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Definition Kinds / Classifications Subject-Verb Agreement Tenses Modes Moods Conditionals Direct and Reported Speech

Thank You.


Verbs are words that connote action or a state of being.

Kinds according to form

Regular Verbs -there is no change in spelling. Example: kick kicks/kicked Irregular Verbs -there is a change in spelling. (when forming the past) Example: run - ran

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Transitive verbs: express action that is performed on something Ex: The girl ate the apple pie. (S-TV-DO) The girl gave the boy an apple pie. (S-TV-IO-DO) Intransitive verbs: verbs that do not take direct objects. Ex: The girl danced. (S-IV)


Action Verbs
Verbs that express action, or tell what action is taking place. Ex: The boy jumped. The person clapped. The baby winks at me. The children sings.

Stative/Non-continuous Verbs
Verbs that describe a condition or state rather than action. Examples: Feelings & desire: like, love, hate, fear, prefer Appearance: look, seem, appear Possession: have, own, belong Perception: see, hear, smell Ideas: think, believe, agree, know, understand

Linking Verbs
Verbs that express condition, or join the subject with a word or words in the predicate. They do not express any action.

Examples: is, am, are, was, were, appear, seem, look, sound, taste, smell, feel, grow, become, stay, remain
Ex: The girl is happy.

Auxiliary Verbs
Verbs that help the main verb express its meaning. VERB PHRASE: Aux Verb + Main Verb Examples: Be Verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, been Have: has, have, had Modal: can, could, must, may, might, shall, should, will, would Do: do, does, did Ex: The girl will bake an apple pie for the boy. The boy is going at the girls house.

Modal Auxiliaries
Modal will Use -future tense verb forms -express definite intent or decision -indicates ability to do something Example I will watch a movie when I get home.


I can reach my dreams.

*black font: modal *red font: main verb

may & might

-indicate possibilities / uncertain events -indicate permission to do something -indicate necessity / obligation -express certainty about an assumption

The girl might give you a pie.

You may go to the your room now.

You must wear proper uniform. If the girl is not here, she must be with the boy.


Modal should

Use -indicates something appropriate and advisable - for wished for, hypothetical, nonfactual situations. -express habitual action in the past that is no longer repeated

Example The girl should study harder.

could & would used to

I wish I could buy a pair of shoes. I used to watch cartoons.

Gerunds - formed by adding ing to the base form of a verb: think-ing, study-ing - function like nouns Ex: Reading is one of the girls hobbies.

Infinitives - formed by adding to to the base form of a verb: to work, to get - may function like nouns Ex: The boy goes to work every day.

Subject-Verb Agreement

Subject and Verb must agree in number.

A singular subject takes a singular verb; a plural subject takes a plural verb. Examples: The girl goes to school. The girls go to school.

Two or more subjects connected by or or nor; the verb agrees with the nearest subject. Example: The girls or the boy is eating the pie.

Subjects joined by either-or or neither-nor; the verb agrees with the nearest subject. Example: Either the girl or the boys goes to the party.

The pronouns each, either, neither, one, everyone, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, everybody, and much are singular and will require a singular verb.
Example: Everyone in the class is going on a trip. The pronouns several, few, both, many, and others are plural and will require a plural verb.

Example: Several of my friends work in the corporate world.

The pronouns some, any, none, all, and most may be either singular or plural. (depending on the prepositional phrase)
Examples: Some of the cake was eaten. All of the contestants were present. Personal pronouns you and I take the plural form of the verb. Example: Are you happy to see the results of the examinations?

Two or more subjects joined by and take plural verb.

Example: The girls and the boys are eating the apple pie.

Two subjects separated by and but refer to the same person or thing take singular verb. Examples: Ham and egg is my breakfast. My sister and best friend is very supportive.

Collective nouns usually take a singular verb form.

Example: The class is participating in the discussion. Titles of books, movies, novels, etc. are treated as singular and take a singular verb. Example: The Three Idiots is my favorite foreign movie.

