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Transmission Basics

What is transmission
To send information between two points Connection between two equipments Termination equipments Baseband Signal processing Multiplexing Coding Physical signal Media Simplex and Duplex

Balanced Unbalanced

OFC Microwave
Terrestrial Satellite

Transmission Basics

Transmit means to issue signals to the network medium Transmission refers to either the process of transmitting or the progress of signals after they have been transmitted

Transmission Basics

Analog and Digital Signaling

On a data network, information can be transmitted via one of two signaling methods: analog or digital

Both types of signals are generated by electrical current, the pressure of which is measured in volts

Transmission Basics (continued)

An analog signal, like other waveforms, is characterized by four fundamental properties: amplitude, frequency,wavelength, and phase

A waves amplitude Frequency Phase

Transmission Basics (continued)

Digital signals composed of

pulses precise positive voltages and zero voltages

Data Modulation
used to modify analog signals in order to make them suitable for carrying data over a communication path

A Transmission System
Transmitter Communication channel Receiver

Transmitter Converts information into signal suitable for transmission Injects energy into communications medium or channel

Telephone converts voice into electric current Modem converts bits into tones

Receiver Receives energy from medium Converts received signal into form suitable for delivery to user

Telephone converts current into voice Modem converts tones into bits

Transmission Basics (continued)

Modem reflects this devices function as a modulator/demodulator

Modulates digital signals into analog signals


Frequency modulation (FM)

Amplitude modulation (AM)

Transmission Basics (continued)

Transmission Direction

Simplex Half-duplex Full-duplex Channel

Transmission Basics (continued)


Allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium

In order to carry multiple signals, the mediums channel is logically separated into multiple smaller channels, or sub channels A device that can combine many signals on a channel, a multiplexer (mux), is required at the sending end of the channel At the receiving end, a demultiplexer (demux) separates the combined signals and regenerates them in their original form


Transmission Basics (continued)

Time division multiplexing (TDM)

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)

WDM enables one fiber-optic connection to carry multiple light signals simultaneously

Using WDM, a single fiber can transmit as many as 20 million telephone conversations at one time

Statistical multiplexing


Transmission Basics (continued)

Transmission Flaws

Noise is any undesirable influence that may degrade or distort a signal Crosstalk occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable Attenuation is the loss of a signals strength as it travels away from its source


Media Characteristics

Five characteristics are considered when choosing a data transfer media:

Throughput Costs Size and Scalability Connectors


Media Characteristics (continued)

Noise Immunity The type of media least susceptible to noise is fiber-optic cable


E1 Transmission
Where does E1 originate ? E1 originates from a telephone where 30 trunk calls to be carried from that switch to another switch. A primary multiplexer is used at the originating switch to build the E1 signal. How does E1 look like physically ? From the DDF of the switch 4 wires will come out which is the E1. Out of these 4 wires, 2 wires are for TX and the remaining 2 wires are for RX. 4 wires can be of two types : i. Two pairs of twisted copper wires (120 ohms balanced) ii.Two pairs of co-axial cables (75 ohms unbalanced)


How we will transport an E1 from obne switch location to another switch location ?
We can transport the E1 as follows : -By using 4 wire twisted/co-axial line (the distance is limited to less then about 500mts.) -By using twisted telephone line and using HDSL modems on both sides, distance of 3.5kms OR 7kms (by using a repeater)(one HDSL modem on the switch side and another HDSL modem on the remote side will be required). -By using microwave links (this is what we do to connect BTS to BSC in GSM). -By using optical fiber links. When we use microwave or optical links of high capacity we will multiplex n no. of E1s (PDH/SDH) and carry n E1s together.


Coaxial Cable

Because of its shielding, most coaxial cable has a high resistance to noise Coaxial cable is more expensive than twisted-pair cable because it requires significantly more raw materials to manufacture The significant differences between the cable types lie in the materials used for their center cores, which in turn influence their impedance Twisted-pair cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires Every two wires are twisted around each other to form pairs and all the pairs are encased in a plastic sheath The number of pairs in a cable varies, depending on the cable type The more twists per inch in a pair of wires, the more resistant the pair will be to all forms of noise The number of twists per meter or foot is known as the twist ratio

Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)

Twisted-pair cable is the most common form of cabling found on DDF, MDF and LAN today It is relatively inexpensive, flexible, and easy to install, and it can span a significant distance before requiring a repeater (though not as far as coax)


Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)

All twisted-pair cable falls into one of two categories: shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)

Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)

Consists of one or more insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath


Fiber-Optic Cable

Contains one or several glass or plastic fibers at its center, or core Data is transmitted via pulsing light sent from a laser or light-emitting diode (LED) through the central fibers Surrounding the fibers is a layer of glass or plastic called cladding


Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)

Fiber cable variations fall into two categories:



Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)

Single-mode fiber

Uses a narrow core (less than 10 microns in diameter) through which light generated by a laser travels over one path, reflecting very little Allows high bandwidths and long distances (without requiring repeaters) Costs too much to be considered for use on typical data networks


Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)

Multimode fiber

Contains a core with a diameter between 50 and 115 microns in diameter; the most common size is 62.5 microns over which many pulses of light generated by a laser or LED travel at different angles It is commonly found on cables that connect a router to a switch or a server on the backbone of a network


Wireless Transmission (continued)

Signal Propagation

Line-of-sight (LOS) Signal Degradation Wireless signals also experience attenuation Wireless signals are also susceptible to noise (often called interference)


Choosing The Right Transmission Medium

Most environments will contain a combination of these factors; you must therefore weigh the significance of each

Areas of high EMI Distance Security Existing infrastructure Growth


Multiplexing Hierarchies and Transport Technologies


PDH=Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

Plesiochronous(in greek) = Almost-Synchronous

PDH is a transmission standard to carry digital telephone signal between Telephone Exchanges. Each PDH signal carries many voice calls. The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems. The term plesiochronous is derived from Greek plesio, meaning near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different parts of the network are almost, but not quite perfectly, synchronised. PDH is now being replaced by Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipment in most telecommunications networks. PDH allows transmission of data streams that are nominally running at the same rate, but allowing some variation on the speed around a nominal rate. By analogy, any two watches are nominally running at the same rate, clocking up 60 seconds every minute. However, there is no link between watches to guarantee they run at exactly the same rate, and it is highly likely that one is running slightly faster than the other.


0 1 2 3 4

Call 1 Call 2 Call 3 Call 4 Call 5


1 Frame

Frame Alignment Word

Call 6
6 7 8

Call 7 Call 8 Call 9 Call 10 Call 11 Call 12 Call 13 Call 14 Call 15




This signal is also called as E1 signal

2.048 Mbit/s FRAME STRUCTURE(32 Time slots)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31


Call 16 Call 17 Call 18 Call 19 Call 20 Call 21 Call 22 Call 23 Call 24 Call 25 Call 26 Call 27 Call 28 Call 29 Call 30


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Bit Rate Input Signal No. of Channels Bit duration No. of bits per Time Slots Time Slot duration No. of TS per frame Frame duration No. of frames per multi frame MF duration Frame alignment 2.048Mbps+-50ppm 64 kbps 30+2 488ns 8 3.9us 32 125us 16 2ms B0011011 B is used in international networks otherwise 0


Line coding
1. Line coding in clock recovery in receiver. Since we do not transmit the clock along with data in the case of E1,E2,E3,E4, line coding becomes essential. 2. Line coding makes capacitive coupling possible in the receiver (as it ensures almost equal number of positive and negative pulses in the transmission, and removes the DC in the line coded signal). No need of DC coupling means, the gain of the AC coupled receiver can be kept as high as needed (without worrying about DC offset voltages). Higher receiver gain means longer transmission distances. 3. Violations in the coding rules in the receiver can be counted as bit errors and approximate bit error can be estimated in the receiver.


Line coding in PDH systems

PDH Signal 64kbps 2.048Mbps 8.448 Mbps 34.368 Mbps Line coding used as per standards AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) HDB3 (High Density Block 3) HDB3 (High Density Block 3) HDB3 (High Density Block 3)

139.364 Mbps CMI (Code Mark Inversion )


PDH bit rates

PDH is a technique to transport digital signals. There are three different standards, for Europe (E), Japan (J) and North America (T). All these standards use a frame of 125s.

