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Presentation on Agriculture in Semi-Arid Zone

Israel is a small country with 20,770 Sq. k.m area Population is about 7.10 Million Average Annual Rainfall ranges from 30 mm to 620 mm Soils grouped into three main categories Black/Heavy, Medium and light soils Length of the Country is 420 k.m and width from 20 k.m. to 116 Km There are Three religions 1. Jews 2. Muslim 3. Christianity The total population the Jews are 80%, Muslims 10% and Christians 10%

The total land 4,78,000 Hectors. Out of it the cultivable land is only 2,88,000 Hectors. 61% of the land is Irrigated and 39% of the land rain fed 27% Fruit gardens, 24% Vegetables, 48% Wheat and 1% others Languages are Ebro and Arabic Per capita income $!! 24000 Retirement age for male is 67 years and for Female 65 years Every boy should work in military for minimum 3 years and Girl for 2 years after attaining 18 years of age. This is compulsory ISRAEL got Independence in 1948.

Land holdings
Private owned lands about 10% Leased lands family units Leased lands coop. farms About 90% of the lands leased by the Government All leases are Long leased 50 years Lease land farming / cultivation by groups called Moshav comprising of family units

Land Holdings (contd.)

Leased lands also cultivated by Kibutz on cooperative/collective farming basis Minimum land holdings 5 to10 ha. Fragmentation / division of land holdings and sale not allowed (Sale of lease rights permitted)

Practices in agriculture
Selection of crops decided by farmers themselves individually Supply of inputs and marketing of agri. Produce on collective basis Irrigation 80% of cultivation through re-cycling of waste water Re-cycled water used for field crops while fresh water used for irrigating vegetable and fruit crops Government provides irrigation water in prescribed quantities according to land holding

Team visited Lachish Experimental Station (Semi Arid Research Station) near Tel Aviv Average Annual Rainfall of the area 300 mm Research being conducted to study (a) effect of recycle water on various types of soils, crop growth and yield (b) to analyse the results in the Lab. (c)To study water requirement of various crops (d) Transfer of technology Lab to Land (e) Computerised testing system

Field visit observations

Semi-Arid Zone (Dead Sea Area)

Interacted with members of Moshav (Neot Hakikar Studied the effect of salinity on crop production, yield & quality Major crops grown in the area are Dates, Sweet Pepper & Water Melons While Dates are grown in open fields, Sweet pepper and watermelon are grown in controlled conditions by way of low-cost poly houses and shade-nets

Semi-Arid Zone (Dead Sea Area) contd

Irrigation by de-salinated water through fully computerised drip system Cost of cultivation is partly met through government grant and private sources Facilities for grading, packing and marketing for exporting to Europe

Learning Points
Use of high technology in agriculture to increase production and ensure quality produce for export Optimum utilisation of available water resources depending upon soil conditions Due to scanty rainfall maximum use of recycled water Expected returns on produce decides the types of crops to be grown

Learning Points (contd.)

Minimum land holding & prohibition on fragmentation by government ensures viability for using high cost technology Cultivation of crops is possible in desert and saline soils using appropriate technology Farmers are very professional and commercial in their approach

Learning Points (contd.)

Group farming through Moshavs and Kibutz ensures advantages of scale in marketing Innovations in use of new technology Fertigation through drip system and mulching Agriculture occupies same importance as other commercial production

Micro Irrigation systems in Israel
Visit to NAAN DAN JAIN on 9 March 2011

Rainfall data of Israel

North region .. 720 mm Mountain region .. 550 mm South region 30 mm.

In Flood Irrigation, 50% water is wasted In sprinkler, wastage is only 25% In Drip, wastage, only 1% and income to farmers is 3 times more


Two separate Kibutz Kibutz NAAN founded in 1937 Kibutz DAN founded in 1970 Both merged in 2001as NAAN DAN In 2007, Jain Irrigations acquired 50% share of NAAN DAN

Jain Irrigation Model

Holistic and Integrated Model Virtuous and self sustaining cycle consisting R & D, Hi-tech Agri inputs, credit and marketing One stop shop for farmer

1. Grower - In 1000ha. Vegetables and Plantations cultivated using micro irrigation Drip & Sprinkler 2. Industry - Manufacturing Irrigation systems & Consultancy 3. Extension service 20% staff are agronomists and engaged in extn. 4. R & D Updating with field data & continuous improvement

5% of National Budget earmarked for R&D The Companys lab in Jalgaon (India) with 1000 agronomists engaged in Tissue Culture (Banana) Major producer & exporter of onions ISO 9001-2000 certified organisation

Major Product Divisions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Agriculture Micro Irrigation Pipes Sheet Food Solar energy

Producer of extensive range of sprinklers and drip systems Used for irrigation, fustigation, fumigation and fogging Offers comprehensive solutions for Agri and landscape irrigation Clients Chile, Argentina, Poland, China, Turkmenistan, Brazil, India, etc.

