 0.8% carbon 4. High carbon steel 0.8% to 1.5% carbon


Bessemer Process Crucible Process Open Hearth Process Electric Process (Arc, Induction) Duplex Process Linz Donnawitz Process Kaldo Process Modern Process

Bessemer Process Bessemer process was invented in1875 by Thomas Gilchrest. In Bessemer process the molten pig iron from blast furnace is poured into converter. The converter is made of steel plates lined inside with refractory material. In the bottom of converter vessels, a no of holes are introduced through which air is blown at a pressure of 200-250KN/m2. Based on full capacity, the converter is charged with 100-150 ton, and this charge is carried out from 10 to 15 ton at different time intervals. Their first oxidizes silicon, and manganese which together with iron oxide rise to the top from slag. During this air blowing process the carbon begins to burn and blowing continued, until 0.25% of carbon is eliminated. In Bessemer process acids are used to burn and eliminated silicon and phosphorus. The finished steel is then poured into ladles and from ladle it is poured into ingot moulds for subsequently rolling and forging process.

Crucible Process In Crucible process wrought iron together with a small amount of pig iron, necessary alloying metals and slagging materials are placed in a clay or clay-graphite crucible, covered with an old crucible bottom and melted in a gas or coke-fired furnace. After the charge is entirely molten, with sufficient time allowed for the gases and impurities to rise to the surface, the Crucible is withdrawn, the slag removed with a cold iron bar, and the resulting steel poured into a small ingot which is subsequently forged to the desire shape. There are three types of Crucible Furnaces: (a) lift-out crucible, (b) stationary pot, from which molten metal must be ladled, and (c) tilting-pot furnace

Open Hearth Process The open-hearth furnace is rectangular and rather low, holding from 15 to 200 ton of metal in a saucer-like shallow pool. It is heated either by producer gas, oil, tar, mixed blast furnace and coke oven gas, pitch, mixture of creosote and pitch and heavy fuel oil. Flames come from first one end and then the other. Waste gases pass through regenerators. The furnace is charged with ore and limestone. The lime stone begins to decompose in carbon di-oxide and calcium oxide.

A. gas and air enter B. pre-heated chamber C. molten pig iron D. hearth E. heating chamber F. gas and air exit.

Electric Furnace An Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. An electric arc furnace used for steelmaking consists of a refractory-lined vessel, usually water-cooled in larger sizes, covered with a retractable roof, and through which one or more graphite electrodes enter the furnace. Arc furnaces differ from induction furnaces in that the charge material is directly exposed to an electric arc, and the current in the furnace terminals passes through the charged material. An induction furnace is an electrical furnace in which the heat is applied by induction heating of metal. The advantage of the induction furnace is a clean, energy-efficient and well-controllable melting process compared to most other means of metal melting. The one major drawback to Electric furnace usage in a foundry is the lack of refining capacity; charge materials must be clean of oxidation products and of a known composition and some alloying elements may be lost due to oxidation.
Induction furnace is based on the principle of heating by induced currents. If a conductor is placed within a coil through which an alternating current is flowing, a current is induced in the conductor. By the normal la of electricity this conductor is heated. The magnitude of the current generated depends on: _the physical dimensions of the coil; _the resistivity of the conductor and _the frequency of the current.

Linz-Donawitz (LD) or Basic oxygen steel making (BOS) Process The basic oxygen steel-making process is as follows: 1. Molten pig iron from a blast furnace is poured into a large refractory-lined container called a ladle. Besides the BOS vessel is one-fifth filled with steel scrap. 2. The metal in the ladle is sent directly for basic oxygen steelmaking or to a pretreatment stage. Pre-treatment of the blast furnace metal is used to reduce the refining load of sulphur, silicon, and phosphorus. In desulfurising pre-treatment, several hundred kilograms of powdered magnesium are added. Sulphur impurities are reduced to magnesium sulphide in a violent exothermic reaction. The sulphide is then raked off. Similar pre-treatment is possible for desiliconisation and dephosphorisation using lime as reagents. The decision to pretreat depends on the quality of the blast furnace metal and the required final quality of the BOS steel. 3. Fluxes (lime or dolomite) are fed into the vessel to form slag, which absorbs impurities of the steelmaking process. During blowing the metal in the vessel forms an emulsion with the slag, facilitating the refining process.

Kaldo Process:
The Kaldo process, is a modification of LD process. It was originally developed in Sweden by Prof. Kalling. This process is based on the advantage of evolution of heat by high phosphorus(2%) pig iron to as low as 0.02% P. The converter in Kaldo Process is inclined at 150 to 200 with the horizontal, and rotated at a speed of 25-30 r.p.m. The oxygen lance is introduced through the open end of the vessel, which also acts as the outlet for the exhaust gases. The use of oxygen allows simultaneous removal of carbon and phosphorus from the (p 1.85%) pig iron. The rotation of the converter ensures better slag-metal reaction.