Adjectives used as subjects are plural and take plural verbs. Example: The poor are to be helped.

Pronouns in the relative clause require verbs that depend on the number of the nouns. Example: One of the boys who were asked to testify refused to talk.

The name of a firm and company takes singular verb.

Example: Ramirez Brothers is a law firm. Sums of money, periods of time, measurement, weight and distance taken as a unit or one entity takes singular verb. Example: My one hundred pesos was stolen. Twenty years is the maximum sentence for that offence.

Words that indicate portions (percent, fraction, part, majority) may take a singular or plural verb depending on the noun of the of phrase.
Example: Fifty percent of the pie has been eaten.
Fifty percent of the pies have been eaten.

The expression a number of takes a plural verb while the number of takes singular verb. Example: A number of students were absent.

Intervening phrases introduced by together with, as well as, along with do not affect the number of the subject and the verb.
Example: The mother, together with her children, is going to the mall.

For sentences beginning with here or there, the verb agrees with the subject that usually follows it.
Example: Here is your key.

For sentences having a positive subject and a negative subject, the verb agrees with the positive subject. Example: The president not the faculty members decides on the matter. Special nouns: Plural in form singular in meaning take a singular verb. Example: Physics is my favorite subject.

Special nouns: Plural in form and plural in meaning take plural verb. Example: The pants are in the cabinet.
Abstract nouns take singular verbs. Example: Courage helps us overcome fear. Arithmetical operations take singular verb for they reflect a single numerical entity on both sides of the equation. Example: One plus one is two.

Show the time of an action, condition or state of being. (present, past, future)

Refers to the internal structure of the action occurring at any time. (simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive)

Principal parts of the verb

The simple (base) form: take (w/o the inf. to) The s form (-s/-es): takes, goes, kicks The past form: took (irreg), kicked (reg) The present progressive: taking The past participle: taken, kicked

Simple: complete without further development a. Present (complete without change) b. Past (complete and remote) c. Future (prediction, not factual) Progressive: on going actions, incomplete, event of a temporary nature Perfect: completed action, prior, related to some other point in time Perfect Progressive: on going action that will be completed at a definite time, prior and incompleteness


Simple Present Tense: Use

Immediate facts/events that happen Example: The sun sets in the west. The students talk about faith. Habitual actions/routines/recurring actions Example: We go to church every Sunday. I go to work every weekdays.

General timeless truths Example: Water freezes at 0 degrees centigrade.

Simple Present Tense: Use

To indicate states Example: I know Mr. Jackson. In the subordinate clause of time or condition when the main clause contains a future-time verb. Example: After he finishes work, he will do the errands.

Simple Present Tense: Use

Express future (when a scheduled event is involved usually with a future-time adverbial) Example: I have a meeting next Monday at that time. Present speech acts (where the action is accomplished in the speaking of it) Example: I resign from the commission.

Simple Present Tense: Use

Present event/action (usually in sporting events or demonstration/procedures of some sort) Example: Here comes the pitch; Smith swings and misses.

Conversational historic present (refers to certain past events in narration) Example: So he stands up in the boat and waves his hand to catch our attention.

Simple Past Tense: Use

Definite single completed action/event in the past. Example: I attended a meeting last Monday. Habitual or repeated action in the past Example: : It rained almost every month last year.

With states in the past Example: He appeared to be a creative genius.

Simple Past Tense: Use

An event with duration that applied in the past with the implication that it no longer applies in the present. Example: Mrs. Mojares taught at PUP for two years. Social distancing Example: : Did you want to sit down and stay awhile?

Simple Past Tense: Use

Imaginative conditional in the subordinate clause (referring to present time) Example: If he took better care of himself, he wouldnt be absent so often.

Simple Future Tense: Use

An action to take place at some definite future time. Example: John will take the bar exam next month.