Brinjal Cultivation in the Kibutz

Grafted planting material Drip irrigation Poly sheets used in the tunnel One more ratoon crop Ave. yield 50 MT per ha. (Ratoon 80%) Harvesting done manually labour imported from Thailand

Wheat Cultivation
Done using High velocity drip irrigation (covers 400 m. radius from single sprout) Further, reduces water requirement by 50% Recycled water Fustigation Entire crop is used as fodder for cattle

Potato cultivation
Drip and sprinkler systems are used Because of uniform formation of tubers, use of sprinklers gives more yield Water requirement reduced to 50% for farrow irrigation Hydroponic vegetables also produced using fresh water

Visit to a Dairy Farm in Israel Moshav Nirbanim & Volcani Centre of Dairy Research

Dairy in Israel is fully regulated by the govt. All dairies are stall dairies The breed used for milk production is Israeli-Freisson, which is developed indigenously Moshav is a rural settlement of farmers engaged in comprehensive agriculture. Within the settlement they have Common Service Facilities on payment basis

Israeli herds are managed by Cattle Breeders Association This association maintains a computerized databank of each animal to track genealogy, milk yield, fat content and quality through light sensors and flow meters The average production of milk is 11000 to 12000 liters per animal per annum , which is the highest in the world

Cows are not allowed to calve between April and July to avoid the lactation loss during the warm months Cows are artificially inseminated through hundred percent selection method Animals are kept in big herds comprising of minimum hundred cows and equal number of heifers to facilitate continuation of milk production and optimum use of infrastructure A cow producing less than 18 litre per day is culled

Banking Support to Dairy

Since the land in Israel is government owned and given to farmers on 50 years lease basis , hence the banking support to farmer is not available due to lack of collaterals Govt. while establishing the rural settlements at the initial stage gives grants and long term loans for creating infrastructure

Every herd uses the feed through a system software centrally developed by the Cattle Breeders Association for each category of animal Each calf is fed mothers milk(Cholustrum) for 4 days and separation feed through buckets from day one and calves are not allowed to have mothers milk directly The male calves are segregated in 2 categories one for breeding and one for meat purpose depending upon their morphology, genealogy etc and accordingly reared

Within the Moshav , there are separate farmers for rearing breeding bulls, heifers and mich animals In order to have optimum milk yield in summer , a cow has to visit milk parlor 7 times in a day to have shower and cleaning besides three times milking The milking is done through the automatic milking machines where sensors identify the animals , flow meters record its milk yield including fat , protein and lactose content.

Another device known as Aflitab is used to measure fat , protein , lactose and electrolytes Milk is produced through quota system allotted by the government body and milk is procured and processed by an agency duly approved by the govt. No raw milk is sold to the public. All procured milk is pasteurized, processed and marketed as per the govt. policy The advanced research in dairy by the Volcanic Centre run by MOA & RDalso developed 1 belt with ultra sound technology applied on the neck of the animal which measures the feeding time and rumination time to know the health condition of the animal

1 sensor which is attached to the front right foot of each cow measures the steps it takes during the day and rest time of the animal , which facilitates to know the onset of heating period in an animal to effectively inseminate at right time to reduce the dry period. A balloon is injected in the body of the cow to know the breathing rate , temperature and stomach condition of the animal. During milking time , music therapy is introduced to optimize the yield

After milking , the udder is properly cleaned with antiseptic to avoid mastitis. Similarly the feet of animal is washed and cleaned with disinfectant lotion to avoid FMD The animals are housed in open herds duly covered with well ventilated system and have 3 platforms on the left side and 3 platforms on the right side besides a central platform for movement of man , machine and material The feed of animal comprises of dry fodder , green fodder and concentrates grown and processed in-house


Date of Visit : 13 March 2011 Place of Visit : OHalo and Kennerat Guide: Mr Gabriel Bacher, Weitz Centre Location: 156 km north of Tel Aviv, on the banks of river Jordan and Lake Galilee, 350 mt below sea level Climate: Sub-tropical to Temperature

The team proceeded to northern part of Israel to study the agriculture in the north, which is called Jordan valley. The valley is situated along the river Jordan. The valley from north to south is divided vertically between Israel and Jordan. The Lake Galilee is situated which provides only fresh water source to the agriculture in north and drinking water needs of the entire Israel

Topography: Hills, Valley & Slopes Annual Precipitation: 720 mm Temperature: 0 to 39 C Relative Humidity: Normal to Less Snowfall: During Winter Occurrence of Rainfall: October to April Sources of Irrigation: Fresh Water from Lake Galilee

Types of Agriculture: Horticultural Crops Types of Irrigation: Drip & Sprinkler Main Crops: Mango, Banana, Citrus & Dates Other Crops: Wheat & Mustard