The first order in PDH in Europe consists of 32 time slots of 8 bits, the first time slot (TS0) is used for frame synchronization and the 16th (TS16) for signaling. The remaining 30 TS are used for traffic with a bit rate of 64 kbit/s each. This first order is called E1 with a total capacity of 2048 kbit/s (2 Mbit/s) where 1920 kbit/s is for traffic. The 16th TS could also be used for user traffic, then giving total bit rate of 1984 kbit/s. The first order in North America is called T1 and consists of frames with 24 TS of 8 bits and one bit for frame alignment. The total capacity is 1544 kbit/s (1.5Mbit/s) where 1536 kbit/s is used for traffic. Japan uses the same basic frame as North America but it differs from the third level of multiplexing. The basic rate is called J1.


Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

1 2 3 4 5

PDH Hierarchy: 64Kbps 2.048Mbps 8.448Mbps 34.3687Mbps 139.264Mbps

PCM E1 E2 E3 E4

1 voice channel 30 voice channels 120 voice channels 480 voice channels 1920 voice channels


FIG here shows the different rates for these standards.

Level 4

Europe 139,264 kbit/s 139,264 kbit/s x4 34,368 kbit/s 34,368 kbit/s x4 8,448 kbit/s 8,448 kbit/s x4 2,048 kbit/s 2,048 kbit/s ... x 32 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s

North America 139,264 kbit/s 139,264 kbit/s x3 44,736 kbit/s 44,736 kbit/s

Japan 97,728 kbit /s 97,728 kbit /s x3 32,064 kbit/s 32,064 kbit/s x5

x7 6,312 kbit/s 6,312 kbit/s x4 1,544 kbit/s 1,544 kbit/s ... x 24 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s


SDH and SONET are both gradually replacing the higher order of PDH systems. The advantages of higher bandwidth, greater flexibility and scalability make these standards ideal for ATM networks. SONET and SDH are almost equal, but they differ mainly in some parts of the overhead. The basic rate in SONET is the STS-1(OC-1) at 52 Mbit/s. While for SDH the basic rate is the STM-1 at 155 Mbit/s. Lately ITU-T G.707 and G.708 have regulated the STM-0, with 52 Mbit/s and which is 1/3 of the basic STM1. It can allocate one VC3 corresponding to 21 VC12 or 21 VC11 or 7 VC2. Both standards can be used with optical or electrical interfaces. The bit rates defined for SDH are: 155.52 Mbps SDH Level 1 STM 1 622.08 Mbps SDH Level 4 STM 4 2488.32 Mbps SDH Level 16 STM 16 9953.28 Mbps SDH level 64 STM 64 These hierarchy levels are Synchronous. If we have 4 level 1 signals, we simply byte-interleave these signals in a synchronous to get the level 4 signal. So multiplexing/de-multiplexing is easier in SDH

1) 2) 3) 4)

For STM-N (STS-3N) the frame format is shown in Figure below..

N 270 c olum ns N 9

N 261


A pointer U 9 row s

P ayload M OH S

9 SOH: Section Overhead AU: Administration Unit MSOH:MultiplexerSection Overhead RSOH: Repeater Section Overhead

Figure: Standardized SDH/SONET bit rates.

STM-64 STS-192 (OC-192) 10 Gbit/s

STM-16 STS-48 (OC-48) 2.5 Gbit/s SDH ITU-T STM-4 STS-12 (OC-12) 622 Mbit/s SONET USA

STM-1 STS-3 (OC-3) 155 Mbit/s

STM-0 52 Mbit/s

STS-1 (OC-1) 52 Mbit/s

140 Mbit/s

34 Mbit/s PDH ETSI 8 Mbit/s

45 Mbit/s

6 Mbit/s


2 Mbit/s

1.5 Mbit/s


SDH Mapping


The following combination of PDH signals can be carried within an STM-1 (STS-3) frame:
European standard.
1 x 140 Mbit/s 3 x 34 Mbit/s 63 x 2 Mbit/s 1 x 34 Mbit/s + 42 x 2 Mbit/s 2x 34 Mbit/s + 21 x 2 Mbit/s 3 x STS-1 3x 45 Mbit/s 63 x 1.5 Mbit/s 1 x 45 Mbit/s + 42 x 1.5 Mbit/s 2 x 45 Mbit/s + 21 x 1.5 Mbit/s

American standard.

The main feature when introducing SDH, is the controllability of the transport network. The most important changes are: centralised remote control of the network elements, increased utilisation of the physical transport network and shorter delivery time for leased lines. The SDH technology also reduces the multiplexing process.