Vacuum Induction Melting process: This process is similar to the induction melting process with suitable arrangement for creating a vacuum. This process is used for making super alloys containing nickel and cobalt as base metals. It is very suitable process for further remelting for investment casting. Due to vacuum prevailing in the chamber , non-metallic inclusions can be minimized and composition of chemically reactive elements like titanium , boron and aluminium can be controlled accurately. New alloys of steel possessing greater uniformly and reproducibility of properties accompanied by greater strength, creep resistance, etc can be produced. Consumable Electrical Vacuum Arc Melting Process: It is direct arc steel melting process in which the electrode is consumed during melting. This process was originally used for titanium. Since this process eliminates hydrogen, oxygen, and volatile materials, it is extensively used for special-purpose steels, as in moving parts of aircraft engines, due to need of high strength, uniformity of properties, greater toughness and freedom from tramp and volatile elements. Electric slag refining (ESR) Process: This process is commonly known as ESR. It is a larger form of the original welding process . It is the electrical resistance heating process that remelts the preformed electrode into a water-cooled crucible. Due to resistance to flow of current, the metal melts and drops onto the crucible through a layer of slag around the ingot. The process is used for making high alloy, high quality steels for obtaining superior properties normally not achieved in conventional processing. For example, ultra high strength weldable steel.


A phase may be defined as a homogeneous portion of a system that has uniform physical and chemical characteristics.

One-component or Unary Phase Diagram (P-T Diagram) An equilibrium phase diagram is a graphic mapping of the natural tendencies of a material or a material system, assuming that equilibrium has been attained for all possible conditions. There are three primary variables to be considered: temperature, pressure, and composition. The simplest phase diagram is a pressuretemperature (PT) diagram for a fixedcomposition material. Areas of the diagram are assigned to the various phases, with the boundaries indicating the equilibrium conditions of transition. PT phase diagrams are rarely used for engineering applications. Most engineering processes are conducted at atmospheric pressure, and variations are more likely to occur in temperature and composition.

COMPLETE SOLUBILITY IN BOTH LIQUID AND SOLID STATES The upper line is the liquidus line, the lowest temperature for which the material is 100% liquid. Above the liquidus, the two materials form a uniform-chemistry liquid solution. The lower line, denoting the highest temperature at which the material is completely solid, is known as a solidus line. Below the solidus, the materials form a solid-state solution in which the two types of atoms are uniformly distributed throughout a single crystalline lattice. Between the liquidus and solidus is a freezing range, a two-phase region where liquid and solid solutions coexist.

Binary Phase Diagram CONDITIONS FOR UNLIMITED SOLID SOLUBILITY 1. Size factor: The atoms or ions must be of similar size, with no more than a 15% difference in atomic radius. 2. Crystal structure: The materials must have the same crystal structure; otherwise, there is some point at which a transition occurs from one phase to a second phase with a different structure. 3. Valence: The ions must have the same valence; otherwise, the valence electron difference encourages the formation of compounds rather than solutions.

INTERPRETATION OF PHASE DIAGRAMS In a phase diagram, for each point of temperature and composition, following three pieces of information can be obtained: 1. The phases present: The stable phases can be determined by simply locating the point of consideration on the temperaturecomposition mapping and identifying the region of the diagram in which the point appears. 2. The composition of each phase: If the point lies in a two-phase region, a tie-line must be constructed. A tie-line is simply an isothermal (constant-temperature) line drawn through the point of consideration, terminating at the boundaries of the single phase regions on either side. The compositions where the tie-line intersects the neighbouring single-phase regions will be the compositions of those respective phases in the twophase mixture.

3. Amount of each phase: 1. The tie line is constructed across the two-phase region at the temperature of the alloy. 2. The overall alloy composition is located on the tie line. 3. The fraction of one phase is computed by taking the length of tie line from the overall alloy composition to the phase boundary for the other phase, and dividing by the total tie line length.

4. The fraction of the other phase is determined in the same manner.

PARTIAL SOLID SOLUBILITY Many materials do not exhibit complete solubility in the solid state. Each is often soluble in the other up to a certain limit or saturation point, which varies with temperature.

INSOLUBILITY If one or both of the components are totally insoluble in the other, the diagrams will also reflect this phenomenon. The following Figure illustrates the case where component A is completely insoluble in component B in both the liquid and solid states.