A future habitual action or state Example: After October, John will take the 6:00 bus every weekdays.

Simple Future Tense: Use

In the main (result) clause of future conditionals Example: If you go, you will be sorry. A situation that may obtain in the present and will obtain in the future but with some future termination in sight (where the limitation on the event is suggested by the subordinate clause) Example: John will live in Batangas until he improves his accent.

Simple Tenses
Present Use -facts or events that happen -habits or routines -general truth Sing s-form Plu base form Past -actions that began and ended at a particular time in the past -d/-ed irregular was/were (be verb) I washed my clothes last night. Future -refers to future plans, predictions, and willingness will/shall + base form



The sun rises in the east.

I will do my assignments later.

Progressive Tenses

Present Progressive Tense: Use

Activity in progress Example: John is attending the meeting now. Extended present (action will end and therefore lacks the permanence of the simple present tense) Example: I am studying linguistics at PNU.

Present Progressive Tense: Use

A temporary situation Example: John is living with his parents. Repetition in a series of similar ongoing actions Example: John is dribbling the ball around the backyard. A change in progress Example: She is becoming more and more like her mother.

Present Progressive Tense: Use

Express future (when event is planned; usually with a future-time adverbial) Example: John is coming tomorrow. Emotional comment on present habit (usually cooccurring with frequency adverbs always or forever) Example: He is forever acting up at these affairs.

Past Progressive Tense: Use

An action in progress at a specific point in the past Example: John was walking to school at 6:45 this morning.

Past action simultaneous with some other event that is usually stated in simple past Example: John was doing his homework when the phone rang.

Past Progressive Tense: Use

Repetition of some ongoing past action Example: John was coughing all night long. Social distancing (which comes from the past tense and the tentativeness of the progressive aspect) Example: I was hoping you could lend me 1,000 pesos.

Future Progressive Tense: Use

An action that will be in progress at a specific time in the future Example: John will be taking the test at 8:00 AM tomorrow.

Duration of some future action Example: John will be working on his thesis for the next two years.

Progressive Tenses
Use -actions that are happening now or at a certain point at the present.

-focuses on the progress of the action in the past; not its completion

-will be in progress in the future -action will be interrupted by another action. -action taking place at the same time as another action will + be + v-ing We will be cleaning the house when you come.

Form Example

is/am/are + v-ing was/were+v-ing We are cleaning We were the house now. cleaning the house when you came.

Perfect Tenses

Present Perfect Tense: Use

A situation that began at a prior point in time and continues into the present Example: I have been a teacher since 1967.

An action occurring or not occurring at an unspecified prior time that has current relevance Example: I have already seen that movie.

Present Perfect Tense: Use

A very recently completed action (often with just) Example: John has just finished his homework.

An action that occurred over a period of time and that is completed at the moment of speaking Example: The value of Johns house has doubled in the last five years.

Present Perfect Tense: Use

With verbs in subordinate clauses of time or condition Example: If you have done your homework, you can watch TV.

Past Perfect Tense: Use

An action completed in the past prior to some other past event or time Example: John had already left before I could tell him about the problem. Imaginative conditional in the subordinate clause (referring to past time) Example: If John had studied harder, he would have passed the exam.

Future Perfect Tense: Use

A future action that will be completed prior to a specific future time Example: John will have finished all his work by 5:00 PM.

A state or accomplishment that will be completed in the future prior to some other future time or event Example: At the end of the summer, the Smiths will have been married for 10 years.

Perfect Tenses
Present Use -uninterrupted actions that started in the past and continue to the present has/have + past participle Past -action that was completed before another time or action in the past. had + past participle Future -will be completed before a time at a more distant point in the future. will/shall + have + past participle



We have cleaned the house already.

We had cleaned By the time you when you rang. get home, we will have cleaned the house.

Perfect Progressive Tenses

Present Perfect Progressive Tense: Use

A situation or habit that began in the past (recent or distant) and that continues up to the present (and possibly into the future) Example: John has been going out with Jane.