Why SDH ?
The main feature when introducing SDH, is the controllability of the transport network. The most important changes are: centralised remote control of the network elements, increased utilisation of the physical transport network and shorter delivery time for leased lines. The SDH technology also reduces the multiplexing process. SONET/SDH development was originally driven by the need to transport multiple PDH signals like DS1, E1, DS3 and E3 along with other groups of multiplexed 64 kbit/s pulse-code modulated voice traffic. The ability to transport ATM traffic was another early application. In order to support large ATM bandwidths, the technique of concatenation was developed, whereby smaller SONET multiplexing containers (eg, STS-1) are inversely multiplexed to build up a larger container (eg, STS-3c) to support large data-oriented pipes. SONET/SDH is therefore able to transport both voice and data simultaneously. Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards, such as the PDH standard, or used directly to support either ATM or socalled Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves, but rather as generic and all-purpose transport containers for moving both voice and data. The basic format of an SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its Virtual Container (VC) because it is bandwidth-flexible.


High transmission rates Transmission rates up to 10Gbit/s can be achieved in modern SDH systems. SDH is therefore the most suitable technology for backbones, which can be considered as being the super highways in todays telecommunications networks. Simplified add & drop function Compared with the older PDH systems, it is much easier to extract and insert low-bit rate channels from or into the high-speed bit streams in SDH. It is no longer necessary to demultiplex and then remultiplex the plesiochronous structure, a complex and costly procedure at the best of the times. High availability and capacity matching With SDH, network providers can react quickly and easily to the requirements of their customers. For example, leased lines can be switched in a matter of minutes. The network provider can use standardized network elements that can be controlled and monitored from the central location by means of a telecommunication network management (TMN) system. Reliability Modern SDH networks include various automatic back-up and repair mechanisms to cope with system faults. Failure of a link or an network element does not lead to failure of the entire network which could be a financial disaster for the network provider. These back-up circuits are also monitored by a management system. Future-proof platform for new services Right now, SDH is the ideal platform for services ranging from POTS, ISDN and mobile radio through to data communications (LAN, WAN, etc.), and it is able to handle the very latest services, such as video on demand and digital video broadcasting via ATM that are gradually established Interconnection SDH makes it much easier to setup gateways between different network providers and to SONET systems. The SDH interfaces are globally standardized, making it possible to combine network elements from different manufacturers into a network. The result is a reduction in equipment costs as compared with PDH.


Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell switching protocol (53-byte cell length). ATM provides QoS guarantees. This means that a certain network node notifies ATM that the data or service requested requires a certain level of priority. Figure shows an ATM cell layout.



5 bytes

48 bytes 53 bytes


Three types of ATM services exist: Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC), Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC) and connectionless service (which are similar to SMDS, Switched Multimegabit Digital Service). PVC allows direct connectivity between sites, which guarantee availability of a connection with no call set up procedures. An SVC is created and released dynamically and remains in use only as long as data are being transferred. It provides more flexibility but use signalling procedures. There are three different types of switching: Virtual Path Cross Connect (VP CC), Virtual Channel Cross Connect (VC CC) and AAL2 switching. VC and VP switching is shown in below.


IP (Internet Protocol) is a connectionless protocol that is primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between network devices. The packets can be as small as 20 bytes and as large as 64 Kbytes.
4 Bytes



Type of Service

Total length



Fragment Offset

Time to Live


Header Ckecksum

Source Address

Destination Address

Options (variable)



Addresses are 4 bytes long in version 4 and in version 6 they are 16 bytes long. If IP is used with the higher protocol TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) the smallest packet is 40 bytes long because it has to transmit both headers

ATM over PDH

The ATM cells are mapped onto primary PDH frames as shown in Figure

PHrae+ DF m 3 n PHrae+ DF m 2 n PHrae+ DF m 1 n PHrae DF m n

AM l TCn e

AM l+ TCn1 e

The available capacity for ATM traffic in a primary PDH frame (E1) is 30 time slots, which is equal to 30 bytes. The length of the ATM cell is 53 bytes, thus in an E1 bitstream the maximum ATM cell rate is approximately 4500 cells/s and in one T1 bitstream only a rate of 3600 cells/s can be achieved.


When mapping ATM cells directly onto an SDH frame, one VC4 is used. See Figure.


The next table shows the different cell rates for different SDH/SONET bit rates.