Technical Highlights: Mango High Density Regular Bearer Grafted Planting Materials Use of Drip Irrigation: Observations: Control Soil Erosion, Conserve Soil Moisture, Increase Productivity and Nutrient Uptake

Tissue Culture Planting Materials Black Shed nets to reduce radiation of sun shine Drip Irrigation & Wrapping of bunches with Poly Sheets Observations-Maximising Nutrient Uptake, Reduce potassium fixation in soil, hastening harvesting .however it lacks good flavor


Date Palm- Sprinkler Irrigation, Hybrid Side Sucker Observations- Early Fruiting, Optimum Nutrient Uptake, High Productivity and Quality next to dates of dead sea area Plant Population: 14 per 1000 sq mt Yield: 150 kg per Adult Plant per year (15-20 kg per year from 3rd year)

Growing vegetables has become an art in Israel - based on choosing the right hybrid varieties, fertilizers and irrigation methods, selecting greenhouse covers designed for specific crops and employing innovative growing tools, harvest equipment and post-harvest treatments. In recent years farmers have also been seeking profitable market. Examples are a big increase in production of organic produce, as well as specialties like herbs and selected mushrooms. Vegetables account for about 17 percent of Israel's total crop output value and exported. Technologically advanced methods are employed, including soil-less greenhouses with climate control systems. While tomatoes growing in the open field reach yields of up to 80 tons per hectare, an average 200-300 tons can be grown in greenhouses under controlled climatic conditions. Israel exploits the sunshine and high temperatures to grow high-quality vegetables during the off-seasons of competitors abroad. In the last few years varieties of some crops, notably tomatoes and melons, have been adapted for growth in the desert with saline water irrigation. These are marketed under the brand name "Desert Sweet."

Flowers are Israel's leading agricultural export (29 percent). Individual farms average less than a hectare and together occupy less than 2 percent of crop-producing land. These units are small by international standards and have hitherto been highly profitable, though depreciation of the shekel against the European currencies has sharply reduced income and profitability in recent years. The expertise of the farmers, backed by private and government research and development and field service supervision, contributes to the high quality and wide variety of flowers (over 100). These include cut flowers such as roses, gypsophila, carnations, solidago, limonium, gerbera, anemone, and ornamental plants.
The varieties include 'summer flowers' from Europe, acclimatized so that they can be picked and exported during Europe's winter season, and flowers indigenous to the southern hemisphere. Although the number of flower growers has fallen drastically in recent years, production has risen steadily to around 1.4 billion flowers a year.

This is due to technological advances and an intensive system of production. About half of all the area devoted to flower growing consists of advanced, computerized greenhouses and some 12 percent of the area is under protective netting. Today, some of the more innovative growers are connected on-line with the auctions and follow transactions in real time. Some are selling their flowers directly to buyers in the flower auctions of the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and elsewhere. Nevertheless, marketing as well as shipping are handled by a new private company - Aviv - and by the longestablished joint government-growers export company Agrexco, which has special air and sea terminals in Israel and Europe and ensures quality and timely arrival at the markets. The Flower Production and Marketing Board provide each grower with daily results of sales.

Ornamental plants are a rapidly growing industry. In 2000 about $120 million worth of scores of different ornamental plants, either as rooted or un-rooted cuttings, or in pots in various stages of growth, was exported worldwide, predominantly to Europe. Most of these plants serve as the starting materials for European house- and garden plant nurseries, who may gain a season or even a year (and save a lot of energy) by having the initial stages of growth carried out in Israel's warmer climate. Much of this industry is based on personto-person contractual arrangements. Once a distant second to citrus, export of flowers and ornamental plants now holds first place. With continuing R&D investment, export sales are likely to continue growing.

Lessons from Israel's water sector

Is expensive, mainly recycled water: partially purified sewage water and rain- reservoir water.. Out of total land area of 28,000 km2.50% is semi- arid


Western wall
This is most sacred site for Jews all over the world. During the Othman era the wall gas become is pilgrimage the desistance for the Jews, who walled over the destruction of the Temple on the year. This is the part of Great wall surrendered the mountain of the temple.

City of Nazareth
This is located in the Galilee Region. The Christians, Muslims and Jews are living in this city with 60000 habitants. This is one of the few cities in ISRAEL with mixed population of 3 religions. The city is serving as an urban centre for the rural villages surrounding. The church of Annunciation was established in this place. According to the Christian tradition, it is the house of Virgin Mary and was the Mary of the birth of Jesus. Its domed roof is of 59.5 meters high and 17.80 wide.

City of Tel Aviv Jafa

It is located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the big cities of ISRAEL. It is economic centre and Head quarters of the commercial banks. This also an international tourism centers.

Dead Sea
It is a part of border between ISRAEL and JORDAN. The saltiness of the Dead Sea water is highest up all seas in the world with 32% saltiness. The cosmetics industries located here. It is deepest place on the earth. It is one of the Tourist Place. Here the date plants Watermelon and vegetable crops are growing.