An action in progress that is not yet completed Example: John has been reading a book.

Present Perfect Progressive Tense: Use

A state that changes over time Example: The students have been getting better and better. An evaluative comment on something observed over time triggered by current evidence Example: John has been drinking again.

Past Perfect Progressive Tense: Use

An action or habit taking place over a period of time in the past prior to some other past event or time Example: John had been working hard, so his doctor told him to take a vacation.

A past action in progress that was interrupted by a more recent past action Example: John had been planning to vacation in Bohol, but changed his mind after receiving the brochure on Palawan.

Past Perfect Progressive Tense: Use

An ongoing action or state that becomes satisfied by some other event Example: John had been wanting to see the movie, so he was pleased when he won the tickets.

Future Perfect Progressive Tense: Use

Durative or habitual action that is taking place in the present and that will continue into the future up until or through a specific future time Example: On Christmas Eve we will have been living in the same house for 20 years.

Perfect Progressive Tenses

Present Use -action that started in the past and continue to the present Past -an action in progress before a time or another action in the past. Future -will be in progress before a time or another action in the future will/shall + have + been + v-ing By the time you arrive, we will have been cleaning the house for sometime.

Form Example

has/have + been had + been + v+ v-ing ing We have been We had been cleaning the cleaning the house for hours. house when you rang.


Active Voice
-the subject is the doer/agent/performer of the action -the object is the receiver of the action

Sentence Pattern: S-V-O-other words Example: The loggers cut the trees.

Passive Voice
-the subject receives the action -by-phrase (the doer of the action is part of the phrase) -the focus is on the action -the agent may not be mentioned - Verb used: to be form + a past participle
Sentence Pattern: S-Aux/LV-MV-By Phrase-other words

Example: The trees were cut by the loggers.

The way a speaker or a writer presents his assertion.

-expresses a fact, an opinion, a statement -may be declarative and interrogative sentence Example: The blessing of the building will be tomorrow.

-expresses a desire, a demand, a situation which is not happening. -three forms of verbs used: a. Present to past: Roland wishes that he were here. b. Past to past perfect: If returned earlier, I would have seen the girl. c. Future to would/could: I wish you could come.

-expresses either a command or a request -always in the present tense form

Example: Come to the conference earlier.


Zero Conditional Tense

Denotes general truth or facts Used for instructions

If + simple present (if Simple present (main clause) clause) If you press the button the computer turns off.

1st Conditional Tense

Used in offers, suggestions, warnings and threats Expresses possibility that an action will take place if a condition is met. Denotes a high probability of an action taking place. If + simple present (if clause) If we hurry Future (main clause) we will catch the bus.

2nd Conditional Tense

Expresses suppositions Denotes unreal conditions or situations Denotes a low probability of an action taking place

If + simple past (if clause) If I were 18 again

would/could + base form (main clause) I would go on a world tour.

3rd Conditional Tense

Refers to events or situations in the past that cannot be changed Denotes irreversible situations Used to express situations contrary to fact If + past perfect (if clause) If you had called me would/could/might + have + past participle (main clause) I would have come.

Direct and Reported Speech

Direct Speech
Repeats, quotes the exact words spoken. Places the words spoken between quotation marks () No changes in the words spoken Example: John: There is an elephant outside the window. Jen: John said, There is an elephant outside the window.

Reported Speech
Usually used to talk about the past, so normally, the tense of the words spoken is changed that is used to introduce reported words. Quotation marks are not used Example: John: I saw him. Jen: John said, I saw him. Jane: John said that he had seen him.

Change of Tense
Simple present Present progressive Simple past Present perfect Past perfect Present perfect prog Past progressive Simple past Past progressive Past perfect Past perfect Past perfect Past perfect prog Past perfect prog

Change of Time and Place

Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week/month/year that day the day before two days before the next/following day in two days time the following week/month/year