STM STS (OC) Bit Rate Cell Rate STS-1 (OC-1) 52 Mbit/s 117 kcell/s STM-1 STS-3 (OC-3) 155 Mbit/s 350 kcell/s STM-4 STS-12 (OC-12) 622 Mbit/s 1.4 Mcell/s STM-16 STS-48 (OC-48) 2.5 Gbit/s 564 Mcell/s STM-64 STS-192 (OC-192) 10 Gbit/s 2.25 Gcell/s


IP over ATM
Methods for running IP over ATM are:
Classical IP over ATM (also called CLIP). This is the method used in UTRAN. Local Area Network Emulation (also called LANE or LANEmulation). Multiprotocol over ATM (also called MPOA). Multiprotocol Label Switching (Also called MPLS).


Optical Fibers basics



Basics of optical fiber transmission Fiber Types Optical Fiber Impairments Fiber standards Advantages of fiber optic transmission


Basics of optical fiber transmission I

What is an optical fiber?
A glass or plastic fiber that has the ability to guide light along its axis.

A fiber cable consists of three layers:

core, cladding, jacket.

Basics of optical fiber transmission II

Total Internal Reflection: when 1 (1n) c sinn then the light is totally reflected in the core, where 0 nand refractive index of the core 0 ,n1 cladding respectively.


Fiber Types
Multi-Mode: supports hundreds paths for light.

Single-Mode: supports a single path for light


Multi-Mode vs Single-Mode Multi-Mode Modes of light Many Distance Short Bandwidth Low Typical Access Application Single-Mode One Long High Metro, Core


It is the reduction of light power over the length of the fiber.
dB log P 10 ( P in 10 out )

Its mainly caused by scattering. It depends on the transmission frequency. Its measured in dB/km (


Multimode Dispersion
Light rays are transmitted from the source at a variety of angles and arrive at the receiver at different times.

Source 56

Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Light from lasers consists of a range of wavelengths, each of which travels at a slightly different speed. This results to light pulse spreading over time.
Its measured in psec/nm/km.

The chromatic dispersion effects increase for high rates.

Source 57

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Single-mode fibers support two orthogonal polarizations of the transmitted signal. Polarization modes travel with different speeds resulting in dispersion.
ps km

Its measured in

This phenomenon is evident at bit rates of 10Gbps or more


Transmission Bands
Optical transmission is conducted in wavelength regions, called bands. Commercial DWDM systems typically transmit at the C-band
Mainly because of the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA).

Band O E S C L

Wavelength (nm) 1260 1360 1360 1460 1460 1530 1530 1565 1565 1625

Commercial CWDM systems typically transmit at the S, C and L bands. ITU-T has defined the wavelength grid for xWDM transmission
G.694.1 recommendation for DWDM transmission, covering S, C and L bands. G.694.2 recommendation for CWDM transmission, covering O, E, S, C and L bands.

1625 1675


Single Mode Fiber Standards I

ITU-T G.652 standard Single Mode Fiber (SMF) or Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NDSF).
The most commonly deployed fiber (95% of worldwide deployments).

Water Peak Region: it is the wavelength region of approximately 80 nanometers (nm) centered on 1383 nm with high attenuation.


Single Mode Fiber Standards II

ITU-T G.652c - Low Water Peak Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber.


Single Mode Fiber Standards III

ITU-T G.653 Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF)
It shifts the zero dispersion value within the C-band. Channels allocated at the C-band are seriously affected by noise due to nonlinear effects (Four Wave Mixing).


Single Mode Fiber Standards IV

ITU-T G.655 Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber (NZDSF)
Small amount of chromatic dispersion at C-band: minimization of nonlinear effects

Optimized for DWDM transmission (C and L bands)


Single Mode Fiber Standards V

ITU-T Standard Name Typical Attenuation value (Cband) 0.25dB/km Typical CD value (C-band) 17 ps/nmkm 17 ps/nmkm 0 ps/nm-km Applicability


standard Single Mode Fiber Low Water Peak SMF DispersionShifted Fiber (DSF) Non-Zero DispersionShifted Fiber (NZDSF)

OK for xWDM

G.652c G.653

0.25dB/km 0.25dB/km

Good for CWDM Bad for xWDM



4.5 ps/nmkm

Good for DWDM


Fiber optic transmission advantages

Really broadband medium. The fiber is immune to virtually all kinds of interference. A fiber optic cable is much smaller and lighter in weight than a wire or coaxial cable with similar information carrying capacity. Fiber optic cable is ideal for secure communications. Low production cost (~euro/km)