The three-phase reaction that occurs upon cooling through 183C can be written as:

The leadtin phase diagram

Figure given below summarizes the various forms of three-phase reactions that may occur in engineering systems, along with the generic description of the reaction shown below the figures. These include the eutectic, peritectic, monotectic, and syntectic reactions, where the suffix -ic denotes that at least one of the three phases in the reaction is a liquid. If the same prefix appears with an -oid suffix, the reaction is of a similar form but all phases involved are solids. Two such reactions are the eutectoid and the peritectoid. The separation eutectoid produces an extremely fine two-phase mixture, and the combination peritectoid reaction is very sluggish since all of the chemistry changes must occur within (usually crystalline) solids. If components A and B form a compound, and the compound cannot tolerate any deviation from its fixed atomic ratio, the product is known as a stoichiometric intermetallic compound and it appears as a single vertical line in the diagram


Steel, composed primarily of iron and carbon, is the most important of the engineering metals. For this reason, the ironcarbon equilibrium diagram assumes special importance. We normally are not interested in the carbon-rich end of the Fe-C phase diagram and this is why the full ironcarbon (Fe-C) diagram is not normally encountered, but we examine the Fe-Fe3C diagram as part of the Fe-C binary phase Diagram. In the Figure, stoichiometric intermetallic compound, Fe-Fe3C, is used to terminate the carbon range at 6.67 wt% carbon. Immediately after solidification, iron forms a BCC structure called -ferrite. On further cooling, the iron transforms to a FCC structure called , or austenite. Finally, iron transforms back to the BCC structure at lower temperatures; this structure is called , or ferrite. Both of the ferrites ( and ) and the austenite are solid solutions of interstitial carbon atoms in iron.

The fourth single phase is the stoichiometric intermetallic compound which goes by the name cementite, or ironcarbide. Like most intermetallics, it is quite hard and brittle, and care should be exercised in controlling the structures in which it occurs. Alloys with excessive amounts of cementite, or cementite in undesirable form, tend to have brittle characteristics. Because cementite dissociates prior to melting, its exact melting point is unknown, and the liquidus line remains undetermined in the high-carbon region of the diagram.

The main microscopic constituents of iron and steel are as follows: 1. Austenite 2. Ferrite 3. Cementite 4. Pearlite AUSTENITE is a solid solution of free carbon (ferrite) and iron in gamma iron. On heating the steel, after upper critical temperature, the formation of structure completes into austenite which is hard, ductile and non-magnetic. It is able to dissolve large amount of carbon. It is formed when steel contains carbon up to 1.8% at 1130C. On cooling below 723C, it starts transforming into pearlite and ferrite. Austenitic steels cannot be hardened by usual heat treatment methods and are non-magnetic. FERRITE contains very little or no carbon in iron. It is the name given to pure iron crystals which are soft and ductile. The slow cooling of low carbon steel below the critical temperature produces ferrite structure. Ferrite does not harden when cooled rapidly. It is very soft and highly magnetic. CEMENTITE is a chemical compound of carbon with iron and is known as iron carbide (Fe3C). Cast iron having 6.67% carbon is possessing complete structure of cementite. Free cementite is found in all steel containing more than 0.83% carbon. It increases with increase in carbon % as reflected in Fe-C Equilibrium diagram. It is extremely hard. The hardness and brittleness of cast iron is believed to be due to the presence of the cementite. It decreases tensile strength. This is formed when the carbon forms definite combinations with iron in form of iron carbides which are extremely hard in nature. The brittleness and hardness of cast iron is mainly controlled by the presence of cementite in it. It is magnetic below 200C.

PEARLITE is a eutectoid alloy of ferrite and cementite. It occurs particularly in medium and low carbon steels in the form of mechanical mixture of ferrite and cementite in the ratio of 87:13. Its hardness increases with the proportional of pearlite in ferrous material. Pearlite is relatively strong, hard and ductile, whilst ferrite is weak, soft and ductile. It is built up of alternate light and dark plates. These layers are alternately ferrite and cementite. When seen with the help of a microscope, the surface has appearance like pearl, hence it is called pearlite. Hard steels are mixtures of pearlite and cementite while soft steels are mixtures of ferrite and pearlite. As the carbon content increases beyond 0.2% in the temperature at which the ferrite is first rejected from austenite drop until, at or above 0.8% carbon, no free ferrite is rejected from the austenite. This steel is called eutectoid steel, and it is the pearlite structure in composition.

P-135, Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology

SUBATOMIC STRUCTURE All matters are made up of atoms containing a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons and surrounding clouds, or orbits, of electrons. Both electrons and protons are electrically charged, the charge magnitude being 1.62*10^-19 C, which is negative in sign for electrons and positive for protons; neutrons are electrically neutral. Masses for these subatomic particles are infinitesimally small; protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, 1.67*10^-27 kg, which is significantly larger than that of an electron, 9.11*10^-31 kg. The atomic mass of a specific atom may be expressed as the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. The number of protons in the nucleus determines whether an atom will be metallic, nonmetallic, or semi-metallic. An atom with a balanced charge has the same number of electrons as protons; when there are too many or too few electrons, the atom is called an ion. An excess of electrons results in a negatively charged atom, referred to as an anion, while too few electrons results in a positively charged atom, called a cation. The number of electrons in the outermost orbit of an atom determines the chemical affinity of that atom for other atoms. These outer-shell electrons are called valence electrons.